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CON 123Cementitious MaterialsSession 7Slag Cement
Ground Granulated     Blast-Furnace Slag “Cement” (GGBFS)   Ground Granulated    blast-furnace slag is the    correct tec...
Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace         Slag “Cement”Finely Ground granulatedblast-furnace slagconsisting of primarilycalc...
ASTM 989                  Slag Cement   GGBFS – glassy granular material formed    when molten blast-furnace slag is rapi...
Grades of Slag - ASTM C 989                        Strength of 1:1 Slag: Cement MortarSlag Activity Index =               ...
Specifications and Grade of Ground Granulated            Iron Blast-Furnace Slags          ASTM C 989 (AASHTO M 302)   Gr...
Slag - Manufacture                  Iron Blast Furnace   Iron ore is layered with a mixture of limestone    and coal or c...
Slag - Manufacture                   Iron Blast FurnaceIron Ore                                Limestone/CoalFusion at1400...
Slag – Manufacture                   Hot Runner   Molten blast furnace slag is tapped from the    blast furnace, moved th...
Slag – Manufacture    Hot Runner
Slag - Manufacture                       Jet Process Granulator             Liquid Slag       Adjustable Deflector Plate  ...
Slag Products - Manufacture                Molten Slag is cooledAir-cooled                       AggregatePalletized      ...
Slag - Manufacture   Grinding Mills
SEM Micrograph of Slag Particles        Scanning electron microscope micrograph of        slag particles.    Scanning elec...
Slag - Characteristics   Cooled Rapidly - Glass   Fineness - 450 to 650 m2/kg   Specific gravity - 2.90   White to Buf...
Slag - Reactivity   Glass content   Fineness   Alkalis of reacting system   Concrete curing temperature
Slag - MechanismPortland Cement   Portland Cement + GGBF Slag                      Reduced Permeability                   ...
Slag - Typical DosageApplication                Dosage                          ( % by wt)Exterior flatwork            35%...
Slag – Typical Dosage              Application             Dosage (% by wt)Exterior Flatwork              35%General Use  ...
Slag - Mixture Proportioning   Typical - 35 to 50% wt. cementitious   w/c ratio w/(cement + slag) ratio   Water demand ...
Slag BenefitsWorkability    Finishability   Pumpability  Color         Durability      Strength
GGBF Slag Concrete     Workability                   22
GGBF Slag Concrete     Finishability
GGBF Slag Concrete     Pumpability
GGBF Slag Concrete       Color                 25
Slag - Applications   Compressive and Flexural strength   Permeability   Sulfate Resistance   Alkali Silica Reactivity...
GGBF Slag Concrete                                       Compressive Strength                            6000             ...
GGBF Slag Concrete                                        Flexural Strength                         900                   ...
GGBF Slag Concrete                                        Sulfate Resistance                           0.25               ...
GGBF Slag Concrete                                  Alkali-Aggregate Reactions                           0.40Expansion mor...
GGBF Slag Concrete                                   Heat in Mass Concrete                          80                    ...
GGBF Slag Concrete                                   Chloride Permeability                          7500                  ...
Slag Cement and the                   Environment   Recovered/ recycled material   Replaces Portland cement       Reduc...
LEED Credits   Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design    (LEED) is a system developed by the   United States Gree...
LEED Categories􀁺    Site credit for reduction of heat islands: Use of high-albedomaterials like concreteproduced with slag...
LEED Categories   Site credit for reduction of heat islands: Use of high-albedo    materials like concrete produced with ...
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CON 123 Session 7 - Slag Cement

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Transcript of "CON 123 Session 7 - Slag Cement"

