• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Technical_challenges_and_cost_effective_ways_for_conversion_of_double_hull_tankers
 

Technical_challenges_and_cost_effective_ways_for_conversion_of_double_hull_tankers

on

  • 1,643 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,643
Views on SlideShare
1,643
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
111
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Technical_challenges_and_cost_effective_ways_for_conversion_of_double_hull_tankers Technical_challenges_and_cost_effective_ways_for_conversion_of_double_hull_tankers Presentation Transcript

    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of Single Hull TankersThe 11th Annual Marina Bay Sands, SingaporeFPSO CONGRESS 27th - 30th September, 2010 2010 TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND COST EFFECTIVE WAYS FOR CONVERSION OF DOUBLE HULL TANKERS: LESSONS LEARNT FROM CONVERSION OF SINGLE HULL TANKERS IBIBA EMMANUEL DOUGLAS DEPARTMENT OF MARINE ENGINEERING RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA 1
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of Single Hull Tankers Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 CONTENTS• Objectives• The FPSO: New (Purpose-built) versus converted (Fast Track) Vessel• Conversion Phases/Processes• Conversion Requirements/Specifications: Single and Double Hull• Technical Challenges in FPSO conversion projects• Integrated design Format• Application of Design Software Systems• Regulatory Regimes – Safety and Quality• Design Methodology for Enhanced Life-cycle Management (A New Paradigm)• Techno-economic Appraisal/Analysis
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 OBJECTIVES• Highlight Technical difficulties in Tanker to FPSO conversionand discuss solutions• Outline basic differences between single hull and double hull tankers conversion• Establish efficient Quality-Safety Interface in the specific processes of the conversion• Examine gainful utilization of single hull conversion experience for the case of double hull• Explore efficient conversion methodologies from Feasibility Studies through Engineering to Construction• Introduce a new Design paradigm for enhanced Tanker-FPSO conversion ( a new frontier for FPSOs optimal conversion)• Introduce efficient combined Techno-economic optimization procedure for Tanker FPSO conversion
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 The FPSO: New Built versus ConvertedConverted New BuiltAdvantages Advantages• Marginal field development For higher volume development• Better Construction Schedules Used in highly severed environment• lower Capex(<1/3 cost of NB) Lower Opex & more flexible for• Low severity environment field life extension• Favourable regulatory regime Optimal Design and latest standards in construction safety rulesLimitations Limitations• Stringent selection criteria Longer Project Schedules• Service life extension is limited Much higher Capex
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Technical Challenges in FPSO conversion projectsDesign and Engineering Insufficient Design Documentation ie drawings of vessel for conversion Adaptation of existing hullform and general arrangements to required specifications and safety and quality standards Harmonization of detailed Engineering features Complications in matching new features with old structuresConstruction Lack of accurate as-built drawings and some design data Non availability of 3-D as-built models which are required by some design application softwares Insufficient fatigue analysis in the design of connections for primary and secondary members: especially for older generation vessels
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Possible solutions to the conversion problemsDesign and Engineering Phase Lack of accurate as-built drawings and 3-D models can be overcome by the use of laser scanning technology. This is currently being used in various fields. Most of the design associated problems can be resolved by the use of modern engineering application software systems that integrate geometrical and numerical modelling for all aspects of structural and hydrodynamic analysis.Construction Phase Carry detailed fatigue analysis for all connections involving primary and secondary members Increase of structural stiffness and corrosion margin Use of High Tensile Steel (HTS)
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 FPSO Conversion - Integrated Design ApproachProject Specifications Hull Type Storage Capacity Cargo and Ballast Tanks Layout Permanent or Disconnectable Systems Deck /Topsides Equipment/Facilities Layout Materials of Construction Mooring Arrangements Environmental Conditions of Service Location Required Service Life
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Tanker Hull Typesa. Single Hull c. Single Side – Double Bottomb. Single Bottom – Double Side d. Double Hull
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010STRUCTURAL DESIGN PROCEDURESThe structural design/analysis is implemented in 6 main steps namely; Determination of hull structural arrangement Determination and computation of loads Analysis/computation of structural response Analysis/computation of limit states Evaluation /assessment of structural adequacy Optimization of design
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Important Considerations in the Selection of Tanker for Conversion Structural drawings Trading history Previous thickness measurements Condition and extent of protective coatings Classification status including any outstanding conditions ofclass Previous repairs Typical load conditions and purpose of tanks (i.e. cargo, cleanballast, dirty ballast, segregated ballast)Typical defects:CorrosionBucklingCracks
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Parameters for Intact Stability Code GM GZ GZ max E 30 0 30 57.27o Heeling angle φ
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 INTACT STABILITY CRITERIAThe main design criteria of the code are:1. E30 ≥0.055m.rad; E30 is the area under the static stability 0 curve up to 30 0 E40 ≥0.09m.rad; corresponding to area up to 40 0 E40 – E30 ≥0.03m.rad; corresponding to area between 30 and 040
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 INTACT STABILITY CRITERIA CONT’D 0 0 If the angle of flooding φf is less than 40 φf instead of 40 is to be used in the above rules. o o o2. h30 ≥0.20m; h30 is the righting lever at 30 heel. 03. The maximum righting lever must be at an angle φ ≥254. The initial metacentric height GM0 = 0.15m or greater.
