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Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical growth in Spain?
 

Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical growth in Spain?

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2011 International week at Southern Denmark University in Odense, Denmark. Theme: sustainable engineering

Abstract
Worldwide, we are living so many crisis, not only a financial and economic one. We have energy, environment, agricultural and ecology problems to be solved, problems that could be summarized in a demographical challenge that needs to be addressed sooner or later. In this brief seminar, I would like to expose some problems related with food supply in our dense urban cities (our main problem in the closest future). It is time for solutions. From a wide variety of possibilities that have been proposed to address that challenge, I would like to point urban farming, specially, the vertical urban farming approach. Finally, I propose a frame to introduce urban farming it in Spain, where a real-state bubble has left so many "zombie" houses, houses that could be adapted to host vertical farms.

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    Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical growth in Spain? Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical growth in Spain? Presentation Transcript

    • International week 2011: Sustainable engineering Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? Alex Rayón Jerez (alex.rayon@deusto.es) April 6th 2011, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DenmarkDeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain?
    • Table of Contents Introduction The problems: not everything is about demographics Time for solutions: within urban farming, the vertical approach What about using vertical farming in Spain? DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain?
    • Introduction We will soon be 7.000 million, and in 2050?DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 3
    • Introduction Climate change is a crude realityDeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 4
    • Introduction Trend towards urbanizationDeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 5
    • Introduction Trend towards urbanization (II)DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 6
    • Introduction Facing the need for sustainabilityDemographical changes From 2007, there are more people living in cities than in countryside, although cities only take worlds 3% surfaceClimate change The effects of higher seas can range from erosion to permanent inundation The severity of the damage depends in great measure on where you are → climate change affects the poor via the agriculture sector European Commission: Working Plan for 2050 “The cheapest energy is the one that is not consumed”Urbanization trends It’s not possible to compare city growth by poverty migration (a lot of examples in Africa and South America) with Barcelona or San Francisco We need to reinvent cities to reduce soil, energy and water consumption, promote quality of live, knowledge and biodiversity DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 7
    • Introduction Living a food crisisHistory and the human race has been shaped by many forces It has been a natural selection process, why not this time again?Trying to face structural problems Lack of investment on agriculture Is it fair current WTOs free trade of food? What about speculative food trade in forward contracts? “Sarkozy wants transparency to tame food prices” What about climate crisis? (droughts, floods, etc.) What about food sovereignty? (revolts in North Africa) International planning committee for food sovereignty DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 8
    • Introduction Living a food crisis (II)Some important aspects to consider prior to start Productivity of urban living has been shown to be higher than that of suburban life Urban living has a reduced environmental impact due to lower transportation and distribution costs per person Undeveloped land is critical to food production, biodiversity, protecting clean water, carbon sequestering, and much more. Population growth seems to be unstoppable → we need to focus on using the earths limited resources responsibly: cities for people to gain higher productivity and real neighborhoods not sacrificing land best used for farms, forests, and wildlife DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 9
    • Introduction Urban TechnologyUrban technology isnt just fun,games, surveillance and mappingBut mostly, when we talk about urbantechnology, we tend to focus on itsoptimistic and entertaining uses So many technological innovation have come up from gaming or militaryThis presentation presents a newkind of relationship between citiesand technologyAnd, we are not talking about robots DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 10
    • Time for solutions We have some problems, and we need solutions The problems: demographics, Time for solutions: vertical farming asclimate change and urbanization trend a partial solution (not full yet) More of a liability than an asset Using our buildings to grow our food DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 11
    • The problems Some demographical dataGlobal population has grown quite fast duringmost of our lifetimes It took all of human history to around 1800 for the global population to reach 1 billion It will take a little more than 50 years for the worlds numbers to grow from 3.000 to 7.000 The population is expected to top 9.000 by mid-century (or even more)Demographic transition Lower fertility rates Lower child mortality Longer life expectancy DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 12
