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# Presentation 1 module 1

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Module 1 of my training course for dispatchers and inexperienced pilots.

Module 1 of my training course for dispatchers and inexperienced pilots.

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• 2. DEFINING OUR POSITIONGLOBALLYWHERE ARE WE?AND HOW DO WE DEFINEWHERE WE ARE?
• 3. OBVIOUSLY IN BAKUBUT THAT IS JUST A SMALLPART OF THE BIG PICTURE!
• 4. BUT WE ARE PART OF A BIGGERPICTURE STILL!
• 5. IN AVIATION WE NEED TOCONSIDER WHERE WEARE…….AND WHERE WE AREGOING ON A GLOBAL SCALE.
• 6. DEFINING OUR POSITION USINGLATITUDE, LONGITUDE AND TIME.
• 7. LATERAL………LATITUDEDIMENSIONS.IN AERIAL NAVIGATION ANY POINT ON THE EARTH’SSURFACE MAYBE PRECISELY DEFINED IN TERMS OF ALATITUDE AND LONGITUDE COMBINATION.PARALLELS OF LATITUDE ARE SMALL CIRCLES DRAWNAROUND THE EARTH STARTING FROM THEEQUATORIAL PLANE, NORTH AND SOUTH OF THEEQUATOR AND PARALLEL WITH IT AND REDUCING INCIRCUMFERENCE TOWARD THE POLES.THESE LINES ARE MEASURED IN DEGREES, MINUTES
• 8. • THE NORTH POLE HAS ALATITUDE OF 90 DEGREESNORTH.• THE SOUTH POLE HAS ALATITUDE OF 90 DEGREESSOUTH.• THE EQUATOR HAS A
• 9. MERIDIANS OF LONGITUDE.THESE ARE HALF GREAT CIRCLES, PERPINDICULAR TO THEEQUATOR, THAT EXTEND FROM THE NORTH TO THE SOUTHPOLE.WHERE A GREAT CIRCLE IS A LINE WHICH PASSES THROUGHTHE TWO POLES FROM ANYWHERE ON THE GLOBE BUT ALWAYSHAS THE SAME LENGTH, REGARDLESS.THE INTERNATIONAL REFERENCE MERIDIEN – OR 0 DEGREESLONGITUDE, ALSO KNOWN AS THE PRIME MERIDIEN IS DEFINEDAS THE GRENWICH MERIDIEN IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.SUBSEQUENT MERIDIENS ARE DEFINED AS DEGREES EAST ORWEST AROUND TO 180 DEGREES.
• 10. THERE ARE 60 MINUTES OF ARC IN A DEGREE AND 60SECONDS OF ARC IN A MINUTE. ONE MINUTE OF ARC IS THEBASIS FOR ONE NAUTICAL MILE.SO WITH 180 DEGREES FROM THE PRIME MERIDIEN TO THEEASTERN MOST POINT........AND ANOTHER 180 DEGREESBACK TO THE PRIME MERIDIEN.A TOTAL OF 360 DEGREES……THEN WE CAN CALCULATETHE LENGTH OF THESE ‘GLOBAL’ GREAT CIRCLES.360 DEGREES x 60 ‘MINUTES’ OF ARC = 21,600 NAUTICALMILES…..…..WHICH IS THE LENGTH OF ALL THE ‘GLOBAL’ MERIDIENSOF LONGITUDE AND ALSO THE EQUATOR.
