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CBC --- Interpretations
Abstract <ul><li>Interpretation of different parameters reported on modern day analyzers is bit tricky and demand continuo...
objectives The CBC interpretation are useful in the diagnosis of various types of anemias. It can reflect acute or chronic...
<ul><li>Component of the CBC: </li></ul><ul><li>•  Red Blood Cells (RBCs) • Hematocrit (Hct) • Hemoglobin (Hgb) • Mean Cor...
RBC <ul><li>RBC (varies with altitude):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M: 4.7 to 6.1 x10^12 /L  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F: 4.2 ...
<ul><li>Hemoglobin :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M: 13.8 to 17.2 gm/dL  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F: 12.1 to 15.1 gm/dL </li>...
<ul><ul><li>MCV =  mean corpuscular volume  HCT/RBC count= 80-100fL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small = microcytic </li...
<ul><li>MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin) </li></ul><ul><li>HB/HCT = 27-32 pg </li></ul><ul><li>RDW (red cell distribution...
<ul><li>This important value is needed in the evaluation of any anemia.  </li></ul><ul><li>Normal range 1-2%   </li></ul><...
Definition of Anaemia  <ul><li>Decrease in the number of circulating red blood cell mass and there by O 2  carrying capaci...
First Question <ul><li>The onset of Anaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Acute versus chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Clues </li></ul><ul><...
Types of Anaemia
Screening Tests – Anaemia  <ul><li>Clinical Signs and symptoms of Anaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Look for bleeding – all possib...
Clinical Signs to be looked for <ul><li>Skin / mucosal pallor, </li></ul><ul><li>Skin dryness,  palmar creases </li></ul><...
PCV or Hematocrit <ul><li>57% Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>1% Buffy coat – WBC </li></ul><ul><li>42% Hct (PCV) </li></ul>
The Three Basic Measures <ul><li>Measurement Normal Range </li></ul><ul><li>RBC count   5 million     4 to 6  </li></ul><u...
Causes of Anaemia <ul><li>Decreased  production  of Red Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Hypoproliferative, marrow failure </...
Anaemia – First Test <ul><li>RETICULOCYTE COUNT % </li></ul>Normal Less than 2% <ul><li>‘ RBC to be’ or Apprentice RBC </l...
Reticulocytes Leishman’s Supravital
Anaemia Hypoproliferative Hemolytic Retics < 2 Retics > 2 Hb% < 12, Hct < 38%
Normal CBC
Workup – Second Test <ul><li>The next step is  ‘What is the size of RBC’ ? </li></ul><ul><li>MCV indicates the Red cell vo...
Mean Cell Volume (MCV) <ul><li>RBC volume (rather) is measured by </li></ul><ul><li>The Mean Cell Volume or MCV and RDW </...
Anaemia Workup - MCV Microcytic MCV Normocytic Macrocytic Iron Deficiency IDA Chronic Infections Thalassemias Hemoglobinop...
Red cell Distribution Width - RDW Normal  Population Uniform RDW High Population Double
Anaemia Workup - 4 th  Test Peripheral Smear Study <ul><li>Are all RBC of the same size ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all RBC of...
IDA -CBC
Microcytic Hypochromic - IDA
IDA – Special Tests Iron related tests Normal IDA Serum Ferritin (pmo /L) 33-270 < 33 TIBC ( µg/dL) 300-340 > 400 Serum Ir...
IDA Summary <ul><li>Microcytic MCV < 80 fl, RBC < 6  µ </li></ul><ul><li>RDW Widened with low MCV </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoch...
IDA- Some Nuggets <ul><li>Look for occult blood loss – 2 days non veg. free </li></ul><ul><li>Pica and Pagophagia – Ice su...
Microcytic Anaemias MCV < 80 fl Serum Iron TIBC BM Perls stain Iron Def. Anemia ↓↓ ↑↑ 0 Chronic Infection ↓↓ ↓↓ + + Thalas...
Macrocytic Anaemias <ul><li>A.  Megaloblastic Macrocytic  –  B12 and Folate ↓ </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Non Megaloblastic Macr...
Anemia - Macrocytic (MCV > 100) <ul><ul><li>Premature gray hair – consider MBA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrocytic anemi...
MBA
Macrocytosis -MBA
HSN - MBA
Basophilic Stippling - MBA BS occurs in Lead poisoning also
MBA - BM
Pernicious Anaemia - Tongue  Bald, smooth, lemon yellowish red tongue
Normocytic Anaemias <ul><li>Chronic disease </li></ul><ul><li>Early IDA </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobinopathies </li></ul><ul...
