CON 123 - Session 4 - Hydraulic Cement Specifications


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CON 123 - Session 4 - Hydraulic Cement Specifications

  1. 1. CON 123Cementitious MaterialsSession 4Hydraulic Cement Specifications
  2. 2. Freshly ground cement 2
  3. 3. Dry cement in a bowl 3
  4. 4. Types of Portland Cement ASTM C 150 (AASHTO M 85)I NormalIA Normal, air-entrainingII Moderate sulfate resistanceIIA Moderate sulfate resistance, air-entrainingIII High early strengthIIIA High early strength, air-entrainingIV Low heat of hydrationV High sulfate resistance
  5. 5. Cement Types
  6. 6. Type II & Type V Sulfate Resistant Cements• Moderate sulfate resistant cements and high sulfate resistant cements improve the sulfate resistance of concrete elements, such as: – Slabs on ground – Pipes – Concrete posts exposed to high-sulfate soils.
  7. 7. Type II & Type VSulfate Resistant Cements
  8. 8. Moderate and Low Heat Cements Moderate heat and low heat cements minimize heat generation in massive elements or structures such as very thick bridge supports, and dams.
  9. 9. Moderate and Low Heat Cements Hoover dam, shown here, used a Type IV cement to control temperature rise.
  10. 10. Type III High Early Strength Cements High early strength cements are used where early concrete strength is needed, such as in cold weather concreting, fast track paving to minimize traffic congestion, and rapid form removal for precast concrete.
  11. 11. Type IIIHigh Early Strength Cements
  12. 12. Portland Cement Shipments by Type Type V White TYPE III 3% 0%Blended 4% 1% Types I & II 92%
  13. 13. Chemical Composition of Portland CementsPortland Chemical Composition, %Cement Type SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 Na2OeqI (mean) 20.5 5.4 2.6 63.9 2.1 3.0 0.61II (mean) 21.2 4.6 3.5 63.8 2.1 2.7 0.51III 20.6 4.9 2.8 63.4 2.2 3.5 0.56(mean)IV 22.2 4.6 5.0 62.5 1.9 2.2 0.36(mean)V 21.9 3.9 4.2 63.8 2.2 2.3 0.48(mean)White 22.7 4.1 0.3 66.7 0.9 2.7 0.18(mean)
  14. 14. Compound Composition and Fineness of Portland CementsPortland Chemical Composition, % BlaineCement fineness Type C3S C2S C3A C4AF M2/kgI (mean) 54 18 10 8 369II (mean) 55 19 6 11 377III (mean) 55 17 9 8 548IV (mean) 42 32 4 15 340V (mean) 54 22 4 13 373 White 63 18 10 1 482 (mean)
  15. 15. Blended Hydraulic Cement ASTM C 595General — a hydraulic cement consisting of two or more inorganic constituents, which contribute to the strength gaining properties of cement.
  16. 16. Blended Cements Blended cements (ASTM C 595, AASHTO M 240, and ASTM C 1157) use a combination of Portland cement or clinker and gypsum blended or interground with pozzolans, slag, or fly ash
  17. 17. Blended Cements Clinker Gypsum Portland cement Fly ash Slag Silica Fume Calcined Clay Limestone
  18. 18. ASTM C595 Blended Cements Interground or blended  IP, IS MS Moderate sulfate resistance HS High sulfate resistance MH Moderate heat LH Low heat
  19. 19. Hydraulic Blended Cements ASTM C 595 (AASHTO M 240) Type IS  PortlandBlast-Furnace Slag Cement  Up to 95% slag content Type IP  Portland-PozzolanCement  Up to 40% pozzolan
  20. 20. Type IP Blended Cement (ASTM C 595) IP → 40% pozzolan Durability (increased durability)  25-35% for ASR and sulfate resistance  25-40% for low heat of hydration Strength (higher long-term strength)  Reduced acceleration in summer Reduction in permeability
  21. 21. Type IS Blended Cements (ASTM C 595) IS → up to 95% slag Durability  40-50% for ASR and sulfate resistance  35-70% for low heat of hydration Strength  Similar in summer to Portland cement  Equivalent at 28 days  Increased long term strength Reduction in Permeability
  22. 22. New ASTM C595 Designations Type IS(X): Portland blast-furnace slag cement (up to 95 % slag) Type IP(X): Portland-pozzolan cement (up to 40 % pozzolan) Type IT(X)(Y): Ternary blend (discussed later) (X) represents targeted percentage of slag or pozzolan IP(15) = 15 % pozzolan IS(70) = 70 % slag
  23. 23. Special Properties Moderate sulfate resistance – (MS) High sulfate resistance – (HS) Moderate heat of hydration - (MH) Low heat of hydration – (LH) Examples  IP(25) (HS)  IS(50) (MS)
  24. 24. New in 2009 Ternary Blended Cements The new cement type in C595 is a TERNARY BLENDED CEMENT and is designated IT. The basic description of a ternary cement is that it contains 2 SCMs along with portland cement or clinker. In close reading of C595 this option existed previously for pozzolans, but the change makes it clear when a ternary cement is used and what its composition is.