    • The problems Some demographical data (II)Most of them will be born in poor developing nations, to parents already struggling tosupport themselves i.e. India only had 500 million people in 1966, today it has 1.2 billion, and it is projected to have over 1.7 billion by mid-century (surpassing even China)If 9.000 million people were spread out around the habitable parts of the planet, theentire Earth would still have only 50% the population density of FranceThe fear (from Malthus to Ehrlich) is that we wont be able to support ourselves, thatthere wont be enough food, water or energy to go around i.e. China feeds its 1.300 million habitants with less than 10% of its land being arable Its possible to produce even more food as population growths → Cornupocian view But, it will be hard to achieve without exhausting some finite resources, such as water The key is to face poverty not superpopulation DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 13
    • The problems Some demographical data (III)Demographical boom is there... but, what about technology to improve intensiveresource consumption? Energy, farming and many other sectors have a huge technology inertia This is, is a huge challenge to deal with → demographical boom will be here sooner than technological evolution Due to great investment capital needed (both in production and distribution of resources) New scientific knowledge expected? Not at all! Not mayor changes expected, as in Industrial Revolution DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 14
    • The problems Its time for another Green Revolution?Green Revolution: “research, development and technology transfer initiatives between1940s and 1970s, that increased agriculture production around the world”Some social movements ahead: Via Campesinas seven principles of food sovereignty 1) Food: A Basic Human Right 2) Agrarian reform 3) Protecting natural resources 4) Reorganizing food trade 5) Ending the globalization of hunger 6) Social peace 7) Democratic controlTo summarize, if food is wasted in rich countries then the poor countries will producemore to meet the demand of these countries, and this will cause the lack of land used tofeed the population of the poor countries DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 15
    • The problems Horizontal vs. vertical growthDeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 16
    • The problems Horizontal vs. vertical growth (II)The key word is density The more dense is a city, the less environment it takes Easier to build water and electric supply Less use of private car and more use of public transportThe model: European compact city (10 or 12-storey buildings) They are slightly more efficient (in energy consumption terms) than tower citiesThe most sustainable city Skyscrappers + European urban expansion areas Rehabilitate + rebuild + reuse “Cities are the abyss of our age” (Jean-Jacques Rousseau) Sustainable architecture is not more expensive than traditional architecture DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 17
    • The problems Horizontal vs. vertical growth (III)The intelligent network Disturbances created by urban sprawl are due to the fact that we tend to create continuous urban fabrics by radial expansion Why not structure their growth in the form of a discontinuous urban fabric? A web of atoms (each being a 1 million people city or so) held together by covalent links (a 20km high speed train connection) forming a larger molecule (a 20 million people urban network) Keep fertile land and forests between those cities Mass public transport would make them work as one big pool of people and resources DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 18
    • The problems Growing but not investingWhat about agricultural investment? In 1980, 19% of the official aid for development was directed for agricultural purposes → In 2011, its just 5% Trying to get back yo 1980s levels would mean to reach $44.000 millions/year → these levels allowed to skip famine in Asia and Latin America during 1970s Public expenditure over GDP should, at least, be around 10% (far from what is nowadays) Private expenditure should, at least, be around $200.000 millions/year (just to compare, military expenditure is over $1.500.000 millions per year) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 19
    • The problems Cornucopian vs. Malthusian viewFor centuries, pessimists have hurled apocalyptic warnings at the congenital optimists These latter ones, believe humanity will find ways to cope and even improve its lot History, on the whole, has so far favored the optimists But, unfortunately, history is no certain guide to the futureEven science cannot predict the outcome of People v. Planet All the facts depend on choices we have yet to make and ideas we have yet to have Population biologist Joel Cohen: “see to it that all children are nourished well enough to learn in school and are educated well enough to solve the problems they will face as adults.” That would change the future significantly DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 20
    • The problems Uneven growthWe are growing globally but unevenly Developing nations: a country like India will likely need to cope with 500 million new people between now and mid-century Developed nations: fertility rate is below replacement level and people live longer and longer → need to cope with extreme aging Just compare dependency ratio: Japan, Italy, Germany, etc.: 3 to 1 Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East: 25 to 1Inequality could even be larger than it is todayThe developed world will lack young workers, and the developing world will have anexcess of that resource Immigration could be a way to balance demographics and economics DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 21
    • The problems Uneven growth (II)DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 22