Anaemia of Chronic Disease <ul><li>Thyroid diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Malignancy </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen Vascular Disea...
‘ Dimorphic’ Anaemia <ul><li>Folate & Fe deficiency (pregnancy, alcoholism) </li></ul><ul><li>B 12  & Fe deficiency (PA wi...
RBC Size – Anisocytosis Different sizes of RBC
Poikilocytosis Different Shapes of RBC
Polychromasia - Spherocytosis
Target Cells <ul><li>Liver Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Thalassemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hb D Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Post spl...
<ul><li>WBCs are involved in the immune response. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal range: 4 – 11x10^9 /L </li></ul><ul><li>Two...
WBC <ul><li>The type of cell affected depends upon its primary function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In bacterial infections, ne...
<ul><li>polymorphneuclear leukocytes  (PMN,s) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus 3-5 lobes. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter 10-14  µm </...
<ul><li>Neutrophil disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophilia – an increase in neutrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co...
<ul><ul><li>Neutropenia – this may result from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-Decreased bone marrow production </li></ul...
Eosinophil <ul><li>Bilobed nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>1-5% of WBC </li></ul><ul><li>=0.04-0.4x10^9/L </li></ul><ul><li>Diam...
<ul><ul><li>Eosinophilia may be found in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>No specific granules  </li></ul><ul><li>20-40% of WBC   </li></ul><ul><li>=1.55-3.5x10^9/ L </li></ul><ul><li>Diam...
<ul><li>Lymphocytosis  – may indicate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_ Viral infection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Abnormal result of WBC <ul><li>(Leukocytosis) may indicate: </li></ul><ul><li>_ Infectious diseases  </li></ul><ul><li>_In...
<ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Malaise  </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Others depend on each system which i...
<ul><li>Infection of the mouth and throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Painful skin ulceration. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent infectio...
Platelets <ul><li>Small granular non-nucleated discs. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter about 2-4  µm </li></ul><ul><li>Nor mal r...
<ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of platelets   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased (Thrombocythemia) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Petechial hemorhage. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy bruising. </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosal bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. _ ...
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CBC Interpretition

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  1. 1. CBC --- Interpretations
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Interpretation of different parameters reported on modern day analyzers is bit tricky and demand continuous monitoring and on-going learning. In present paper interpretation of different reported parameters has been discussed with approach to diagnosis of various abnormalities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. objectives The CBC interpretation are useful in the diagnosis of various types of anemias. It can reflect acute or chronic infection, allergies, and problems with clotting.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Component of the CBC: </li></ul><ul><li>• Red Blood Cells (RBCs) • Hematocrit (Hct) • Hemoglobin (Hgb) • Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) </li></ul><ul><li>- Red cell distribution width (RDW) </li></ul><ul><li>• White Blood Cells (WBCs) • Platelet </li></ul>CBC- complete blood count
  5. 5. RBC <ul><li>RBC (varies with altitude): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M: 4.7 to 6.1 x10^12 /L </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F: 4.2 to 5.4 x10^12 /L </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biconcave disc shape with diameter </li></ul><ul><li>of about 8 µm </li></ul><ul><li>Function : - transport hemoglobin which carries oxygen from the lung to the tissues </li></ul><ul><li>-acid –base buffer. </li></ul><ul><li>Life span 100-120 days. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Hemoglobin : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M: 13.8 to 17.2 gm/dL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F: 12.1 to 15.1 gm/dL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hematocrit : ( packed cell volume ) </li></ul><ul><li>It is ratio of the volume of red cell to the volume of whole blood. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M: 40.7 to 50.3 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F: 36.1 to 44.3 % </li></ul></ul>Hemoglobin & Hematocrit
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>MCV = mean corpuscular volume HCT/RBC count= 80-100fL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small = microcytic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>normal = normocytic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large = macrocytic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MCHC= mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration HB/RBC count= 26-34% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreased = hypochromic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>normal = normochromic </li></ul></ul></ul>MCV&MCHC
  8. 8. <ul><li>MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin) </li></ul><ul><li>HB/HCT = 27-32 pg </li></ul><ul><li>RDW (red cell distribution width) </li></ul><ul><li>It is correlates with the degree of anisocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>_ Normal range from 10-15% </li></ul>MCH & RDW
