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CON 123 - Session 2 - Raw Materials and Grinding

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  • 1. CON 123Cementitious MaterialsSession 2Raw Materials & Manufacturing
  • 2. Rotary kiln (furnace) for manufacturing Portland cement clinker.Inset view inside the kiln.
  • 3. Raw Materials and Grinding Raw materials preparation Kiln systems Fuels  Natural gas  Coal  Coke  Syn-fuels
  • 4. Primary Components of Raw MaterialsNecessary for Portland Clinker ProductionMaterials used in the manufacture of Portlandcement must contain appropriate proportions: Calcium Silica Alumina Iron
  • 5. Sources of Raw Materials Used in Manufacture of Portland CementCalcium Iron Silica Alumina Sulfate· Aragonite · Blast-furnace · Calcium · Aluminum-ore · Anhydrite· Calcite flue dust silicate refuse · Calcium· Cement-kiln · Clay · Cement rock · Bauxite sulfatedust · Iron ore · Clay · Cement rock · Gypsum· Cement rock · Mill scale · Fly ash · Clay· Chalk · Ore washings · Limestone · Copper slag· Clay · Pyrite cinders · Marl · Fly ash· Limestone · Shale · Ore washings · Limestone· Marble · Quartzite · Ore washings· Marl · Rice-hull ash · Shale· Shale · Sand · Slag· Slag · Sandstone · Shale · Slag
  • 6. QuarryLimestone, a primary raw material providing calcium in making cement,is quarried near the cement plant. 25,50, 0r 100 ton trucks.
  • 7. QuarryQuarry face may varydepending on limestonedeposit.10ft-40ft quarry face.
  • 8. Steps in the Traditional Manufacture of Hydraulic Portland Clinker1. Stone is first reduced to 125 mm (5 in.) size, then to 20 mm (3/4 in.),and stored.
  • 9. Crusher located at quarry pit
  • 10. Automatic measurement of chemical composition
  • 11. Raw material storage
  • 12. 2. Raw materials are ground to powder and blended.or2. Raw materials are ground, mixed with water to form slurry, and blended.
  • 13. Raw Mill grinding
  • 14. Raw Mix Chemistry Bogue Potential CompoundsTricalcium silicate C3SDicalcium silicate C2STricalcium aluminates C3ATetracalcium Aluminoferrite C4AF
  • 15. Bogue Equations(C3S) = (4.071*%CaO) - (7.600*%SiO2) - (6.718*%Al2O3)- (1.430*%Fe2O3)(C2S) = (2.867*%SiO2) - 0.7455*%C3S)(C3A) = (2.650*%Al2O3) - (1.692*%Fe2O3)(C4AF) = (3.043*%Fe2O3)
  • 16. Moduli for Burning Lime Saturation (LSF)  Ca/(2.85Si + 1.18Al +0.65Fe) Silica Ratio (S/R)  Si/(Al +Fe) Alumina Ratio (A/F)  Al/Fe
  • 17. Pyro-Processing Systems Wet Process Dry Process Dry Pre-heater Dry Precalciner
  • 18. Steps in the traditional manufacture of Portland cement (continued)3. Burning changes raw mix chemically into cement clinker.
  • 19. Slurry tank storage
  • 20. Slurry tank storage
  • 21. Clinker Cooler. Cools clinker from discharge of 2700 degrees F to 200 degrees F.
  • 22. 2. Raw materials are ground, to powder and blended.Steps in the modern dry-processmanufacture of Portland cement.
  • 23. Dry raw mix typically labeled Dry KilnFeed
  • 24. Steps in the modern dry-process manufacture of Portland cement (Continued)3. Burning changes raw mix chemically into clinker. Note four stage preheater, flash furnaces, and shorter kiln.
  • 25. Combustion  Limestone + Heat = CaO + CO2 (0.50 tons)  Fuel Contribution = CO2 (0.50 tons)  Total CO2 Contribution of 1 ton per clinker tonContribution of CO2 emissions duringPortland clinker production.
  • 26. Clinker & Gypsum Clinker GypsumPortland cement clinker is formed by burning calcium and siliceous rawmaterials in a kiln. This particular clinker is about 20 mm (3¼ - 4 in.) indiameter.Gypsum, a source of sulfate, is interground with Portland clinker to formPortland cement. It helps control setting, drying shrinkage properties, andstrength development.
  • 27. Steps in the modern dry-process manufacture of Portland cement (Continued)4. Clinker with gypsum is ground into portland cement and shipped
  • 28. Finish mill grinding
  • 29. Storage of Cement Right click to play
  • 30. Delivery of Cement Right click to play
  • 31. Hydraulic Portland CementBy definition:“a hydraulic cement produced by pulverizingclinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calciumsilicates, usually containing one or more of theforms of calcium sulfate as an intergroundaddition, and up to 5% limestone.”
  • 32. Raw Materials and GrindingPlease return to Blackboard and watch thefollowing video: Video 1: Storage

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