  25. 25. New in 2009 Ternary Blended Cements The concept of the change is that all of the same chemical and physical limits apply for ternary blended cements as applied to Type IS and IP BINARY blended cements. If the SCM present in the highest amount is a slag, requirements of Type IS apply. If a pozzolan is present in larger amount, the requirements of Type IP apply. To provide information for customers as to exactly what the ternary cement composition is, both the amount and type of SCM is defined in the cement nomenclature.
  26. 26. New in 2009 Ternary Blended Cements (Summary) New Type IT 1 slag and 1 pozzolan or 2 pozzolans Same chemical and physical limits for ternary blended cements as for binary blended cements (IP or IS) with the same predominant SCM Amount and type of SCMs used in nomenclature
  27. 27. Ternary Blended Cements The naming convention is shown here: The cement is called a TYPE IT with the amounts and types of SCM identified in parentheses. Generically this Type IT(AX)(BY) where A and B are the types of SCMs and X and Y are their corresponding amounts, in percentage by mass.
  28. 28. Ternary Blended Cements Nomenclature  Format: Type IT(AX)(BY)  Where A and B are SCM types and X and Y are amounts  S=slag or P=pozzolan  Primary (highest content) SCM listed first  If X=Y requirements of Type IT(P>S) apply (Type IP) Example: Type IT(S25)(P15) contains 25% slag and 15% pozzolan
  29. 29. Ternary Blended Cements As noted earlier, the requirements for the ternary cement are identical to those for the binary cement (IP or IS) with the same SCM present in the highest amount. For example a Type IT(S25)(P15) has more slag cement and thus the requirements are the same as those of a Type IS(25). Optional requirements such as MS, HS, or LH can also be invoked.
  30. 30. Performance Hydraulic Cements ASTM C 1157 First performance specification for hydraulic cements Cements meet physical performance test requirements rather than prescriptive restrictions on ingredients or cement chemistry as in other cement specifications.
  31. 31. ASTM C1157Type GU General UseType HE High early strengthType MS Moderate sulfate resistanceType HS High sulfate resistanceType MH Moderate heat of hydrationType LH Low heat of hydration
  32. 32. Applications for Commonly Used Cements Check the local availability of specific cements as all cements are not available everywhere.
  33. 33. Applications for Commonly Used Cements Resistance Moderate Moderate to Alkali-Cement General High early Low heat of High sulfate heat of Sulfate silicaSpecifications Purpose strength hydration resistance hydration resistance reactivity (ASR)ASTM C 150 II(AASHTO M (moderate Low alkali85) I III IV II V heat optionPortland option)CementsASTM C 595 IS(MS) IS(MH)(AASHTO M IS IP(MS) IP(MH)240) IP P(MS) Low I(PM)Blended I(PM) P(LH) I(PM) reactivity (MH)hydraulic I(SM) (MS) option I(SM)cements S, P I(SM) (MH) (MS)ASTM C 1157Hydraulic GU MH HE LH MS HS Option Rcements
  34. 34. Specialty Cements Expansive Regulated Set Rapid Hardening Hydraulic Cement White cement Masonry cement
  35. 35. Applications for Special CementsSpecial Cements Type ApplicationWhite Portland cements, I, II, III, V White or colored concrete,ASTM C 150 masonry, mortar, grout, plaster, and stuccoWhite masonry cements M, S, N White mortar betweenASTM C 91 masonry unitsMasonry cements M, S, N Mortar between masonryASTM C 91 units, plaster, and stuccoMortar cements M, S, N Mortar between masonryASTM C 1329 unitsPlastic cements M, S Plaster and stuccoASTM C 1328
  36. 36. Applications for Special CementsSpecial Cements Type ApplicationExpansive Cements E-1(K), E-1(M), E-1(S) Shrinkage compensatingASTM C 845 concreteOil-well cements A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H Grouting wellsAPI-10Water-repellent Tile grout, paint, andCements stucco finish coatsRegulated-set Early strength and repairCements
  37. 37. Expansive Cements ASTM C 845 designates three types  Type E-1 K  Type E-1 M  Type E-1 S Type K is the most available Water curing is important Primarily used for industrial floors, has been used successfully for bridge decks
  38. 38. Masonry CementsType N — for Type O and Type N mortars and with portland cement for mortar Types S and MType S — for Type S mortarType M — for Type M mortar
  39. 39. Stucco using Masonry or Plastic Cements
  40. 40. Stucco using Masonry or Plastic Cements Masonry cement and plastic cement are used to make plaster or stucco for commercial, institutional, and residential buildings.
  41. 41. White Cement Negligible amounts of iron and magnesium Manufactured to ASTM C 150 requirements  Type I  Type III Used in white or colored concrete  Barriers and parapets  Noise walls  White roofs
  42. 42. White Concrete Barriers Photos on the next slide represent white concrete barriers used on the Capital Beltway located in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. They were roughly constructed in 1997. As you can see, these barriers are highly visible, increasing safety for all drivers at time of day.
  43. 43. White Concrete BarriersCapital Beltway, PA 581 “The SAFEWAY” Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
  44. 44. Hydraulic Cement SpecificationsPlease return to Blackboard and watch thefollowing video: Video 1: Types of Portland Cement