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CON 121 Session 3 - Standards and Evaluation
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CON 121 Session 3 - Standards and Evaluation

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  • 1. CON 121Concrete AggregateSession 3Fine and Coarse Concrete AggregatesStandards and Evaluation
  • 2. Range of Particle SizesRange of particle sizes found in aggregate for use in concrete
  • 3. Grading of AggregateGrading is the particle-size distribution of an aggregateas determined by a sieve analysis using wire meshsieves with square openings.ASTM C 33:Fine aggregate―7 standard sieves with openings from 0.15 mm to 9.5 mm (No. 100 to 3/8 in.)Coarse aggregate―13 sieves with openings from 1.18 mm to 100 mm (0.046 in. to 4 in.)
  • 4. Fine-Aggregate Grading Limits Sieve size Percent passing by mass 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) 100 4.75 mm (No. 4) 95 to 100 2.36 mm (No. 8) 80 to 100 1.18 mm (No. 16) 50 to 850.60mm (No. 30) 25 to 600.30mm (No. 50) 5 to 30 AASHTO 10 to 300.15mm (No. 100) 0 to 10 AASHTO 2 to 10 4
  • 5. Fineness Modulus (FM)The FM is an index of the fineness of the aggregate. The higher the FM the coarser the aggregate The FM of any shipment made during the progress of the work should not vary more than 0.20 from the initially approved value. Different aggregate grading may have the same FM
  • 6. Fineness Modulus (FM) Obtained by adding the sum of the cumulative percentages by mass of a sample aggregate retained on each of a specified series of sieves and dividing the sum by 100. The specified sieves are: 0.15 mm (No. 100), 0.30 mm (No. 50), 0.60 mm (No. 30), 1.18 mm (No. 16), 2.36 mm (No. 8), 4.75 mm (No. 4), 9.5 mm (3/8 in.), 19.0 mm (3/4 in.), 37.5 mm (1½ in.), 75 mm (3 in.), and 150 mm (6 in.).
  • 7. Sieve Analysis and Sand FM Cumulative % of individual percentage fraction retained, % passing, retained, by Sieve size by mass by mass mass9.5 mm (3/8 in.) 0 100 04.75 mm (No. 4) 2 98 22.36 mm (No. 8) 13 85 151.18 mm (No. 16) 20 65 350.60mm (No. 30) 20 45 550.30mm (No. 50) 24 21 790.15mm (No. 100) 18 3 97 Pan 3 0 —Total 100 283 7 Fineness modulus = 283 100 = 2.83
  • 8. Normal-Weight Aggregate ASTM C 33Most common aggregates Sand Gravel Crushed stone Produce normal-weight concrete 2200 to 2400 kg/m3 (140 to 150 lb/ft3)
  • 9. Lightweight Aggregate ASTM C 330 Expanded  Shale  Clay  Slate  Slag Lightweight aggregate. Expanded clay (left) and expanded shale (right). Produce structural lightweight concrete 1350 to 1850 kg/m3 (90 to 120 lb/ft3)
  • 10. Lightweight Aggregate Pumice Produce lightweight insulating Scoria concrete— 250 to 1450 kg/m3 (15 to 90 lb/ft3) Perlite Vermiculite Diatomite
  • 11. Heavyweight Aggregate ASTM C 637, C 638 (Radiation Shielding) Barite Limonite Produce high-density concrete up Magnetite to 6400 kg/m3 (400 lb/ft3) Ilmenite Hematite Iron Steel punchings or shot 11
  • 12. Coarse Aggregate Grading Size No. 57 : 1in. To No.4 % passing by Sieve size mass 37.5 mm 1½ in 100 25.0 mm 1 in. 95 to 100 12.5 mm ½ in. 25 to 60 4.75 mm No. 4 0 to 10 2.36 mm No. 8 0 to 5
  • 13. Grading Limits Curves indicate the limits specified in ASTM C 33 for fine aggregate and for one commonly used size number (grading size) of coarse aggregate.
  • 14. Maximum Size vs. Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate Maximum size ― is the smallest sieve that all of a particular aggregate must pass through. Nominal maximum size ― is the standard sieve opening immediately smaller than the smallest through which all of the aggregate must pass. The nominal maximum-size sieve may retain 5% to 15%
  • 15. Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate Size should not exceed ―  1/5 then narrowest dimension between sides of forms  3/4 clear spacing between rebars and between rebars and the form  1/3 depth of slabs
  • 16. Maximum Aggregate Size and Water Requirement Cement and water contents in relation to maximum size of aggregate for air- entrained and non-air- entrained concrete. Less cement and water are required in mixtures having large CA.
  • 17. Combined Aggregate Grading Optimum combined aggregate grading for concrete
  • 18. Reduction of Voids The level of liquid in the graduates, representing voids, is constant for equal absolute volumes of aggregates of uniform but different size. When different sizes are combined, the void-content decreases.
  • 19. Dispersion of Aggregates Illustration of the dispersion of aggregates in cohesive concrete mixtures
  • 20. MDOT Types of Approved Aggregates Natural Aggregates Slag Aggregates Manufactured Aggregates Natural Sands
  • 21. MDOT Coarse Grading Requirements Section 902
  • 22. MDOT Coarse Aggregate Physical Requirements Section 902
  • 23. MDOT Fine Aggregate Requirements Section 902
  • 24. Standards and EvaluationPlease return to Blackboard and watch the followingvideos: Video 1: Fine Aggregates Video 2: Grading Limits Video 3: Gap Graded Aggregate Video 4: Maximum Size of Aggregate Video 5: Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate Video 6: Reduction of Voids