    • The problems Some green myths debunkedGoing local for fruits and veggies Myth: Buying local food is better for the environment Reality: It depends on how your food was produced and delivered “According to a recent Oxfam International report, a tomato trucked from Spain to Britain may be more environmentally friendly than a tomato grown in a greenhouse in Britain because that process needs energy-intense farming techniques and more fertilizer and could degrade the soil.” Problem is that our current food chains (industrial, organic or alternative food) impacts not only in our own and our children’s health, but the health of the environment that sustains life on earth The Omnivore’s Dilemma (Michael Pollan) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 23
    • The problems Some green myths debunked (II)Organic food Myth: Organic foods are produced without pesticides Reality: Organic guidelines need to be tightened up The truth is, a great many pesticides are permitted in organic farming, and some of them are considered lethal to humans in very small quantities Nicotine sulfate and lime sulfur, both of which carry a "danger" warning from the FDA but are permissible under organic-farming guidelinesA stealthy greenhouse-gas culprit Myth: Cars are one of the biggest emitters of greenhouse gas Reality: Yes, but hamburgers are actually much worse A report by the UNs FAO cited livestock, and especially beef, as a major source of greenhouse gas, generating more than transportation Meat accounts for 18% of the GHE the world produces every year, compared with 13% for vehicles (other studies put that percentage even higher) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 24
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming UrbanizationEdward Glaeser, in his book: “The Triumph of the City, making the case that cities arehumanity’s greatest invention” Countries that become more urban tend to become far more productive The effect is even bigger for poor countries than rich onesThose cities become giant incubators for economic growth → people learn to collaborateand to compete, where they can take advantage of the skills they already have and learn aFew possible strategies: Be a consumer city → bread-and-butter urban issues (safe streets and short commutes) and eliminating barriers to innovation in the entertainment sector Make entrepreneurship easy Get physical Fiscal policy Schools DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 25
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming What are we talking about? DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 26
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming What are we talking about? (II)We are talking about another element of any smart city to kill three main challenges ofour era (population growth, climate change and urbanization) with one stone Solar panels Eolic generators Smart gadgets and remote controllers Plug-in for hybrid and electric cars Positive policies (rewards) Local electric energy generators vs. Wireless communication systems Negative policies (punishment) Energy storage systems Recyclable building materials Urban farming etc. DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 27
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming What are we talking about? (III)Three main contexts consume energy with voracity → and those contexts converge inthe cities (specially in bigger ones), where the policies must addressResidential homes Transport networks Commercial homesSome other birds that could be killed within the urban equation Air pollution: sprawl growth needs private transport Water pollution: poor supply infrastructure due to its vastness Poverty-stricken slums: sprawl growth vs. vertical growth Epidemic of violence: suburban cities due to horizontal growth Epidemic of illness: poor sanitation systems due to its vastnessIn 2006, 50% of the worlds population was urban, but: they consumed 66% of the totalenergy and they generated 70% of the energy-related CO2 emissionsEdward Glaeser: “Vertical cities are the engines of innovation and prosperity” DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 28
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming So, what are we proposing?We are proposing making possible the ancient way of farming: urban farming DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 29
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Urban farming Growing crops in vertical farms in the heart of the cities No need for green labels: “France to label up to 1000 products” (GHE, water, biodiversity impact) Lets take an example: a salmon salad (tasty, right?) eaten in Barcelona Salmon: Norway, Canada or Chile Tomato: Almeria (south of Spain)Lettuce: GreenhouseIn the South of Spain Peppers: La Rioja DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 30
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Urban farming (II)What is more: Feeding 9.000 people in 2050 needs an increase in food production by 70% (FAO) It can be achieved by higher crop yields and an expansion of the area under cultivation. Easy right? Well, not really Land available for cultivation is unevenly distributed (South Corea and Madagascar deal) Much of it is not suitable for long cropsSo, why not create more agricultural land bybuilding upwards? It is not nothing new: Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Chinampa DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 31
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Urban farming (III)Just organic products smell bad when become wasteJust 30 or 40 years ago, we used to eat local food → we use cities just for industrial,residential and commercial purposes, but never for agricultural onesSpanish Slow Food movement: KM0 distinctive Local organic produced food + threatened of disappearanceWe are talking about environmental issues, not only agronomicAgroecology → imitate nature, not the industry Industrial agriculture → full chain, between 40-50% of GHE emissions Not everything are fertilizers → knowledge of nice farming techniques, combining plants, trees and animals can power productivity Stopping deforestation → needed to augment agricultural surfaces + processing food + transportation → so helpful! i.e. 44 projects in 20 countries of sub-Saharan Africa using ecological agriculture techniques → 214% better performance DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 32