• 11. DISTANCE.ONE NAUTICAL MILE IS THE LENGTH, AT THE EARTH’SSURFACE OF ONE MINUTE OF ARC OF A GREAT CIRCL, ASWE HAVE SEEN.THE INTERNATIONAL NAUTICAL MILE IS 1852 METRES OR6076 FEET.CONSEQUENTLY ONE DEGREE OF LATITUDE (MEASUREDALONG THE EQUATOR – THE ONLY MERIDIEN IN LATITUDES)HAS AN EQUIVALENT SURFACE DISTANCE OF 60 NAUTICALMILES.ALL LONGITUDES, WHEN DIVIDED INTO DEGREES IS 60
• 12. IT IS LOGICAL TO EXPRESS LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE CO-ORDINATESWITH THE DIRECTION FROM THE EQUATOR / PRIME MERIDIEN FIRST.E.G. NORTH…SOUTH…EAST…WESTTHEN A NUMERAL GROUP REPRESENTING THE DEGREES FOLLOWEDBY A GROUP FOR THE MINUTES.THE SYMBOLS FOR DEGREES AND MINUTES ARE OMITTED IN AVIATION.FOR EXAMPLE S36 44.1 E147 10.2THIS IS THE STANDARD FORMAT WHICH WE USE IN AVIATION, AND THISFORMAT CAN BE FOUND ON SILKWAYS PILOT’S OPERATIONAL FLIGHTPLANS AND JEPPESEN CHARTS TO DEFINE POSITIONS,GEOGRAPHICALLY.FOR EXAMPLE IF WE LOOK AT THE BAKU AIRPORT JEPPESEN CHART INYOUR HANDOUT.
• 13. TIME : AS REFERENCED INAVIATION.
• 14. TIME IS A MOST IMPORTANT DIMENSION IN AERIALNAVIGATION; THE REFERENCE TIME IS UNIVERSAL CO-ORDINATED TIME (SYMBOL UTC – A COMPROMISE BETWEENTHE INITIALISMS OF THE PREFERRED FRENCH AND ENGLISHNAMES!)THIS UTC TIME IS USED INSTEAD OF LOCAL TIMES.UTC IS THE TIME MEASURED AT THE INTERNATIONALREFERENCE MERIDEIEN (WHICH WE SAW IS LOCATED INGRENWICH ENGLAND)THE SUFFIX ‘Z’ IS USED TO IDENTIFY TIMES AS UTC, SO IT MAYBE REFERRED TO AS ZULU TIME – THE PHONETIC LETTER FOR‘Z’.THE WORLD IS SPLIT UP INTO 24 HOURLY TIME ZONES OF
• 15. WITH TIME REFERENCED TO ONE SPECIFIC TIMEZONE……AT GRENWICH, THEN LOCAL TIME DOES NOTNEED TO BE CONSIDERED.WHEREVER YOU ARE IN THE WORLD……TIME DOES NOTCHANGE IN THEORY UNDER THESE RULES, RELATIVE TOUTC AND WHERE YOU ARE.THERE IS ALWAYS A COMMON REFERENCE.
• 16. MEASUREMENT OF SPEED INAVIATION.AIRCRAFT FLYING SPEED IS MEASURED WITH THE PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM, BASICALLY A TUBE THAT POINTS OUT THEFRONT OF AN AIRCRAFT INTO THE AIR WHICH IT IS FLYINGTHROUGH.THE AIRCRAFT’S FORWARD MOTION RAMS AIR INTO THETUBE, CREATING A PRESSURE.THIS PRESSURE IS THEN REFINED BY ONBOARDCOMPUTERS AND READ ON AN AIRSPEED INDICATOR ORMACH INDICATOR, SHOWING INDICATED AIRSPEED (IAS) ORMACH NUMBER.PILOTS ARE CONCERNED PRIMARILY WITH INDICATE
• 17. IAS AND MACH NUMBER PRESENTATION ON A BOEING 747-400.
