Lecture No 05
1: Research Proposal
2: Samples of Research Proposals
A proposal is also known as a work
plan, prospectus, outline, or draft plan
to answer following questions;
will be done
Why it will be done
How it will be done
Where it will be done
is benefit of doing it
Purpose of the Research Proposal
To present the question to be
researched and its importance
To discuss the research efforts of others
who have worked on related questions
To suggest the data necessary for
solving the question
What are the Benefits of the
Proposal to a Researcher?
Allows the researcher to plan and
review the project’s steps
Serves as a guide throughout the
Forces time and budget estimates
Style of Proposal
Use section headings.
Present the information in short
Write short and simple sentences.
Modules in a Research Proposal
Importance of the Study
Nature and Form of
Introduction (background, problem
identification and problem statement).
Your first sentence of your introduction
should identify the research problem.
This sentence or two should address why
the research is important and what you
are hoping to accomplish.
Provide the background information with
relevant key literature review to support
question and objectives.
Identify any gap in knowledge or question
which have to be answered.
Problem is clearly stated with out the use of
It should be in present tense.
Already specific and suggest research
questions. Focus on the following:
◦ a. Explore unexpected findings discovered
in previous research.
◦ b. Follow future research suggestions.
◦ c. Apply existing theory to new topic.
◦ d. Challenge the previous findings.
◦ e. Specify the intervening process
It is the purpose of the study.
It should be written in assertive form.
It is best to list the objectives in order of
To study the trends in the dividend payment of Pakistani
To identify the prominent variables influencing the dividend
policies of the select companies.
To study the non-financial and financial firms separately and
examine which variables are influencing these firms.
Include relevant and recent research
comprehensive perspective , moving to
more specific studies.
Avoid the extraneous details of the
literature; do a brief review.
Emphasize the important results and
conclusions of other studies.
Summarize the literature review section
and indentify the gap.
The design module describes what
you are going to do in technical terms.
Provide information on your proposed
design for such tasks as; sample
methods, variables, instrumentation
Future tense will be used.
Methods used for analyzing data.
theoretical basis for using the selected
By use of dummy charts and tables its
presentation can be enhanced.
A glossary of concepts, constructs,
Other materials that reinforce the body
of the proposal
Evaluating the Research Proposal
Proposal must be neatly written in
appropriate writing style
Major topics should be easily found and
Proposal must meet specific guidelines
set by the sponsor
Technical writing style must be clearly
understood and explained