Biografi Immanuel Kant - Seorang Filsuf


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Biografi Immanuel Kant - Seorang Filsuf

  1. 1. i
  2. 2. O L E H Siswa/siswi SMAN MODAL BANGSA ACEH
  3. 3. The Young Scholar Early Work The Silent Decade Mature Work
  4. 4. The Young Scholar • He was first sent to Collegium Fredericianum and then enrolled at the University of Konigsberg in 1740, at the age of 16 • He also dissuaded the young scholar from idealism, which was negatively regarded by most philosophers in the 18th century • In 1747, he published his first philosophical work, Throughs on the True Estimation of Living Forces.
  5. 5. Early Work -Kant is best known for his work in the philosophy of ethics and metaphysics -Kant laid out the Nebular Hypothesis, a theory in astronomical field -Kant’s contribution to philosophy greatly increased since 1760s -Kant worked his way through the university by tutoring and he also received some financial aid from Pietists
  6. 6. The Silent Decade • At the age of 46, Kant was an established scholar and an increasingly influential philosopher • When Kant emerged from his silence in 1781, and publish the Critique of Pure Reason. • He also wrote few books that also give much influence
  7. 7. Kant published 2nd and 3rd edition of the Critique of Pure Reason He also wrote a number of semi-popular essays on history, religion, politics and other topics Kant's health, long poor, took a turn for the worse and he died at Königsberg on 12 February 1804, uttering "Es ist gut" ("It is good") before expiring His unfinished final work, the fragmentary Opus Postumum, was, as its title suggests, published posthumously Mature Work
  8. 8. Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy
  9. 9. Theory of perception • A proposition whose predicate concept is contained in its subject concept Analytic Proposition • A proposition whose predicate concept is not contained in its subject concept Synthetic proposition
  10. 10. Categories of the Faculty of Understanding In studying the work of Kant one must realize that there is a distinction between "understanding" as the general concept and the "understanding" as a faculty of the human mind
  11. 11. Schema A priority principles by which the transcendental imagination connects concepts with intuitions through time
  12. 12. Moral Philosophy Kant developed his moral philosophy in three works: -Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785); -Critique of Practical Reason (1788); -Metaphysics of Morals.
  13. 13. • Kant's contribution to aesthetic theory is developed in the Critique of Judgment where he investigates the possibility and logical status of "judgments of taste.“ • Kant used the term "aesthetic" in a manner that, according to Kant scholar W.H. Walsh, differs from its modern sense.
  14. 14. • Kant's political teaching may be summarized in a phrase: republican government and international organization. • He opposed "democracy," which at his time meant direct democracy, believing that majority rule posed a threat to individual liberty.
  15. 15. POLITICS ANTHROPOLOGY action ime both to himself and to those another , humans should viewed I see action aimed I AM IMMANUEL KANT,THIS MY ROLE Immanuel Kant defines philosophy as th science of the subject and the base of all knowledge. MenurutKant four that studied in philosoph namely: apayang human can know? (metaphysics), apayang should have known to man? (ethics), which the human expectations (religion) and what is man? (anthropology). This philosoph definition affects all Imamuel Kant thought. In this peper will discuss the ideas of Immanuel Kant o knowledge (metaphysics), Moral and Ethics (Ethics), Man, Religion and God Kant's view challenged Imamuel Man Kant said that the only purpose is man himself , and not simply a tool means which may be arbitrary treated . In all human action aimed both to himself and to tho another , humans should be viewed simultaneously as a destination .For Kant , the actor is peop who construct his own world . Through a priori formal , raw data set of the human soul experienc ( sensory ) and then build the mathematical sciences and physics . Through the will of the so otonomlah build morality . And through feeling ( sentiment ) man puts reality in relation to specif goals to be POLITICSas well as the inherently understand everything that has a tenden to unity (unity ) .Response Ø Immanuel Kant thought of worldly and not only did not think eternity . Thus all theories are built solely for the benefit of man , and he does not membuatuhka God . Ø Feedback on Ethics and Morals . In Kant's thoughts on ethics and morals we do not agre because all of his sight fixed on Man , and hanging himself. where is man who must be the basis determining morality itself. So if someone is good ANTHROPOLOGY lookin then he shall do so . Applicable so that the truth is no truth that is based on human thought that the individual . As for those who believe the truth becomes the foundation of ethics and morals the Word of God of the Bible . Christian ethics is everything willed by God and that's the good th is in the. We do not agree with the view of Kant as Man aims for yourself and good human actio action ime both to himself and to those another , hum should POLITIC ANTHROPOLOGY
  16. 16. POLITIC 1. Immanuel Kant’s role for ending wars and creating a lasting peace. They included a world of constitutional republics by establishment of political community 2. Created classical republican theory that extended in Doctrine of Right (1797). 3. At the end of the 20th century Kant's political philosophy had been producing a remarkable renaissance in English-speaking countries with more major studies in a few years than had appeared in the preceding many decades 4. The biggest invention of Kant in the philosophy of law and the political philosophy is the doctrine of Rechtsstaat. According to this doctrine, the power of the state is limited in order to protect citizens from the arbitrary exercise of authority.
  17. 17. 1. rejects by definition the opposition between moral education and the play of passions as alternate foundations for social life 2. He opposed "democracy," which at his time meant direct democracy, believing that majority 3. rule posed a threat to individual liberty. 4. he distinguished three forms of government i.e. democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy with mixed government as the most ideal form of it. back
  18. 18. 1. Give a statement man is anthropology 2. Kant said that the only purpose is man himself , and not simply a tool or means which may be arbitrary treated . 3. Kant said , the actor is people who construct his own world . Through a priori formal , raw data set of the human soul experiences ( sensory ) and then build the mathematical sciences and physics . Anthropology
  19. 19. Influence Historical influence • Kant's thinking was used in Britain to challenge the decline in religious faith in the nineteenth century. Religion • Arthur Schopenhauer was strongly influenced by Kant's transcendental idealism. Another philosopher • The Early German Romantics used Kant's self-reflexive conception of criticism in their Romantic theory of poetry. Romantic Theory of poetry
  20. 20. Influence on modern thinkers • Kant is considered to have foreshadowed many of the ideas that have come to form the democratic peace theory, one of the main controversies in political science. the form of democratic peace theory • Jurgen Habermas and John Rawls are two significant political and moral philosophers whose work is strongly influenced by Kant's moral philosophy. moral philosophy • Because of the thoroughness of the Kantian paradigm shift, his influence extends to thinkers who neither specifically refer to his work nor use his terminology. social, behavioral, and physical sciences
  21. 21. Kant statue in Belo Horizante, Brazil Statue of Immanuel Kant in Russia
  22. 22. Immanuel Kant's tomb West German postage stamp, 1974, commemorating the 250th anniversary of Kant's birth. silver coin commemorating the 250th birthday of Immanuel Kant in Konigsberg
  23. 23. Thank You . . .