• 18. AS DISPATCHERS YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND THAT THEOPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLANS USE BOTH TRUE AIRSPEEDGROUNDSPEED AND MACH NUMBER.• TRUE AIRSPEED IS USED ON THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLFLIGHT PLAN ALONG WITH MACH NUMBER SO THAT ATC KNOWHOW FAST OUR AIRCRAFT WILL FLY AND SO PLAN ITS ROUTEAND ALSO BE ABLE TO TRACK ITS PROGRESS IN RELATION TOOTHER AIRCRAFT.• GROUNDSPEED IS IMPORTANT AS THIS WILL DETERMINE THELENGTH OF TIME THAT THE AIRCRAFT WILL TAKE TO FLY FROMDEPARTURE AIRPORT TO IT’S DESTINATION.• MACH NUMBER IS ALSO USED, MUCH LIKE A MOTORWAYSPEED LIMIT IN FLIGHT AREAS, SUCH AS THE NORTHATLANTIC, WHERE THERE IS NO RADAR TO ASSIST ATC INTHEIR PLANNING, AND SEPERATING AIRCRAFT FROM EACH
• 19. IF WE LOOK AT OUR OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN, ONE OF WHICH ISPRODUCED FOR EVERY FLIGHT WE CAN SEE THE FOLLOWINGINFORMATION:• AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL FLIGHT PLAN SHOWING MACH NUMBER ANDTRUE AIRSPEED.• THE AVERAGE WIND COMPONENT……WHICH IS THE RESULT OF THEWIND EFFECT FOR THE ROUTE TO BE FLOWN AND SO DETERMINESTHE LENGTH OF TIME THE FLIGHT WILL TAKE.• THE CALCULATED GROUNDSPEED BETWEEN EACH POSITION TO BEFLOWN ON THE ROUTE.SO UNDERSTANDING SPEED IS VERY
• 20. PRESSURE ALTIMETER.IN AIRCRAFT AN ANEROID BAROMETER MEASURES THEATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FROM STATIC PORTS LOCATED ON THEOUTSIDE OF THE AIRCRAFT’S FUSELAGE.ON OUR AIRCRAFT THIS INFORMATION IS FED THROUGHCOMPUTERS TOO TO PROVIDE ACCURATE INFORMATION TO THEPILOT’S ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INFORMATION SCREENS.AS THE AIRCRAFT FLIES HIGHER THE AIR PRESSURE DECREASESAND THE PRESSURE ALTIMETER IS DESIGNED TO CONVERT THISINTO A HEIGHT READING.
• 21. BOEING AIRCRAFT PRESSURE ALTIMETER.
• 22. BOEING AIRCRAFT ELECTRONIC ALTIMETERDISPLAY
• 23. THE ALTIMETER IS CALIBRATED TO SHOW THE PRESSURE DIRECTLY AS AN ALTITUDEABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL, IN ACCORDANCE WITH A MATHEMATICAL MODEL DEFINED BYTHE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ATMOSPHERE (ISA).AS YOU CAN IMAGINE THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE VARIES AROUND THE WORLDDEPENDING ON THE WEATHER PATTERNS. THEREFORE A SYSTEM HAD TO BEDEVELOPED WHERE THE ALTIMETER CAN BE SELECTED TO INDICATE ALTITUDE BASEDON A SET REFERENCE SETTING. (WE WILL LOOK AT THE ISA LATER)THIS IS KNOWN AS THE ‘STANDARD’ ALTIMETER SETTING AND PILOTS USE THIS WHENFLYING AWAY FROM AIRPORTS.THE STANDARD ALTIMETER SETTING IS 1013.25 HECTOPASCALS OR 29.92 INCHES OFMERCURY. EITHER OF THESE STANDARD SETTINGS CAN BE SET ON OUR BOEINGAIRCRAFT’S ALTIMETERS.WITH THE STANDARD SETTING SET THEN THE AIRCRAFTS ALTITUDE IS NOWREDESIGNATED AS FLIGHT LEVELS. E.G. 29,000 FEET IS CALLED FL290.AS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE VARIES SO MUCH GLOBALLY, IF THERE WAS NOT THISSTANDARD SETTING, THEN AIRCRAFT WOULD BE FLYING AT HEIGHTS WHICH WOULD BEIN REALITY DIFFERENT TO WHAT THEY THOUGH THEY WOULD BE FLYING, SO