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 WEATHER CRITERIA Restoring lever D GZ AR LW2 AH LW1 0 φ2 φc 0 φ Flooding Angle B φ3 φ0 φ1 = φ3 - φ0
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 PARAMETERS OF WEATHER CRITERIAφ0 – initial heel angle under the action of steady wind with leverLW1 – constant heeling lever which is independent of the heelangle.φ1 – maximum angle of roll on the weather side due to side waveaction.φ2 – limiting roll angle on the lee-side enclosed to the left and rightsides respectively.
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 PARAMETERS OF WEATHER CRITERIA CONT’DAR, AH – areas enclosed to the left and right sides respectivelybetween the restoring lever curve and a constant heeling lever lw2due to wind gust.The value of lw2 is given as 1.5 lw1.
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010Components/Items requiring detailed analysis in FPSO design( New built and Converted) Hull Midship Section Bow Structure (against Slamming pressures) Cargo Tanks (against Sloshing pressures) Turret Station Keeping System Fluid Transfer System Deck and Topsides Helideck – Helicopter Landing Platform Fatigue ( for Hull, Supports/Foundations, Connections, Fluid Transfer Systems etc) Stability: Intact and Damaged
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010Owner’s Requirements: comparison of primary and converted designsS/No Design Primary Ship Secondary Ship Element1 Owner’s INPUT INPUT Requirements Specifications missions and General Representative set of owner’s requirements requirements for primary ship generated for the primary ship design -specifications/ mission and general Owner’s requirement specific to the proposed requirements for conversion options conversion (secondary ships) OUTPUT OUTPUT Important differences harmonized requirements Representation set of owner’s between for the primary ship and those specific requirements obtained by to the proposed conversion option. harmonization of owner’s requirements for all specified candidate ship; the primary ship is given full weight
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010Wave Loads on Ships andOffshore Structures are Complexand difficult to analyzeRequire efficient Fluid-StructureAnalysis/Computational methodsReliable and cost effective designand operation of a ship or offshorestructure requires proper analysisof waves and other environmentalloads as well as internal loads onthe structure.
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 HULL GIRDER STRENGTH DETERMINATION 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 0. 0. 0. 0. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2.Wave spectra:Pierson and Moskowitz (1964)
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Derivation of Seaway Wave Spectrum 8 6 4 2 0 -2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 -4 -6 -8 Period Freq Amplitude MeanSq sec rad/sec 31.42 0.2 1.69 1.43 15.71 0.4 2.20 2.43 10.47 0.6 4.29 9.20 7.85 0.8 7.35 27.00 6.28 1 6.79 23.04 5.24 1.2 5.09 12.94 4.49 1.4 3.35 5.61 3.93 1.6 3.81 7.27 ∞ N 3.49 1.8 3.26 5.30 Spectrum area = ∫ S(ω)dω ≈ ∑ S ω j δω j ( ) 3.14 2.86 2.62 2 2.2 2.4 2.14 3.20 2.03 2.30 5.12 2.06 0 j =1 2.42 2.6 2.90 4.21 2.24 2.8 1.35 0.91 2.09 3 1.05 0.55
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Superimposition of simple waves NSimple waveWave Superposition η= ∑ A j cos(k j x − ω jt + δ j ) j=1 8 6 4 2 0 -2 0 1 00 2 00 3 00 4 00 50 0 6 00 7 00 8 00 9 00 10 00 -4 -6 -8Superimpose waves travelling in various directions (χk) tosimulate a “short crested sea” M N [ η = ∑∑ A j, k cos k j (x cos χ k + y sin χ k ) − ω j t + δ j ] k =1 j=1
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Determination of Modification Options and Requirements Determine tanker requiring minimal modification fromlist of candidate tankers Assess stability and strength characteristics of selectedtankers Determine modification requirements Carryout preliminary design analysis of proposedmodifications; i. Hydrostatics/Hydrodynamics Analysis ii. Structural Analysis
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Final Design Determine deck and internal hull arrangement Determine Hydrostatics/Hydrodynamics characteristics and carry out stability analysis Carry out structural analysis Iterate to converge at required design
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Structural Modification Requirements Create extra deck space for process facilities, pipe rack, additional accommodation and office spaceStrategies and options for increasing deck space are;i. Increase Hull breadthii. Increase Hull LengthEither option will require re-evaluation of stability andstrength characteristics.Due to the substantial increase in deck load required,modifications of Tankers to FPSOs require extensivestructural analysis
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Application of Ship Structural Design SoftwareMost of the software systems for ship structural design utilize a first principle approach to the design and analysis of Hull Structures. However, since they are also required to satisfy the requirements of the classification societies, the they can be used in two phases:The first phase establishes the initial minimum required scantling for a vessel using the applicable Classification Society’s rules which includes consideration of ; Hull girder longitudinal bending and shear strength Local strength of shell and bulkhead plating and associated stiffeners. Strength of main supporting members and fatigue assessment.This is used generally for conceptual design, feasibility studies and design definition
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010The second phase employs the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method to assess the strength of major portions of the hull and to confirm the minimum scantlings in the phase. The main use of the second phase is for detailed strength analysis and final design validation.
