Prof. Muhammad Riaz Bhatti MBBS(K.E.), DPM., RCP&RCS(Dublin), MCCEE (Canada) FRSH(Lond), MRCPsych,(Lond) FRCPsych.,(Lond)
Chairman Academic Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, King Edward Medical University / Mayo Hospital, Lahore.
President Psychiatric Welfare Association
Past President Pakistan Psychiatric Society
Evolving Role of Benzodiazepines in the Treatment of Anxiety
An unpleasant emotional state consisting of psycho-physiological response to anticipation of unknown, unreal or imaginary danger. It can be either physiological as an over prepared state or pathological as a disproportional reaction to any stressful stimuli, which may interfere with daily life activities.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual(DSM-IV )
Anxiety presents with cardiac symptoms
Anxious patients with no evidence of organic heart disease commonly report unexplained CV symptoms that are frequently chronic and associated with great subjective distress.
They often lead to impaired functioning, lost days from work & considerable economic cost.
Cardiovascular symptoms of Anxiety
Anxiety may present with cardiac symptoms
Increased cardiac awareness
Anxiety & Hypertension
Many studies show that anxiety has an influence on blood pressure.
The degree of anxiety was positively associated with diastolic pressure
the influence of happiness anger and anxiety on the blood pressure of borderline hypertension.
Among middle aged men …. Anxiety levels are predictive of later incidence of hypertension
psychological predictors of hypertension in the Framingham study. Is there tension is hypertension
“ Anxiety, as either cause or effect, accompanies many medical illness and the use of anti-anxiety drugs as concomitant therapy can reduce morbidity and improve prognosis.”
Psychother Psychosom 1988, 49(2):63-80
Evolving Role of Benzodiazepines in Anxiety Disorders
Historical trends and the use of multiple classes of compounds as anxiolytics
Current trends and patterns of drug prescriptions for anxiety disorders
Rationale and indications for usage of benzodiazepines in anxiety
Anxiety Disorders DSM=Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; GAD=generalized anxiety disorder; OCD=obsessive-compulsive disorder; PTSD=posttraumatic stress disorder. Social anxiety disorder Panic disorder OCD GAD PTSD DMS-IV Spectrum of Anxiety Disorders
Currently Available Interventions for Anxiety Disorders