• 24. AS WELL AS THIS ‘STANDARD’ REFERENCE DATUM THERE IS ALSO ADATUM USED WHEN APPROACHING AIRPORTS SO THAT THE PILOT’SKNOW EXACTLY HOW HIGH THEY ARE WITH REFERENCE TO THISAIRPORT.THIS DATUM IS BASED ON THE MEAN SEA LEVEL AT A PARTICULARAIRPORT AND IS ABBREVIATED TO QNH.THIS IS THE PRESSURE REDUCED TO MEAN SEA LEVEL. ANALTIMETER SET TO THE AIRFIELD QNH READS THE ELEVATION OFTHE AIRFIELD WHEN IT IS ON THE GROUND.THE PRESSURE SETTINGS ARE PASSED TO PILOT’S PRIMARILY IN AMEASUREMENT CALLED HECTOPASCALS (OR MIILIBARS). THEN THISSETTING CAN BE INDIVIDUALLY SET ON THE PILOT’S ALTIMETERS SOTHAT IT NOW HAS AN ACCURATE DATUM POINT FROM WHICH IT CAN
• 25. NAVIGATION AND RADIO EQUIPMENTUSED ONBOARD OUR BOEINGAIRCRAFT.OBVIOUSLY OUR AIRCRAFT NEED A METHOD TO BE ABLE TO FLYACCURATELY ALONG A ROUTE FROM THEIR DEPARTURE AIRPORTTO THEIR DESTINATION.THEY NO LONGER HAVE TO LOOK OUT THE WINDOW AND FOLLOWROADS OR RAILWAY LINES DRAWN ON A MAP.THERE ARE SOPHISTICATED NAVIGATION DEVICES LOCATED ONTHE GROUND AS WELL AS ADVANCED COMPUTERS ONBOARD THEAIRCRAFT AND SATELLITES ORBITING THE EARTH TO ASSIST IN
• 26. GROUND BASED NAVIGATION AIDSTHE FOLLOWING ARE THE PRIMARY NAVIGATION BEACONS ANDGUIDANCE SYSTEMS WHICH ARE LOCATED EITHER ALONG THEAIRCRAFT’S ROUTE OF FLIGHT OR AT THE AIRPORTS WHICH AREOPERATED TO AND FROM.1. NDB – NON DIRECTIONAL BEACON.• A RADIO BEACON WHICH SENDS OUT AN ELECTRONIC SIGNAL WHICHWHEN TRANSFERRED TO THE AIRCRAFT’S NAVIGATION SYSTEMSHOWS A BEARING, USING A NEEDLE AND COMPASS CARD FROM THEAIRCRAFT TO THIS BEACON.• THIS ALLOWS THE PILOT TO NAVIGATE HIS WAY TOWARDS THISBEACON OR ON A SET BEARING AWAY FROM IT USING A PIECE OFAIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CALLED AN ADF- AUTOMATIC DIRECTIONFINDER.
• 27. ADF-AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER ONBOARDDISPLAY.EACH NDB OPERATES ON A SET FREQUENCY AND HAS IT’S OWN
• 28. 2. VOR – VHF (VERY HIGH FREQUENCY) OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE.• THIS DEVICE HAS ITS OWN VHF FREQUENCY WHICH IT OPERATESON AND ALSO AN IDENTIFICATION CODE.• LOCATED ON THE GROUND FOR ROUTE NAVIGATION AND ALSOAS AN APPROACH AID AT AIRPORT’S TO ASSIST PILOTS INNAVIGATING THEIR WAY TOWARDS THE RUNWAY IN POORWEATHER CONDITIONS.• THIS DEVICE ALSO USES BEARINGS TO AND FROM ITSELF, WHICHARE CALLED RADIALS AND EACH VOR TRANSMITS INFORMATIONTO TELL PILOTS WHICH RADIAL THEY ARE FLYING ON, FROM 1DEGREE TO 360 DEGREES FROM OR TO THIS BEACON.• THIS NAVIGATION SYSTEM IS MORE ACCURATE THAN THE NDBSYSTEM AS IT SUFFERS FROM LESS ERRORS AND A HIGHERLEVEL OF ACCURACY.