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Elements of the ABS SafeHull Design and Analysis ProcessesPhase A. generates midship section geometric model Calculates stiffener spacing, plating spacing, unsupported span, corrosion margin Calculates Hull girder section modulus Calculates required minimum value for longitudinal scantlings according to the applicable ABS Rules Calculates required minimum value of the main supporting members and the transverse scantlings according to the Rules. Calculates the minimum required scantlings for the double bottom floors and girders.
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Phase A continues Calculates required thickness based on shear force and allowable stillwater shear force Performs simplified fatigue assessment based on the relevant ABS Rules;the combined load range and corresponding stress range are determined,permissible stress range is determined based on the ships length,structure type, and fatigue classification (S-N) Performs both a simplified and detailed (if needed,) sloshing check Calculates the required minimum value for the longitudinal scantlings(according to the Rules) based on sloshing pressure requirement Calculates required scantlings of side shell plating and side longitudinalsin the fore body region. Calculates the required scantlings of side transverse and stringers in thefore body region
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010Phase BFinite element analysis Generates wave loads and/or external Local point Loads for the 3Dmodel Generates sloshing loads for the 3D model Generates ballast loads for the 3D model Checks the 3D model against yielding criteria for small panels Check the 3D model against buckling criteria for small panels Generates tabular reports for small panel yielding and bucklingassessments
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Phase B continues Check s the 3D model against buckling criteria for large panels Check s the 3D model against buckling criteria for local corrugated panels Checks the 3D model against buckling criteria for large corrugated panels Checks local model against yielding criteria Check s local model against buckling criteria
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 ECONOMIC EVALUATIONImportant Cost considerations in a conversion project include; Revenue loss during off-trade period Cost for Initial Vessel Selection Feasibility studies Design, Engineering and Certification costs Actual Conversion Costs (i.e. Materials and Labour) Cost of Towing and site installations and Commissioning
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010Expressing Cost of Items as functions of Time gives for the L-th CostComponent, the Cumulative costs for k-years as;CC(l,k)= =1 1, = ,1 + ,2 + − − + ,For item 1CC(1,k) = =1 1, = 1,1 + 1,2 + − − + 1,For item 2;CC(2,k) = =1 2, = 2,1 + 2,2 + − − + 2,For item m;CC(m,k)= =1 , = ,1 + ,2 + − − + ,Similarly Total variable Costs for the First year can be expressed as; ,1 =1
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 For the Nth year the Total Variable Costs for all the items will be; , =1 Cumulative Variable Cost in V years will be; CC(j,v) = =1{ =1 , } Total Cost inclusive of initial Costs in V years will be; CCT(j,v) = CCIN + =1 ,
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 DERIVATION OF REVENUE FUNCTION INVESTMENT EVALUATION EQUATION The Cumulative Revenue function for k-years can be expressed as; RC(k) = =1 = 1 + 2 + − − + Putting CCT(j,v) = f1(t) and RC(k)=f2(t) Gives the following Investment Evaluation Equation; f2(t) - f1(t) = 0 Solution of this equation gives the Pay Back Period(PBP)
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion of The 11th Annual Single Hull Tankers FPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 N Input Ship & Wave Pre-Processing Description General Ship Motions Wave Frequency LAMP Post-Processing Calculation Loads SYSTEM• Statistics• RAOs• Visualization Ship Slamming Impact Motions Calculation Forces• Derived quantities Wave Frequency Impact Dynamic Beam Pressure Pressure Calculation Finite-Element Total Main Interface Girder Loads Loading for Finite-Element Detailed FE Analysis Analysis Stresses
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 CONCLUSIONSFPSOs offer clear technical and economic advantages over other competing options in area of exploiting marginal fields and those located in deep/ultra deep waters.Building new FPSOs are generally associated with higher costs and longer construction periods than converting existing trading tankers to FPSOs.It is clear that a poor choice of tanker for conversion, and inefficient project planning and implementation can erode most of the benefits of the conversion option• It is possible and will be beneficial if FPSO conversion designs adopt more holistic approach that incorporates other conversion option
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Conclusions continuesConversion of trading Tankers to FPSOs to highstandards will generally require proper evaluation ofthe stability and strength characteristics of theconverted vessel.There are presently computer software systems thathave the capacity to handle detailed hydrodynamicsand structural analysis efficiently and cost effectively.
    • Technical Challenges and Cost Effective Ways For Conversion of Double Hull Tankers: Lessons Learnt from Conversion ofThe 11th Annual Single Hull TankersFPSO CONGRESS 2010 Marina Bay Sands, Singapore 27th - 30th September, 2010 Thank you