  1. 1. CON 123Cementitious MaterialsSession 7Slag Cement
  2. 2. Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag “Cement” (GGBFS) Ground Granulated blast-furnace slag is the correct technical term for slag that is finely ground and is used as a separately batched cementitious materials. Slag is ground to the fineness of Portland cement or finer.
  3. 3. Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag “Cement”Finely Ground granulatedblast-furnace slagconsisting of primarilycalcium and aluminumsilicates, used as a partialreplacement for Portlandcement in concrete
  4. 4. ASTM 989 Slag Cement GGBFS – glassy granular material formed when molten blast-furnace slag is rapidly chilled as by immersion in water with or without compositional adjustments made while the blast-furnace is molten
  5. 5. Grades of Slag - ASTM C 989 Strength of 1:1 Slag: Cement MortarSlag Activity Index = Strength of Control Cement Mortar Grade 7-day Index 28-day Index 80 - 75 100 75 95 120 95 115 Requirements for average of 5 consecutive
  6. 6. Specifications and Grade of Ground Granulated Iron Blast-Furnace Slags ASTM C 989 (AASHTO M 302) Grade 80  Slag with a low activity index Grade 100  Slag with a moderate activity index Grade 120  Slag with a high activity index
  7. 7. Slag - Manufacture Iron Blast Furnace Iron ore is layered with a mixture of limestone and coal or coke. The coal is the fuel. The limestone is a flux that reduces fusion temperatures. The molten materials settle out at the bottom and slag floats on the top of the pig iron. It is tapped away
  8. 8. Slag - Manufacture Iron Blast FurnaceIron Ore Limestone/CoalFusion at1400 to 1600 C Slag Pig Iron
  9. 9. Slag – Manufacture Hot Runner Molten blast furnace slag is tapped from the blast furnace, moved through a hot runner on the blast-furnace work floor. Dropped in a “blow” box to a jet-process granulator. GGBF is glassy - with the right chemistry and morphology to form hydraulic cement when finely ground.
  10. 10. Slag – Manufacture Hot Runner
  11. 11. Slag - Manufacture Jet Process Granulator Liquid Slag Adjustable Deflector Plate Furnace RunnerVibrating Feed Plate Rotating Drum Granules Pellets
  12. 12. Slag Products - Manufacture Molten Slag is cooledAir-cooled AggregatePalletized Granules & PelletsJet Process Granulator Granules Granules are ground in a ball mill Fineness similar to cement
  13. 13. Slag - Manufacture Grinding Mills
  14. 14. SEM Micrograph of Slag Particles Scanning electron microscope micrograph of slag particles. Scanning electron microscope micrograph of slag particles.
  15. 15. Slag - Characteristics Cooled Rapidly - Glass Fineness - 450 to 650 m2/kg Specific gravity - 2.90 White to Buff color Hydration - activated by alkalis Forms cementitious silicates - C-S-H
  16. 16. Slag - Reactivity Glass content Fineness Alkalis of reacting system Concrete curing temperature
  17. 17. Slag - MechanismPortland Cement Portland Cement + GGBF Slag Reduced Permeability Increased Strength
  18. 18. Slag - Typical DosageApplication Dosage ( % by wt)Exterior flatwork 35%General use 35 to 50%Mass Concrete 60 to 80%Sulfate Resistance Type II equivalent 35% Type V equivalent 50%Marine/chemical/heat >50% < 80%
  19. 19. Slag – Typical Dosage Application Dosage (% by wt)Exterior Flatwork 35%General Use 35 to 50%Mass Concrete 60 to 80%Sulfate Resistance Type II Equivalent 35% Type V Equivalent 50%Marine/chemical/heat >50%, <80%
  20. 20. Slag - Mixture Proportioning Typical - 35 to 50% wt. cementitious w/c ratio w/(cement + slag) ratio Water demand - 1 to 5% lower Admixture dosage  Similar for air entraining admixtures  May be lower for others SG 2.90 - more abs. vol. than cement
  21. 21. Slag BenefitsWorkability Finishability Pumpability Color Durability Strength
  22. 22. GGBF Slag Concrete Workability 22
  23. 23. GGBF Slag Concrete Finishability
  24. 24. GGBF Slag Concrete Pumpability
  25. 25. GGBF Slag Concrete Color 25
  26. 26. Slag - Applications Compressive and Flexural strength Permeability Sulfate Resistance Alkali Silica Reactivity Mass concrete - more than 70% slag
  27. 27. GGBF Slag Concrete Compressive Strength 6000 Grade 120 SlagCompressive Strength, psi 5000 W/C+M ratio = 0.55 4000 3000 Portland Cement 2000 40% Slag 1000 50% Slag 65% Slag 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Age, days Ref: ACI 233R
  28. 28. GGBF Slag Concrete Flexural Strength 900 800 Grade 120 Slag W/C+M ratio = 0.55Flexural Strength, psi 700 600 500 400 Portland Cement 300 40% Slag 200 50% Slag 100 65% Slag 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Age, days
  29. 29. GGBF Slag Concrete Sulfate Resistance 0.25 Portland Cement (Type II)Expansion mortar bars, % 0.20 40% Slag 50% Slag 0.15 65% Slag 0.10 0.05 0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age, Weeks Ref: ACI 233R
  30. 30. GGBF Slag Concrete Alkali-Aggregate Reactions 0.40Expansion mortar bars, % 0.30 Portland Cement 40% Slag 0.20 50% Slag 65% Slag 0.10 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 Age, Months Ref: ACI 233R
  31. 31. GGBF Slag Concrete Heat in Mass Concrete 80 70Concrete Temperature, C 60 50 40 30 20 Portland Cement 10 70% Slag 0 1 10 100 1000 Age, Hours Ref: ACI 233R
  32. 32. GGBF Slag Concrete Chloride Permeability 7500 Water-Cement RatioCharge Passed, Coulombs 6000 0.70 4500 0.55 0.45 3000 1500 0 Portland cement 25% Slag 50% Slag
  33. 33. Slag Cement and the Environment Recovered/ recycled material Replaces Portland cement  Reduction of CO2  Reduction of Heat Reduced Material extraction Energy Saving Lighter Color
  34. 34. LEED Credits Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a system developed by the United States Green Building Council to rate a buildings environmental performance. This system has become the principal method by which buildings can achieve green building certification. The system is based on credits earned in five major categories. Slag cement can positively impact several credit categories
  35. 35. LEED Categories􀁺 Site credit for reduction of heat islands: Use of high-albedomaterials like concreteproduced with slag cement. 􀁺 Materials credit for building reuse: Slag cement makesconcrete structures moredurable. 􀁺 Materials credit for recycled content: Slag cement is arecycled material used inconcrete. 􀁺 Materials credit for use of local/regional materials: Slagcement can be considereda local material in many areas.For more information on the LEED system, visit www.usgbc.org
  36. 36. LEED Categories Site credit for reduction of heat islands: Use of high-albedo materials like concrete produced with slag cement. Materials credit for building reuse: Slag cement makes concrete structures more durable. Materials credit for recycled content: Slag cement is a recycled material used in concrete. Materials credit for use of local/regional materials: Slag cement can be considered a local material in many areas. For more information on the LEED system, visit www.usgbc.org.

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