• 29. VOR – VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE DISPLAY.WE CAN SEE ON THIS DISPLAY A GREEN ARROW WHICH POINTS TOWARDS THE SELECTED VORBEACON. BY SELECTING A SPECIFIC RADIAL THEN THE PILOT CAN UTILISE THIS ON HIS DISPLAYFOR A MORE ACCURATE MEANS OF NAVIGATING TO OR FROM THIS BEACON, THIS IS THEN
• 30. 3. DME – DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.• AIRCRAFT USE DME TO DETERMINE THEIR DISTANCE FROM ALAND BASED TRANSPONDER (BASICALLY RADAR) BY SENDINGAND RECEIVING PULSE PAIRS- TWO PULSES OF FIXEDDURATION AND SEPARATION.• THE GROUND STATIONS ARE TYPICALLY ;OCATED WITH A VOR.• A LOW POWER DME CAN ALSO BE CO-LOCATED WITH AN ILS(INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM) GLIDE SLOPE ANTENNAINSTALLATION WHERE IT PROVIDES AN ACCURATE DISTANCE TOTOUCHDOWN FUNCTION.• MOST AIRCRAFT HAVE THE EQUIPMENT TO DISPLAY TWOINDEPENDENT DME FACILITIES WITH AN ADDITIONAL ABILITY TOSHOW A DME RELATING TO AN ILS FRQUENCY.• AGAIN EACH DME HAS ITS OWN FREQUENCY, OFTEN THE SAMEAS EITHER THE VOR OR ILS SYSTEM TO WHICH IT IS
• 31. DME – DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.ON THIS DISPLAY WE CAN SEE THE DME RANGE FROM ITS IDENTIFICATION CODE ELN…..
• 32. 4. ILS – INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM• THIS IS A SYSTEM WHICH EMITS A RADAR BEAM BOTH IN THEHORIZONTAL, CALLED THE LOCALISER AND VERTICAL PLANE,CALLED THE GLIDESLOPE.• THESE TWO BEAMS ALLOW THE AIRCRAFT’S ONBOARDEQUIPMENT TO ACCURATELY DISPLAY A MEANS FROM WHICHTHE PILOT’S CAN ACCURATELY NAVIGATE ALONG A SPECIFICCOURSE AND SLOPE TOWARDS THE RUNWAY WHERE THE ILSIS LOCATED.• THESE SYSTEMS CAN ALLOW THE PILOT’S TO LAND IN VERYPOOR WEATHER CONDITIONS, AS THEY ARE EXTREMELYACCURATE.• SOME ILS SYSTEMS WILL ENABLE THE AIRCRAFT’S ONBOARDAUTOPILOTS TO FLY THE AIRCRAFT ONTO THE RUNWAY,KNOWN AS AN AUTOLAND, WHEN THE VISIBILITY IS SO POOR
• 33. ILS – INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEMTHE ILS GLIDESLOPE AND LOCALISER SEND INFORMATION TO THE AIRCRAFT’S ONBOARDEQUIPMENT TO INDICATE WHETHER THE AIRCRAFT IS LEFT OR RIGHT OF THE RUNWAYCENTRELINE. OR ABOVE OR BELOW THE REQUIRED GLIDESLOPE.
• 34. HERE WE CAN SEE THE LOCALISER INDICATION AS WELL AS THE GLIDESLOPE INDICATION.EXTREMELY IMPORTANT PIECE OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE PILOTS!
• 35. 5. INS/IRS – INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM/INERTIAL REFERENCESYSTEM• THESE TWO SYSTEMS ARE VERY SIMILAR AND FOR OURPURPOSES WE WILL TREAT THEM AS SUCH. ALTHOUGH THEIRS SYSTEM IS THE MOST MODERN AND CAN BE FOUND ONBOTH OUR BOEING 767 AND BOEING 747 FLEETS.• THE IRS PROVIDES BASIC HEADING AND ATTITUDEREFERENCE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH COMPUTATIONSBASED ON ACCELEROMETER AND LASER GYRO SENSEDSIGNALS, WHICH FEEDS THE MAIN INFORMATION WHICHPILOTS AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL REQUIRE.• THE IRS SYSTEM IS BASICALLY THE HEART OF OURAIRCRAFT…..FEEDING THE BRAINS! NOT ONLY THE BRAINS OFTHE PILOTS BUT ALSO OF THE FLIGHT MANAGEMENT ANDINSTRUMENT SYSTEMS.
