Betekenisaspecten van representationelestrategieën in nieuwsdiscours<br />Eenlinguïstisch-pragmatischestudie van (inter)nationalekrantenberichtgeving over de Keniaanseverkiezingen<br />Roel Coesemans<br />Antwerp Center forPragmatics<br />Departement Taalkunde<br />Rodestraat 14, R 215<br />2000 Antwerpen<br />firstname.lastname@example.org<br />
Overzicht van de presentatie<br />Introductie onderzoeksproject<br />Theoretische inspiratie<br />Methodologisch kader<br />Case study<br />Voorstelling corpus<br />De vraag van vandaag<br />Analyse: meer methodologie<br />Analytische categorieën <br />Pragmatische discoursanalyse<br /> Discussie…<br />
1. Introductie onderzoeksproject<br />‘Intertekstualiteit en informatiestromen’<br />Ideologische aspecten van nieuwsverhalen.<br />Betekenisveranderingen bij hercontextualiseringen van dezelfde nieuwswaardige gebeurtenissen in verschillende (binnenlandse en buitenlandse) kranten.<br />Speciale aandacht voor:<br /><ul><li> Intertekstuele links én verschillen
journalistieke, discursieve strategieën </li></li></ul><li>1. Introductie onderzoeksproject<br />Algemene onderzoeksvragen:<br /><ul><li> Welke gevolgen heeft de beschrijving van gebeurtenissen, waarbij linguïstische en journalistieke keuzes worden gemaakt, voor de betekenissen van nieuwsverhalen?</li></ul> interpretatief kader wereldbeeld van de lezers<br /><ul><li>Welke betekenisveranderingen treden er op als een lokaal nieuwsitem wordt getransformeerd in buitenlands nieuws?
Waarom schrijven journalisten zoals ze schrijven?</li></li></ul><li>2. Theoretische inspiratie<br />=> Linguisticpragmaticnews(paper) discourseanalysis<br />Taal die gebruikt wordt <br />in krantenberichtgeving<br /> pragmatisch perspectief<br />Journalistiek taalgebruik (Verschueren 1991, 1999, 2008)<br />Context + intertext<br />
2. Theoretische inspiratie<br />1. Linguïstische pragmatiek<br />“ ‘Language use’ is viewed as a process of interactive meaning generation employing as its tool a set of production and interpretation choices from a variable and varying range of options, made in a negotiable manner, inter-adapting with communicative needs, and making full use of the reflexivity of the human mind” (Verschueren 2008: 14).<br />Taalgebruik = sociale (inter)actie<br /> betekenis niet vast, noch stabiel, maar dynamisch en interactief<br />
2. Theoretische inspiratie<br />2. Critical Discourse Analysis news media discourse <br />(bv. Fairclough 1995, maarvooralookPhilo 2007, Carvalho2008 en Van Leeuwen 2008)<br />Discours = hercontextualisering van sociale praktijk<br />“ As soon as there is representation of a social practice […], there is recontextualization, by which is meant the transformation of social practices into discourses about social practices” (Machin & Mayr 2008: 101).<br />
2. Theoretische inspiratie<br />Representatie<br />“Mass media observe the political system according to their own criteria of relevance and logic of representation, and thus they construct a specific reality by selecting certain topics, representing political actors, making various conflicts visible, etc.” (Oberhuber et al. 2005: 229). <br />Elke representatie = selectieve constructie<br />“there is always a possible alternative representation which could bear in it a totally different meaning” (Fowler 1996: 4)<br />Representation: the non-neutrality of descriptions <br /> Linguistic-ideological process (cf. Fairclough 1995)<br />
5. Data: Facts and figures<br />Corpus: <br />Eerste 5 dagen ‘hard news’ krantenberichtgeving over de Keniaanse verkiezingen en de ontsporing in:<br /> (5) (4) (35)<br /> (5) (5) (40)<br />US UK Kenya<br />Totaal: 94 “hard news” reports <br />
6. De vraag van vandaag<br />Wat is de wisselwerking tussen de representatie van de sociale actoren in het discours en de omkadering van de beschreven gebeurtenissen?<br /><ul><li>Wie zijn de hoofdrolspelers van de nieuwsverhalen en hoe worden ze gepresenteerd in het krantendiscours?
Welke impliciete betekenissen worden uitgedrukt bij de representatie van de sociale actoren?</li></li></ul><li>6. De vraag van vandaag<br />Sociale actoren van het nieuwsdiscours<br />
8. Analytische categorieën<br />< Sociosemanticinventory (Van Leeuwen 2008)<br /><ul><li>Exclusion vs. inclusion: Are all actorsinvolved in the actionsdescribed present in the discourse?