  9. 9. <ul><li>This important value is needed in the evaluation of any anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal range 1-2%  </li></ul><ul><li>Retic count goes up with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemolytic anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retic goes down with  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>_ Diseases of the bone marrow itself </li></ul>The Reticulocyte Count
  10. 10. Definition of Anaemia <ul><li>Decrease in the number of circulating red blood cell mass and there by O 2 carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Most common hematological disorder by far </li></ul><ul><li>Almost always a secondary disorder </li></ul><ul><li>As such, critical for all practitioners to know how to evaluate / determine its cause / treat </li></ul>
  11. 11. First Question <ul><li>The onset of Anaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Acute versus chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Clues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemodynamic stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous CBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overt blood loss </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Anaemia
  13. 13. Screening Tests – Anaemia <ul><li>Clinical Signs and symptoms of Anaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Look for bleeding – all possible sites </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the causes for anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Routine Hemoglobin examination </li></ul><ul><li>Cut off marks for Hb – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US < 13.5 g WHO < 12.5 g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontinent Less than 12 g% </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Clinical Signs to be looked for <ul><li>Skin / mucosal pallor, </li></ul><ul><li>Skin dryness, palmar creases </li></ul><ul><li>Bald tongue, Glossitis </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth ulcers, Rectal exam </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice, Purpura </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph adenopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Hepato-splenomegaly </li></ul><ul><li>Breathlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia, CHF </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding, Occult Blood </li></ul>
  15. 15. PCV or Hematocrit <ul><li>57% Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>1% Buffy coat – WBC </li></ul><ul><li>42% Hct (PCV) </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Three Basic Measures <ul><li>Measurement Normal Range </li></ul><ul><li>RBC count 5 million 4 to 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin 15 g% 12 to 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Hematocrit 45 38 to 50 </li></ul><ul><li>A x 3 = B x 3 = C - This is the rule of thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Check whether this holds good in given results </li></ul><ul><li>If not -indicates micro or macrocytosis or hypochromia. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Causes of Anaemia <ul><li>Decreased production of Red Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Hypoproliferative, marrow failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased destruction of Red Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Hemolysis (decreased survival of RBC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loss of Red Cells due to bleeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Acute / chronic blood loss (hemorrhagic) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Anaemia – First Test <ul><li>RETICULOCYTE COUNT % </li></ul>Normal Less than 2% <ul><li>‘ RBC to be’ or Apprentice RBC </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments of nuclear material </li></ul><ul><li>RNA strands which stain blue </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reticulocytes Leishman’s Supravital
  20. 20. Anaemia Hypoproliferative Hemolytic Retics < 2 Retics > 2 Hb% < 12, Hct < 38%
  21. 21. Normal CBC
  22. 22. Workup – Second Test <ul><li>The next step is ‘What is the size of RBC’ ? </li></ul><ul><li>MCV indicates the Red cell volume (size) </li></ul><ul><li>Both the MCH & MCHC tell Hb content of RBC </li></ul><ul><li>If the Retic count is 2 or less </li></ul><ul><li>We are dealing with either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoproliferative anaemia (lack of raw material) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation defect with less production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow suppression (primary/ secondary) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Mean Cell Volume (MCV) <ul><li>RBC volume (rather) is measured by </li></ul><ul><li>The Mean Cell Volume or MCV and RDW </li></ul>Microcytic < 80 fl MCV Normocytic Macrocytic 80 -100 fl > 100 fl < 6.5 µ 6.5 - 9 µ > 9 µ
  24. 24. Anaemia Workup - MCV Microcytic MCV Normocytic Macrocytic Iron Deficiency IDA Chronic Infections Thalassemias Hemoglobinopathies Sideroblastic Anemia Chronic disease Early IDA Hemoglobinopathies Primary marrow disorders Combined deficiencies Increased destruction Megaloblastic anemias Liver disease/alcohol Hemoglobinopathies Metabolic disorders Marrow disorders Increased destruction
  25. 25. Red cell Distribution Width - RDW Normal Population Uniform RDW High Population Double
  26. 26. Anaemia Workup - 4 th Test Peripheral Smear Study <ul><li>Are all RBC of the same size ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all RBC of the same normal discoid shape ? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the colour (Hb content) saturation ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all the RBC of same colour/ multi coloured ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any RBC inclusions ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are intra RBC there any hemo-parasites ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are leucocytes normal in number and D.C ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is platelet distribution adequate ? </li></ul>
  27. 27. IDA -CBC
  28. 28. Microcytic Hypochromic - IDA
  29. 29. IDA – Special Tests Iron related tests Normal IDA Serum Ferritin (pmo /L) 33-270 < 33 TIBC ( µg/dL) 300-340 > 400 Serum Iron ( µg/dL) 50-150 < 30 Saturation % 30-50 < 10 Bone marrow Iron ++ Absent