• 36. 6. GPS – GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITES• THE GPS SYSTEM IS THE MOST ACCURATE METHOD OF NAVIGATION.• THIS SYSTEM UTILISES SATELLITES TO UPDATE THE AIRCRAFT’SONBOARD NAVIGATION COMPUTERS TO GIVE THE MOST ACCURATEINFORMATION.• THE BOEING 747 HAS TWO INDEPENDENT GPS SYSTEMS, HOWEVER,THEY HAVE THEIR OWN LIMITATIONS.• THE GPS SYSTEM OF SATELLITES IS OWNED AND MANAGED BY THEUSA DEFENCE DEPARTMENT. IN TIMES OF CONFLICT DELIBERATEERRORS ARE PROGRAMMED INTO THIS SYSTEM TO HINDER POSSIBLETHREATS. ALSO THE USA HAS THE RIGHT TO SWITCH OFF THISSYSTEM, IN THE WORST CASE SCENARIO….WAR.• OUR AIRCRAFT THOUGH CAN UTILISE OTHER NAVIGATION OPTIONSSHOULD THR GPS SYSTEM NOT BE AVAILABLE, RESULTING IN LIMITED
• 37. GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE SYSTEMTHE INFORMATION FROM THESE SATELLITES PROVIDE THE MOST ACCURATE METHODOF UPDATING OUR AIRCRAFT’S ONBOARD NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT.
• 38. SPECIAL AIRPORTS, CATEGORY ANDQUALIFICATION.AIRPORTS WHICH SILKWAYS AIRLINES FLY TO ARE SOME OF THEMOST DEMANDING IN THE WORLD. THIS CAN BE FOR MANY REASONS:• THERE COULD BE MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN. (HONG KONG)• DIFFICULT AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL PROCEDURES. (CHINA)• RISK OF THREAT FROM FOREIGN GROUND OPERATIONS.(AFGHANISTAN)BECAUSE OF THESE DIFFERENCES AIRPORTS HAVE DIFFERENTCATEGORISATIONS…FROM A-C. WITH ‘A’ BEING THE EASIEST AND ‘C’BEING THE MOST DIFFICULT.
• 39. WHICH AIRPORTS BELONG TO WHICH CATEGORY CAN BE FOUND INSILKWAY’S OPERATIONS MANUAL PART ‘A’.• CATEGORY ‘A’ AIRPORTS ARE NOT LISTED AS THEY POSE NO UNUSUALFEATURES OR RISKS.• CATEGORY ‘B’ AIRPORTS POSE RISKS WHICH THE PILOTS NEED TO BEAWARE OF. THESE PILOTS NEED TO READ ALL THE RELEVANT MATERIAL TOUPDATE THEMSELVES. FOR EXAMPLE HONG KONG.• CATEGORY ‘C’ AIRPORTS POSE PARTICULAR DIFFICULTIES FOR PILOTSAND THESE PILOTS NEED TO BE SPECIALLY BRIEFED AND TRAINED. FOREXAMPLE…ALL AFGHANISTAN AIRPORTS.IF WE CONSULT OUR DOCUMENT FROM OUR OPERATIONS MANUAL PART ‘A’,THERE CAN BE FOUND ALL THE REQUIRED INFORMATION. THIS IS INCLUDEDIN YOUR HANDOUT.
