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CON 123 - Session 1 - Introduction
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CON 123 - Session 1 - Introduction


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  • 1. CON 123Cementitious MaterialsSession 1Introduction to Cementitious Materials
  • 2. Introduction to Cementitious MaterialsTypical uses for normal orgeneral use cementsinclude (left to right)highway pavements,floors, bridges, andbuildings.
  • 3. Introduction to Cementitious MaterialsTypical uses for normal orgeneral use cementsinclude (left to right)highway pavements,floors, bridges, andbuildings.
  • 4. Cementitious MaterialDefinition: Any material which has cementingproperties or contributing to the formation ofhydrated calcium silicate compounds.
  • 5. Cementitious Materials Hydraulic Portland Cement Blended Hydraulic Cement Performance Cement Slag Cement Fly Ash Silica Fume
  • 6. Aerial view of a cement plant.
  • 7. Basic Ingredients• Calcium Oxide - CaO• Silica - SiO2• Alumina - Al2O3• Iron Oxide - Fe2O3
  • 8. Rotary kiln (furnace) for manufacturing Portland cement clinker.Inset view inside the kiln.
  • 9. Clinker & Gypsum Clinker GypsumPortland cement clinker is formed by burning calcium and siliceous rawmaterials in a kiln. This particular clinker is about 20 mm (3¼ - 4 in.) indiameter.Gypsum, a source of sulfate, is interground with Portland clinker to formPortland cement. It helps control setting, drying shrinkage properties, andstrength development.
  • 10. Hydraulic Portland Cement A cement that sets and hardens by chemical interaction with water and capable of doing so underwater A cement that contains only hydraulic Portland clinker, 5% limestone and gypsum A cement that has prescriptive requirements
  • 11. Blended Hydraulic Cement A cement that consists of two or more inorganic constituents, one which is not a Portland cement clinker or a cement Ingredients are proportioned and prescribed with some performance attributes
  • 12. Performance Cement A Blended Hydraulic Cement A Cement that consists of two or more inorganic constituents A cement that performance criteria alone governs the product constituents
  • 13. Portland Cement Shipments by Type Type V White TYPE III3% 0% Blended 3% 1% Types I & II 93%
  • 14. Slag - Manufacture Iron Blast FurnaceIron Ore Limestone/CoalFusion at1400 to 1600 C Slag Pig Iron
  • 15. Slag - Manufacture Molten blast furnace slag is tapped from the blast furnace, moved through a hot runner on the blast-furnace work floor. Dropped in a “blow” box to a jet-process granulator. GGBF is glassy - with the right chemistry and morphology to form hydraulic cement when finely ground.
  • 16. Slag - Manufacture Hot Runner
  • 17. Slag Cement Slag Cement, also known as ground granulated blast furnace slag, Ggbfs Slag Cement is a ground glassy granulated material formed when molten blast-furnace slag is rapidly chilled as by immersion in water
  • 18. What is Fly Ash?• Finely divided material that is removed from the exhaust gas of a high temperature combustion process of coal burning power plants.
  • 19. Source of Coal Fly Ash• Coal Source and Ash Composition• Stack Gases Contain Liquefied Minerals• Cooling of Gases form Spherical Particles• Electrostatic or Bag-House Precipitators
  • 20. Silica Production & Silica FumeSilica fume is a byproductof producing silicon metalor ferrosilicon alloys in anelectric-arc furnace.The raw materials goinginto the furnace, theelectric-arc furnace (2000C), and the smokecollection system areshown.
  • 21. Silica Production & Silica Fume
  • 22. What is Silica Fume? Very fine non-crystalline silica produced in electric arc furnaces as a byproduct of the production of elemental silicon ….. -- ACI 116R
  • 23. What is Silica Fume?• Cement grains (left) and silica fume particles (right) at the same magnification.• The longer white bar in the silica fume side is 1 µm long.• ACI 234R-96, Guide to the Use of Silica Fume in Concrete.
  • 24. Historical Prospective Ancient Egyptians used calcined gypsum Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone Romans combine volcanic ash and lime (Pozzuoli, near Vesuvius)
  • 25. Roman Structures Coliseum in Rome Pantheon in Rome
  • 26. Beginning of the Industry • John Smeaton, Commissioned in 1759 to rebuild Eddystone Lighthouse • Mixing of Pozzolana with limestoneIsle of Portland quarry stone (after which Portland cement was named)next to a cylinder of modern concrete.
  • 27. Natural Cement Stronger than a hydraulic lime Manufactured in Rosendale, New York (1800’s) Used to build Erie Canal, 1818
  • 28. Hydraulic Cement Joseph Aspdin, patented “Portland Cement”, 1824 Portland cement, resemblance to color of natural limestone Limestone quarried: Isle of Portland off English Channel
  • 29. Portland Cement Exports to North America, 1865 Shipments to United States, 1868 First Portland Cement produced in US, Coplay, Pennsylvania 1871
  • 30. IntroductionPlease return to Blackboard and watch thefollowing video: Video 1: Chemical Compounds in Portland Cement