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farmingMain idea: vertical growth in urban cities (not only skyscrappers, but also Europeanmedium-tall buildings) filled with floor upon floor of orchards and fields Producing crops all year round Slashing transport costs Slashing CO2 emissions Spoilage along the transportSummarizing: moving farms closer to where everyone will be living Going backwards to the original civilization: building around food and not reverselyAn alternative within urban (vertical) farming: hydroponic agriculture Hydro (water) + ponos (work) → Crops do not need soil as itself, but its nutrients (minerals, etc.)Other alternatives (still not so proven): aeroponics or aquaponics DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 33
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (II)How does it work? Something similar to Food will be grown hydroponically → “solution of minerals dissolved Archimedes screw in water” The use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides reduced to minimum Soil erosion will not be a problem Clever recycling techniques Only a fraction (10-25%) of the amount of water and nutrients will be needed No problem with the agricultural run-off DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 34
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (III) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 35
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (IV)Did you know that we are quickly approaching tophosphorus peak? From 2007 to 2008, phosphate rock (the raw material) prices went up 700% (concentrated supply), and the demand might continue to rise 2,3% per year It is quite hard to recycle → it ends up in the oceans Phosphate rock is becoming a strategic material for many countries Worldwide focus on production of biofuels is not helping either No single international organization responsible for phosphate resources DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 36
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (IV)Can I build one at home? All you need already exists, is not a new technology Glasshouse industry: more than 100 years growing crops indoor extensively Indoor conditions: it is possible (even remotely) to tailor the temperature, humidity, lighting, airflow and nutrient conditions to get best productivity Anywhere in the world Anytime around the year The medium (sustrates): rock wool, polyurethane foam, clay spots, pumice, pearlite, Irish peat, sand, etc. Nutrient-rich water: roots are immersed not in soil, but in water → no need to any medium where the plan grows, because its roots are directly linked to nutrients Recycling is possible (rather than being lost into the soil)Besides, some environmental aspects Passive form of climate control Makes a nice view DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 37
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (V)Some problems: artificial lighting Without artificial lighting the crops will grow unevenly → plants closest to the windows are exposed to more sunlight and grow more quickly Artificial light for fresh and sustainable food? It depends on geography Ideal for near Equator latitudes Cheap and renewable energy in latitudes otherwise not viable. i.e. Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station or Thanet Earth in the UK (it has its own power generator) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 38
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (VI)Some problems: renewable energy in urbancities Generating enough electricity using solar panels requires an area about 20 times larger than the area being illuminated This is, vertical farming will only work if it makes use of natural light Solution: vertically stacked hydroponic trays that move on rails to ensure that all plants get an even amount of sunlight and air flow → Verticrop Natural light from sides and above PC energy consumption Just for a single-storey greenhouse What about multi-storey vertical farms? DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 39
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (VII)Chicago’s Willis Tower to Become a VerticalSolar Farm “Chicago’s iconic Willis Tower (formally the Sears Tower) is set to become a massive solar electric plant with the installation of a pilot solar electric glass project. The high- profile project on the south side of the 56th floor will replace the windows with a new type of photovoltaic glass developed by Pythagoras Solar which preserves daylighting and views while reducing heat gain and producing the same energy as a conventional solar panel. The project could grow to 2 MW in size — which is comparable to a 10 acre field of solar panels — turning North America’s tallest building into a huge urban vertical solar farm.” DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 40
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (VIII)Some problems: multi-storey vertical farms Solution: vertically integrated greenhouse Plants growing around the edges of the building Sandwiched between two glass layers Rotating on a conveyor New problems: area available is much smaller Less biomass in spite of having more productivity? DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 41
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (IX)So, we must still have to invest more on R&D in order to improve itThe immediate opportunity is to take advantage of the space (spare or not) available onurban rooftops → that is urban farming, but not vertical farming DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 42
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (X)And what about Aquaponics = agriculture + hydroponics? Grow fish and plants together in one integrated soil-less system Fish waste provides a food source for the plants The plants provide a natural filter for the water the fish live in In natural habitat, fish is an important dispersion vector for fertile seeds Projects: NYCs Public Schools roof (by BRIGHTFARM Systems) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 43