• 40. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES RULES ANDREGULATIONS.THIS IS A SUBJECT WHICH NEEDS TO BE SELF BRIEFED. THEINFORMATION IS PROVIDED PRIMARILY IN THE JEPPESEN ROUTEMANUAL.IT IS A SUBJECT WHICH DOES NOT NECESSARILY IMPACT ON ADISPATCHER’S RESPONSIBILITY ON A DAY TO DAY BASIS.HOWEVER, THE INFORMATION IS OF AN OBVIOUS BENEFIT.THE IMPORTANT INFORMATION HAS ALREADY BEENDISCUSSED…..OR WILL BE DISCUSSED IN THE FLIGHT PLANNING
• 41. RVSM – REDUCED VERTICAL SEPERATIONMINIMA.• REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMA (RVSM) IS THE REDUCTION OFTHE STANDARD VERTICAL SEPARATION REQUIRED BETWEEN AIRCRAFTFLYING BETWEEN FL290 (29,000ft) AND FL410 (41,000FT) INCLUSIVE.• THE SEPARATION MIMA IS REDUCED FROM 2,000FT TO 1,000FT. FORAIRSPACE FROM FL290 TO FL410.• THE REASON BEING, THAT IT ALLOWS AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OFAIRCRAFT THAT CAN FLY IN A DEFINED AIRSPACE.• ONLY AIRCRAFT WITH CERTIFIED ONBOARD EQUIPMENT MAY FLY IN RVSMAIRSPACE, WE WILL LOOK AT THIS WHEN WE DISCUSS THE COMPANYMEL….KNOWN AS THE MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST.• AS A DISPATCHER YOU NEED TO BE AWARE THAT ATC NEED TO BE
• 42. AS WE CAN SEE, IN RVSM AIRSPACE THE SEPARATION IS 1,000FT BETWEEN AIRCRAFT FLYINGIN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS. OUR PROCEDURES NEED TO BE UNDERSTOOD AND THE AIRCRAFTEQUIPMENT NEEDS TO BE SERVICABLE….OTHERWISE………………..
• 43. AS A DISPATCHER YOU NEED TO BE AWARE THAT TO OPERATE INRVSM AIRSPACE THE AIRCRAFT NEEDS TO HAVE THE FOLLOWINGMANDATORY EQUIPMENT SERVICABLE.IF THIS CRITERIA IS NOT MET, THEN THE FLIGHT NEEDS TO BEDISPATCHED OUTSIDE OF RVSM AIRSPACE. THIS WILL GENERALLYREQUIRE PLANNING THE FLIGHT TO FLY BELOW FL290.
• 44. IT HAS HAPPENED….AND IT WILL HAPPEN AGAIN, WHICH IS WHY WE MUST UNDERSTANDTHAT OUR AIRCRAFT MUST BE PLANNED TO FLY AT THE CORRECT LEVELS…..MISTAKESCAN AND DO HAPPEN!
• 45. AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATION.THE CLASSIFICATION OF AIRSPACE TENDS TO BE THE SAMEWORLDWIDE….WITH JUST MINOR DIFFERENCES, DEPENDING ONTHE COUNTRY.THERE ARE PRIMARILY SEVEN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OFAIRSPACE, WHICH ARE DESIGNATED WITH THE LETTERS FROM ‘A’TO ‘G’.THESE SEVEN CATEGORIES ARE SPLIT INTO SIX CLASSES OFAIRSPACE UNDER ICAO STANDARDS.THESE SIX CLASSES ARE ALLOCATED DEPENDING ON THE NEEDTO ACTIVELY CONTROL ACCESS TO AIRSPACE AND THE NATURE
• 46. THE ABOVE DIAGRAM IS AN EXAMPLE OF AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATION IN THE USA.
• 47. THE CLASSES OF ICAO AIRSPACE ARE DEFINED AS FOLLOWS:• CLASS A - IFR, INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES ONLY.• CLASS B - NOT USED.• CLASS C - IFR AND VFR (VISUAL FLIGHT RULES) BOTH AREPERMITTED.• CLASS D - IFR AND VFR (VISUAL FLIGHT RULES) BOTH AREPERMITTED.• CLASS E - IFR AND VFR (VISUAL FLIGHT RULES) BOTH AREPERMITTED.• CLASS F - UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE.• CLASS G - UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE.