  30. 30. IDA Summary <ul><li>Microcytic MCV < 80 fl, RBC < 6 µ </li></ul><ul><li>RDW Widened with low MCV </li></ul><ul><li>Hypochromic MCH < 27 pg, MCHC < 30% </li></ul><ul><li>RI < 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Serum ferritin Very low < 30 (p mols/L) </li></ul><ul><li>TIBC Increased > 400 (µg/dL) </li></ul><ul><li>Serum Iron Very low < 30 (µg/dL) </li></ul><ul><li>BM Fe Stain Absent Fe </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Fe Rx. Excellent </li></ul>
  31. 31. IDA- Some Nuggets <ul><li>Look for occult blood loss – 2 days non veg. free </li></ul><ul><li>Pica and Pagophagia – Ice sucking </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption of Haem Iron > Fe ++ > Fe +++ </li></ul><ul><li>Food, Phytates, Ca, Phosphate, antacids ↓ absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Ascorbic acid ↑ absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Oral iron Rx. always is the best, ? Carbonyl Fe </li></ul><ul><li>FeSO 4 is the best. Reserve parenteral Rx. </li></ul><ul><li>Packed cell transfusion in emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Continue Fe Rx at least 2 months after normal Hb </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram ↑ in Hb every week can be expected </li></ul><ul><li>Always supplement protein for the Globin component </li></ul>
  32. 32. Microcytic Anaemias MCV < 80 fl Serum Iron TIBC BM Perls stain Iron Def. Anemia ↓↓ ↑↑ 0 Chronic Infection ↓↓ ↓↓ + + Thalassemia ↑↑ N + + + + Hemoglobinopathy N N + + Lead poisoning N N + + Sideroblastic ↑↑ N + + + +
  33. 33. Macrocytic Anaemias <ul><li>A. Megaloblastic Macrocytic – B12 and Folate ↓ </li></ul><ul><li>B. Non Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anaemias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver disease/alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobinopathies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic disorders, Hypothyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myelodystrophy, BM infiltration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated Erythropoesis - ↑ destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs (cytotoxics, immunosuppressants, AZT, anticonvulsants) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Anemia - Macrocytic (MCV > 100) <ul><ul><li>Premature gray hair – consider MBA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrocytic anemias may be asymptomatic until </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Hb is as low as 6 grams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MCV 100-110 fl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must look for other causes of macrocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MCV > 110 fl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>almost always folate or B 12 deficiency </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. MBA
  36. 36. Macrocytosis -MBA
  37. 37. HSN - MBA
  38. 38. Basophilic Stippling - MBA BS occurs in Lead poisoning also
  39. 39. MBA - BM
  40. 40. Pernicious Anaemia - Tongue Bald, smooth, lemon yellowish red tongue
  41. 41. Normocytic Anaemias <ul><li>Chronic disease </li></ul><ul><li>Early IDA </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobinopathies </li></ul><ul><li>Primary marrow disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Combined deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Increased destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Anaemia of investigations -ICU </li></ul>
  42. 42. Anaemia of Chronic Disease <ul><li>Thyroid diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Malignancy </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen Vascular Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid Arthritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymyositis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyarteritis Nodosa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IBD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Ulcerative Colitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Crohn’s Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic Infections </li></ul><ul><li> – HIV, Osteomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li> – Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Failure </li></ul>
  43. 43. ‘ Dimorphic’ Anaemia <ul><li>Folate & Fe deficiency (pregnancy, alcoholism) </li></ul><ul><li>B 12 & Fe deficiency (PA with atrophic gastritis) </li></ul><ul><li>Thalassemia minor & B 12 or folate deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Fe deficiency & hemolysis (prosthetic valve) </li></ul><ul><li>Folate deficiency & hemolysis (Hb SS disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral smear exam is critical to assess these </li></ul><ul><li>RDW is increased very much </li></ul>
  44. 44. RBC Size – Anisocytosis Different sizes of RBC
  45. 45. Poikilocytosis Different Shapes of RBC
  46. 46. Polychromasia - Spherocytosis
  47. 47. Target Cells <ul><li>Liver Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Thalassemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hb D Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Post splenectomy </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>WBCs are involved in the immune response. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal range: 4 – 11x10^9 /L </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of WBC: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Granulocytes consist of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophils: 50 - 70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophils: 1 - 5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basophils: up to 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Agranulocytes consist of: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Lymphocytes: 20 - 40% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocytes : 1 - 6% </li></ul></ul>WBC