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (X)Conclusions Vertical farming still is not so productive Rooftop farming (a kind of urban farming) is not either competitive with other suppliers in a global market People is not willing to pay an extra cost for fresh and local food It is true that it is a down-to-earth approach and it could some day be achieved Urban farming is not the final solution, is part of the solution A 30-storey-building could feed 10.000 people (University of Columbia, NYC) It could sum up to 20% gains in productivity using less water, reducing transportation distances and energy costs DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 44
    • Time for solutions: vertical farming Vertical farming (XI) Caltech Ohio hospitals Eurofresh, Inc. (Arizona) Cornell University Columbia University (Vertical Farm Project)Manchester International Festival Vertical Farm DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 45
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Introduction A sustainable city model (such as Masdar City) is not always applicable → what could we do in a country full of buildings? Building customs in Spain: After the Civil War (1939) it became the popular alternative to save + Pelotazo inmobiliario during the 60s 22 million of buildings → National Plan to rehabilitate up to 12 million of them Nonetheless, sustainable building in Spain is a kind of joke Between the elections for sustainable cities: rebuild, reuse or rehabilitate “The most sustainable building is the one that already exists” (vs. China or Dubai) From Chicago in the 18th and 19th century to Spain in 21th → from mechanical cities to thermodynamic cities Almost 33% of GHE in Spain are due to real state Raw material transport by train in Spain its only 4% (UE 15% or Germany 22%) Railway transport investments have mainly been oriented to people transport Environmental and economical costs DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 46
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Hydrological problems in Spain Spain lacks hydrological resources → water is scarce in some regions Besides, those regions (basically Mediterranean arch) with fewer water resources are the ones with the greatest water consumption Agricultural and touristic activities are always debate topics Droughts are at their top level in the last 60 years → biological experts have started talking about environmental real warnings → Spain is drying National laws are not as much strict as they should be DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 47
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Lighting problems in Spain Spain generates a lighting pollution above any reasonable level It generates even more lighting than its power states Public lighting spending growth from 1985 to 2007: 4,7% (2x 1990s levels) However, population has just grown 0,7% Spain, last in the queue of efficiency in Europe: 116 KW per year and citizen France 91 KW/year and citizen and Germany 43 KW/year and citizen None of the 52 Spanish provinces fits the goal of 75 KW/year and citizen It was established in the Energetic Efficiency Plan from 2004 to 2012 DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 48
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Real-state problems From almost 3 million real-state workers to about 2 million (almost 40% of job losses) Spain is currently the European Unions country with more buildings per citizen → 538 per 1000 citizens vs 432 as average in the UE (2005 data) Financial entities and real-state agents do not have the know how to manage housing stock → almost 1,4 million houses without any buyer During real-state bubble there was an oversupply of buildings in the main cities Problem is even worse for second residence → Mediterranean arch What about rehabilitation to solve those problems at once? IMADE: legal reform to allow rehabilitation and energetic improvement of full neighborhoods → refocus home residential real-state sector towards a more sustainable economic model Rehabilitate between 250.000 and 350.000 buildings per year + save 13.000.000 GHE Tonnes within 3 years + 200.000 to 300.000 new jobs + 9.000 to 14.000 million € per years DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 49
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Real-state problems (II) Spanish economic model has been burst after real-state bubble Economic consequences → total debt and budget deficit Ecologic consequences → 5th largest cement consumer (quite above France and Germany) Social consequences → unemployment DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 50
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Real-state problems (III) Only buildings after 2007 (5%) fit Código Técnico de Edificación Climate change will even become worse for the rest 95% DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 51
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Farming problems in Spain Spanish agriculture in danger of depopulation due to aging Less than 20% of the population lives in 90% of the land Rural population is marked by aging problems: more than 30% is older than 65 Problems: agriculture, environment and social structure Some helps to fix agricultural problems in Spain European Union funds: €630 million to incorporate young people to agriculture 10 years ago, it was possible to live with 40 hectares → now are needed over 300 €12.000 annual salary → 66% of what can be made, average, in urban cities Gender problems (no women) Digital breach → over 5.700 municipalities and 8.000.000 Spanish without broad band Internet Besides demographics, farming problems in Spain are also affected by the lack of infrastructure (communications) and intermediaries Cooperatives, wholesalers and retailers add even over 600-700% to final prices DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 52