• 48. JEPPESEN DOCUMENTATION.• JEPPESEN IS THE NAME OF A GERMAN COMPANY WHICH SILKWAYS USE TOPROVIDE OUR PILOTS WITH THE AERONAUTICAL CHARTS FOR ALL THEAIRPORTS WE OPERATE TO, AS WELL AS THOSE AIRPORTS WHICH WE MAYNEED TO OPERATE TO.• JEPPESEN ALSO PROVIDES US WITH ALL THE AERONAUTICAL CHARTS WHICHOUR PILOTS MAY NEED TO OPERATE ON OUR ROUTE NETWORK.• JEPPESEN ALSO PROVIDES US WITH MANUALS WHICH INCLUDE ALL THENECESSARY ROUTE INFORMATION AND IN THESE MANUALS WE CAN FINDTHE INFORMATION ON EVERY COUNTRY’S ‘AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE RULES ANDREGULATIONS’, A TOPIC WHICH WAS MENTIONED EARLIER.• A SELECTION OF JEPPESEN CHARTS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS MODULE’SINFORMATION PACK.
• 49. EEXAMPLES OF JEPPESEN MAP AND AIRPORTCHART.
• 50. AS DISPATCHERS YOU NEED TO BE FAMILIAR WITH JEPPESENCHARTS. NOT FOR THEIR CONTENT, BUT BECAUSE THERE WILL BEOCCASIONS WHERE THE PILOTS WILL ADVISE YOU THAT THEYREQUIRE CERTAIN MAPS OR AIRPORT CHARTS WHICH ARE NOTAVAILABLE IN THEIR MANUALS ONBOARD THE AIRCRAFT.SO YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND WHAT EXACTLY THE PILOTS AREREQUESTING, AND WHERE YOU CAN SOURCE THEM FOR THEPILOTS.THE AIRPORT CHARTS ARE AVAILABLE ONLINE ON THE JEPPESENWEBSITE, THESE CAN BE DOWNLOADED AND PRINTED OFF, IFTHERE ARE NO REPLACEMENT CHARTS IN STOCK.LOGIN DETAILS FOR THIS WEBSITE WILL BE GIVEN TO YOU LATERIN THIS COURSE.
• 51. NAVIGATION AND ROUTE PLANNING.CURRENTLY SILKWAY’S UTILISES THE SERVICES OF CARGOLUXFOR THE BOEING 747 AND AZAL FOR THE BOEING 767 TO PRODUCETHE NECESSARY OFP’S, WHICH ARE THE PILOT’S OPERATIONALFLIGHT PLANS.YOU HAVE AN EXAMPLE OF AN OFP IN THIS MODULE’SINFORMATION PACK.YOU WILL NOT BE EXPECTED TO PRODUCE THESE YOURSELF.HOWEVER, YOU MUST KNOW HOW TO OBTAIN THESE FOR THEPILOT’S IF REQUESTED TO DO SO.THESE OFP’S WILL OCCASIONALLY NEED TO BE UPDATED, DUE TO
• 52. OFP……..OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLANS.IN YOUR HAND OUTS YOU HAVE A COPY OF A FLIGHT PLANPRODUCED BY CARGOLUX.THIS IS FOR A FLIGHT FROM LUXEMBOURG TO NEW YORK’S JFKAIRPORT.YOU ALSO HAVE A COPY OF AN EXTRACT FROM THE COMPANYOPERATIONS MANUAL PART A, WHICH EXPLAINS IN DETAIL THEENTIRE BREAKDOWN OF THE OFP.WE WILL NOW HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANT PARTS WHICH WILLBE NECESSARY FOR YOU TO KNOW AND UNDERSTAND.
• 53. ATC SLOT, OVERFLIGHT CLEARANCES ANDMOVEMENT REQUESTS.THIS SUBJECT WILL BE COVERED BY Mr EMILE KHASANSHIN, ORONE OF HIS COLLEAGUES.THIS IS AN IMPORTANT SUBJECT TO UNDERSTAND, AS WE CANNOTAFFORD TO MAKE ANY MISTAKES.IN YOUR HANDOUT ARE EXAMPLES OF OVERFLIGHT CLEARANCESAND THE MOVEMENT REQUEST FORM WHICH NEEDS TO BECOMPLETED FOR FLIGHTS TO AFGHANISTAN. BUT YOU WILLRECEIVE DETAILED INSTRUCTION ON THIS TOPIC.