Structure of atom


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Structure of atom

  1. 1. TYPES OF SERVICE Johann Kelly T. Almelor BSHRM – 1B
  2. 2. What is food service?There are some basic principles in food and beverage service that awaiter must know:• When food is served by the waiter at the table from a platteronto a guest plate, the service is done from the left.• When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usuallydone from the right, though modern convention permits servicefrom the left also.• All beverages are served from the right.• Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiterfrom a large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is done fromthe left of the guest.• Ladies are always served first and the remaining guestsclockwise. Soiled plates should always be cleared from the tablefrom the right.• Empty crockery and fresh cutlery are always served from theright. Never reach across a Customer. Hence, when a guest is
  3. 3. HISTORY OF THE ATOM460 BC Democritus develops the idea of atoms he pounded up materials in his pestle and mortar until he had reduced them to smaller and smaller particles which he called ATOMA (greek for indivisible)
  4. 4. HISTORY OF THE ATOM1808 John Dalton suggested that all matter was made up of tiny spheres that were able to bounce around with perfect elasticity and called them ATOMS
  5. 5. HISTORY OF THE ATOM1898 Joseph John Thompson found that atoms could sometimes eject a far smaller negative particle which he called an ELECTRON
  6. 6. HISTORY OF THE ATOM 1904 Thompson develops the idea that an atom was made up of electrons scattered unevenly within an elastic sphere surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electrons charge PLUM PUDDINGlike plums surrounded bypudding. MODEL
  7. 7. HISTORY OF THE ATOM1910 Ernest Rutherford oversaw Geiger and Marsden carrying out his famous experiment. they fired Helium nuclei at a piece of gold foil which was only a few atoms thick. they found that although most of them passed through. About 1 in 10,000 hit
  8. 8. HISTORY OF THE ATOM They found that while most of the helium gold foilhelium nuclei nuclei passed through the foil, a small number were deflected and, to their surprise, some helium nuclei bounced helium nuclei straight back.
  9. 9. HISTORY OF THE ATOMRutherford’s new evidence allowed him to propose a moredetailed model with a central nucleus.He suggested that the positive charge was all in a centralnucleus. With this holding the electrons in place byelectrical attractionHowever, this was not the end of the story.
  10. 10. HISTORY OF THE ATOM1913 Niels Bohr studied under Rutherford at the Victoria University in Manchester. Bohr refined Rutherfords idea by adding that the electrons were in orbits. Rather like planets orbiting the sun. With each orbit only able to contain a set number of electrons.
  11. 11. Atomic StructureAtoms are composed of 2 regions: Nucleus: the center of the atom that contains the mass of the atom Electron cloud: region that surrounds the nucleus that contains most of the space in the atom Nucleus Electron Cloud
  12. 12. Atomic Structure
  13. 13. Atomic Structure
  14. 14. Atomic Structure
  15. 15. What’s in the Nucleus?The nucleus contains 2 of the 3subatomic particles: Protons: positively charged subatomic particles Neutrons: neutrally charged subatomic particles
  16. 16. What’s in the Electron Cloud?The 3rd subatomic particle residesoutside of the nucleus in the electroncloud Electron: the subatomic particle with a negative charge and relatively no mass
  17. 17. Electron Cloud Model
  18. 18. How do the subatomic particlesbalance each other?In an atom: The protons = the electrons If 20 protons are present in an atom then 20 electrons are there to balance the overall charge of the atom—atoms are neutral The neutrons have no charge; therefore they do not have to equal the number of protons or electrons
  19. 19. How do we know the number ofsubatomic particles in an atom?Atomic number: this number indicatesthe number of protons in an atom Ex: Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1 So hydrogen has 1 proton Ex: Carbon’s atomic number is 6 So carbon has 6 protons**The number of protons identifies theatom. Ex. 2 protons = He, 29 protons = Cu
  20. 20. How do we know the number ofsubatomic particles in an atom?Mass number: the number of protonsand neutrons in the nucleus Ex: hydrogen can have a mass of 3. Since it has 1 proton it must have 2 neutrons # of neutrons = mass # - atomic #
  21. 21. Determining the number ofprotons and neutronsLi has a mass number of 7 and an atomicnumber of 3 Protons = 3 (same as atomic #) Neutrons= 7-3 = 4 (mass # - atomic #)Ne has a mass number of 20 and an atomicnumber of 10 Protons = 10 Neutrons = 20 - 10= 10
  22. 22. What about the electrons?The electrons are equal to the number ofprotons So e- = p = atomic #Ex: He has a mass # of 4 and an atomic # of2 p+ = 2 no = 2 e- = 2
  23. 23. Determine the number ofsubatomic particles in thefollowing:Cl has a mass # of 35 and an atomic # of 17 p+ = 17, no = 18, e- = 17K has a mass # of 39 and an atomic # of 19 P+ = 19, no = 20 e- = 19
  24. 24. How exactly are the particlesarranged?Bohr Model of the atom:Reviewers think this could lead to misconceptions! All of the protons and the neutrons The 3rd ring can hold up to 18 e- The 1st ring can The 4th ring hold up to 2 e- and any after The 2nd ring can can hold up hold up to 8 e- to 32 e-
  25. 25. What does carbon look like? Mass # = 12 atomic # = 6 6 p and 6 n live in the nucleusp+ = 6 no = 6 e- = 6