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Urbanization DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 53
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Urbanization (II) Spain’s physical footprints (its buildings and roads) were designed for a different age Plenty of inexpensive real estate, much of it is poorly structured for the 21st century Declining cities shouldn’t be building new structures with public funds, but they should make sure that private developers who want to remake urban spaces They should also work to ensure that unoccupied structures are turned into more attractive and usable urban space Youngstown was an early mover in the shrink-to-greatness trend There are three big anti-urban policy biases: Pro-homeownership policies that push people from urban apartments into suburban homes The subsidization of transportation infrastructure in low-density areas System of local schooling that pushes so many parents away from big-city school districts → the great challenge of our era DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 54
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Overweight problems DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 55
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Lets do it! Why not introduce vertical farming in Spain? Emulating Detroit reconvertion Emptied industrial facilities for green technology mainly focused to encourage urban farming in abandoned spaces Local projects: The Greening of Detroit, Detroit Eastern Market, Earthworks Urban Farm, Urban Farming Urban and community projects: seed, harvest and develop projects for education and social purposes Financed by Local Development Plans (in Spain we have analogous Plan-E) an Obamas Recovery Act Funds Interests: local communities, foundations, public sector and private sector “Detroit could be the nation´s leading example of urban-faming and become a destination for fresh, local and natural foods and become a major part of the green movement” DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 56
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Lets do it! (II) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 57
    • What about vertical farming in Spain? Lets do it! Some trends starting to appear in Spain Slow food Healthy food Biologic diet Downshifting Sustainable supply chain How could we mix all these trends? Is it easy to make a mixture of technology and farmers? Is it easy to mix sustainable logistics with the final consumer? Yes, it is. Two ideas: 1) Tech-retailers 2) Vertical farming DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 58
    • “I dont know what I may seem to the world, but, as to myself, I seem to have been as a boy playing on the seashore, anddiverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me” Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain? 59
    • ReferencesBooksTriumph of the CityWeb sitesGapMinder http://www.gapminder.org/Population: Is the World Ready for 7 Billion People? http://ecocentric.blogs.time.com/2010/12/30/population-is-the-world-ready-for-7-billion/#ixzz1E9AlsRe4For Egypt, a Fresh Start, With Cities http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/16/business/economy/16leonhardt.html?_r=1&smid=tw-nytimes&seid=autoRising seas threaten 180 U.S. cities by 2100: study http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=rising-seas-threatenGreen myths debunked http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2010/technology/1003/gallery.green_myths.fortune/4.htmlEn España hay cerca de 1,4 millones de pisos invendibles http://www.finanzas.com/noticias/vivienda/2011-02-26/436572_espana-cerca-millones-pisos-invendibles.htmlRuina energética en edificaciones http://www.ecointeligencia.com/2011/01/ruina-energetica-en-edificaciones/Cities & Buildings in Spain http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?countryID=13The World Is Fat http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/23/the-world-is-fat/Farmers markets up 16 percent http://voices.washingtonpost.com/all-we-can-eat/sustainable-food/farmers-markets-up-16-percent.htmlEl urbanismo español y sus raíces franquistas http://www.rebelion.org/noticias/espana/2011/3/el-urbanismo-espanol-y-sus-raices-franquistas-123862La rehabilitación energética de viviendas como prioridad http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=iInZ9s7gyUQEl derroche energético en el alumbrado público de España ya es oficial http://astroseti.org/noticia/3672/el-derroche-energetico-en-el-alumbrado-publico-de-espana-ya-es-oficialDoes it really stack up? http://www.economist.com/node/17647627On a School Rooftop, Hydroponic Greens for Little Gardeners http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/22/on-a-school-rooftop-hydroponic-greens-for-little-gardeners/Producción Vegetal. Agricultura – Recursos http://www.educateca.com/manuales_cursos/vegetal_agricultura.aspScientists warn of lack of vital phosphorus as biofuels raise demand http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/natural_resources/article4193017.eceEcoagricultura para comer más y contaminar menos http://periodismohumano.com/sociedad/medio-ambiente/ecoagricultura-para-comer-mas-y-contaminar-menos.htmlThe Omnivore’s Dilemma http://michaelpollan.com/books/the-omnivores-dilemma/Sobre el sentido de erigir huertos verticales en ciudades http://faircompanies.com/news/view/sobre-el-sentido-erigir-huertos-verticales-en-ciudades/Chicago’s Willis Tower to Become a Vertical Solar Farm http://inhabitat.com/chicagos-willis-tower-to-become-a-vertical-solar-farm/Fruit-feasting fish fertilize faraway forests http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110323/full/news.2011.177.htmlCan farming save Detroit? http://money.cnn.com/2009/12/29/news/economy/farming_detroit.fortune/index.htmEnvironment: The disappearing nutrient http://www.nature.com/news/2009/091007/full/461716a.html DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain?