  49. 49. WBC <ul><li>The type of cell affected depends upon its primary function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In bacterial infections, neutrophils are most commonly affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In viral infections, lymphocytes are most commonly affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In parasitic infections, eosinophils are most commonly affected. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>polymorphneuclear leukocytes (PMN,s) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus 3-5 lobes. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter 10-14 µm </li></ul><ul><li>50-70% WBC </li></ul><ul><li>=2.5-7.5x10^9/ L </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Phagocytosis of bacteria and cell debris </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers rise with all manner of stress, especially bacterial infections </li></ul>Neutrophil
  51. 51. <ul><li>Neutrophil disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophilia – an increase in neutrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions associated with neutrophilia are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-Bacterial infections (most common cause) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-Tissue destruction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. tissue infarctions, burns. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3- leukemoid reaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4-Leukemia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Neutrophil
  52. 52. <ul><ul><li>Neutropenia – this may result from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-Decreased bone marrow production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. BM hypoplasia. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-Ineffective bone marrow production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. megaloblastic anemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3- post acute infection </li></ul><ul><li>_ e.g. typhoid fever, brucellosis. </li></ul>Neutrophil
  53. 53. Eosinophil <ul><li>Bilobed nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>1-5% of WBC </li></ul><ul><li>=0.04-0.4x10^9/L </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter about 10-14 µm </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Involved in allergy, parasitic infections </li></ul><ul><li>Contains: eosinophilic granules </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><ul><li>Eosinophilia may be found in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic conditions and hypersensitivity reaction </li></ul></ul></ul>Eosinophil
  55. 55. <ul><li>No specific granules </li></ul><ul><li>20-40% of WBC </li></ul><ul><li>=1.55-3.5x10^9/ L </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter 8-10 µm </li></ul><ul><li>T cells: cellular </li></ul><ul><li>(for viral infections) </li></ul><ul><li>B cells: humoral (antibody) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Killer Cells </li></ul>Lymphocyte
  56. 56. <ul><li>Lymphocytosis – may indicate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_ Viral infection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Infectious mononucleosis, CMV or pertussis. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_ Bacterial infection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. TB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphopenia – caused by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_Stress. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_Steroid therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_ Irradiation </li></ul></ul></ul>Lymphocyte
  57. 57. Abnormal result of WBC <ul><li>(Leukocytosis) may indicate: </li></ul><ul><li>_ Infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>_Inflammatory disease (such as rheumatoid arthritis or allergy) </li></ul><ul><li>_Leukemia </li></ul><ul><li>_Severe emotional or physical stress </li></ul><ul><li>_Tissue damage (e.g. necrosis,or burns) </li></ul><ul><li>(Leukopenia) may result from: </li></ul><ul><li>_ Decreased WBC production from BM. </li></ul><ul><li>_ Irradiation. </li></ul><ul><li>_ Exposure to chemical or drugs. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Malaise </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Others depend on each system which is involved </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. » chest: cough, SOB and chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>» abdomen: diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration. </li></ul><ul><li>»CNS: headache, visual disturbance, </li></ul><ul><li>Neck stiffness </li></ul><ul><li>and so 0n. </li></ul>Manifestation of leukocytosis
  59. 59. <ul><li>Infection of the mouth and throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Painful skin ulceration. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Septicemia. </li></ul>Manifestation of leukopenia
  60. 60. Platelets <ul><li>Small granular non-nucleated discs. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter about 2-4 µm </li></ul><ul><li>Nor mal range; 150-300x10^9 /L </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by macrophage cells in the spleen. </li></ul><ul><li>Function; involved in coagulation and blood haemostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Life span 7-10 days </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of platelets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased (Thrombocythemia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High attitudes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>splenectomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased (Thrombocytopenia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haemorrhage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow destruction or suppression e.g. leukemia   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The values have to fit the clinical situation. </li></ul>Platelets
  62. 62. <ul><li>Petechial hemorhage. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy bruising. </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosal bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. _ epistaxes. </li></ul><ul><li>_ gum bleeding </li></ul>Manifestaton of thrombocytopenia
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