Individualization vs. assimilation: reference to actors as individualsor as groups
Nomination vs. categorization: representation in terms of uniqueidentityor in terms of identities and functionssharedwithothers
Functionalization vs. identification: representationbymeans of role in society or inherent property</li></li></ul><li>8. Analytische categorieën<br />Presuppositie<br />= presumably shared background assumptions or anchoring points upon which new information is built (Meeuwis 1993, Sbisà 1999, Bekalu 2006)<br />= een soort of aspect van impliciete betekenis, inferenties over wat verondersteld wordt vanzelfsprekend of oncontroversieel te zijn.<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />RailaOdinga, one of Kenya’s most flamboyant politicians, a man who when he is not buzzing over the savannah in a helicopter is being chauffeured around in a red Hummer, who favors purple suits, whose son’s name is Fidel Castro (NYT22/12/07)<br />Mr. Kibaki, 76, is vintage old guard. He is from Kenya’s dominant tribe, the Kikuyu; he has been a member of Parliament since Kenya’s independence in 1963 (NYT22/12/07)<br />The President, a man not known for his sorties to meet the citizens, has been forced to take to the campaign trail to try to win a second term […]<br />MrOdinga, the son of JaramogiOgingaOdinga, the trade-unionist independence hero and first vice-president of Kenya, was educated in East Germany and called his first son Fidel. Like all Kenyan politicians he is a wealthy businessman and dropped the socialist rhetoric long ago. Nevertheless, as a Luo from the poor Lake Victoria region of Western Kenya, he appeals to marginalisedcommunities (TI 27/12/07)<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(1) the incumbent, MwaiKibaki, a man who has a reputation as a courtly gentleman and economics whiz but also as a tribal politician(NYT 28/12/07)<br />(2) But he failed to make good on his promises to stop corruption and was accused of favoring the Kikuyu elite, the tribe that has dominated business and politics in Kenya since independence. Mr. Kibaki, 76, is a Kikuyu.(NYT 29/12/07)<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(3) Furious voters take their revenge on MwaiKibaki (TI 29/12/07)<br />(4) the opposition challenger RailaOdinga threatened to complete the rout by unseating President MwaiKibaki (IN 29/12/07)<br />(5) presidential candidate RailaOdinga had last evening opened a 900,000 votes lead over President Kibaki as counting of presidential ballots entered the second day. […] President Kibaki was leading in Central and Eastern while the two were sharing the votes in Nairobi.(DN 29/12/07)<br />(6) President Kibaki, who is defending his seat on a PNU ticket, arrived in his Othaya Constituency in Nyeri in the afternoon (DN 27/12/07)<br />(7) President Kibaki, seeking re-election on a PNU ticket (ST 27/12/07)<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(8) MrOdinga, the son of JaramogiOgingaOdinga, the trade-unionist independence hero and first vice-president of Kenya, was educated in East Germany and called his first son Fidel. (TI 27/12/07)<br />(9) RailaOdinga, a rich, flamboyant businessman who rides around in a bright red $100,000 Hummer and is running as a champion of the poor (NYT 28/12/07)<br />(10) Odinga, 62, a populist known as “the Warrior” […] among his own ethnic group, the Luo, there has been a sense of destiny surrounding Odinga, a former political prisoner widely viewed as a champion of multiparty democracy whose father was a key figure in Kenya's independence movement. (WP28/12/07)<br />(11) When vote counting began last week, the leader of the opposition, RailaOdinga, shot into a strong lead. (IN 31/12/07) <br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(12) The Orange Democratic Movement presidential candidateRailaOdinga spent most of yesterday in Lang'ata. (DN 27/12/07)<br />(13) Presidential candidate RailaOdinga was one of those who stormed a city hotel yesterday on allegations that some individuals were buying voter's cards. (DN 27/12/07)<br />(14) ODM presidential candidate and former local MP, MrRailaOdinga’s name was among thousands missing from the polling register(ST 28/12/07)<br />(15) Raila opens gap againstKibaki in State House race<br />ODM flagbearergets 3.3m votesagainstPresident’s 2.4m with half of votescounted(DN 29/12/07)<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(16) On Saturday, the first signs of a tribal war flared up in Nairobi, with Luo gangs sweeping into a shantytown called Mathare and stoning several Kikuyu residents. In Kibera, another huge slum, supporters of Mr. Odinga burnt down kiosks that they said belonged to Kikuyu businessmen. (NYT 30/12/07)<br />(17) Luos in some Kikuyu-dominated areas say they have been targeted with violence and told to leave. In areas where Kikuyus are not dominant, such as Eldoret, many Kikuyus say they are being driven out. (WP 02/01/08)<br />(18) Three people were shot as police dispersed rioting ODM supporters (ST 01/01/08)<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(19) The deaths were occasioned either in clashes between police and protesters, or by gangs of attackers who targeted members of some communities. (ST 01/01/08)<br />(20) Members of the public who fled their homes mill at Kipchamo Chief's Camp in UasinGishu District following attacks by youths evicting members of a certain community. (DN 31/12/07)<br />(21) Insecurity, voter bribery, electoral violence and gender discrimination have continued unabated with little or no action being taken. […] Majority of the political violence cases are centred in Rift Valley, Nyanza and Nairobi provinces. (ST 27/12/07)<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(22) MwaiKibaki, the incumbent President, was unexpectedly declared winner of an election marred by ethnic violence and allegations of fraud. (TI 31/12/07)<br />(23) 50 die in blazing church as spectre of tribal war looms (TI 02/01/08)<br />(24) Kenya edged closer to tribal warfare last night after more than 100 people at least 80 of them children burned to death […]. More than 200 people, mainly Kikuyus, the same tribe as President MwaiKibaki, were sheltering for safety in the Kenya Assemblies of God church five miles outside Eldoret in the Rift Valley. An armed gang of young men drawn from the Kalenjin, Luhya and Luo tribes ethnic groups which backed the beaten presidential candidate RailaOdinga stormed the church compound yesterday morning and set it alight.(IN 02/01/08)<br />
9. Analyse van krantenartikels<br />(25) At least 35 people, most of them women and children, died yesterday in Eldoret in the most bizarre killing yet in the ongoing post-election violence.<br />They were killed when more than 200 youths burnt down a church where residents of two villages in Eldoret South constituency had sought refuge. (DN 02/01/08)<br />(26) This came on a day the postelection violence that has rocked parts of the country took serious proportions when at least 30 children and 10 adults who had sought refuge in a church were burnt to death in acts of violence linked to protests against the President's re-election. (ST 02/01/08)<br />
10. Discussie…<br />Bedankt voor de aandacht!<br />Commentaar of feedback is meer dan welkom.<br />
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