    • Copyright (c) 2011 Alex Rayón JerezVersion 0.1 of the presentation edited on 5/4/2011 under the title: Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical growth in Spain?This work (but the quoted images, whose rights are reserved to their owners*) is licensed under the Creative Commons “Attribution-ShareAlike” License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ * http://spectrum.ieee.org/image/1543594, http://www.dailygalaxy.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/03/18/climate_change.jpg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/tomlobo/588525280/sizes/m/in/photostream/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/laurenmanning/2979574719/sizes/z/in/photostream/, http://www.houstontomorrow.org/images/uploads/sprawl/cache/suburb-325x294.png, http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/images/2005/11/02/night01_430x313.jpg, http://www.madrimasd.org/blogs/universo/wp-content/blogs.dir/42/files/255/chinampas-tradicionales-mayas-fuente-blog-curioso.gif, http://cache.lexico.com/dictionary/graphics/ahd4/jpg/A4arcsM1.jpg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/30003321@N00/4560644340/sizes/z/in/pool-48843340@N00/, https://qed.princeton.edu/getfile.php?f=Ancient_Civilizations_of_the_Old_World_3500_to_after_600_BCE.jpg, http://www.greenfudge.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/vertical-farm.jpg, http://www.treehugger.com/vertical-farm.jpg, http://www.chelseapiers.com/green/GRAPHICS/science_barge.jpg, http://inspirationgreen.com/assets/images/Vertical%20farms/brightfarms%20UAE.jpg, http://www.valcent.net/s/HDVGS.asp?ReportID=266563, http://lh6.ggpht.com/_yiiPzeRfNBQ/TJAnaQy8JBI/AAAAAAAAAvA/Sz0sCfPFXa4/s800/090728_thanet_2.jpg, http://www.calacademy.org/medialibrary/blogs/thelongview/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/20090114growthchamber2545-500x375.jpg, https://mifdotcodotuk.s3.amazonaws.com/cache/b1/1d/b11d7f3116146df26f041a2b2154144a.jpg?Signature=LHxOlRhhjclBAttjpEEOBYS2/8s%3D&Expires=1300471270&AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIIBLHMTLXFTFPR2Q, http://mif.co.uk/event/vertical-farm/, http://www.laciudadviva.org/blogs/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/urban_agriculture.top_1.jpg, http://www.diariolibre.com/showimage.php?typeid=3&imageid=16697, http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_nSTO-vZpSgc/TQxiGn0vd2I/AAAAAAAAJ_Y/QZozCYzhQ9U/s400/spain+empty.png DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain?
    • Alex Rayón Jerez © 2011Lecturer at Industrial Technologies Department in the Engineering Faculty at Universidad de Deusto Researcher at Deustotech at University of Deusto University of Deusto Bilbao 48012, Spain University of Southern Denmark, Odense, April 2011 Contact Alex Rayón Jerez alex.rayon@deusto.es To contact me, so many ways :-) http://alexrayon.es/alex-rayon-20/ DeustoTech Research Center - Vertical farming: how could we take advantage of our vertical and dense growth in Spain?