 Article II, Section 1
 1. must be a natural born citizen
 2. at least 35 yrs old
 3. been a resident of the U.S. for ...
 Avg age is 55 yrs old at the time of
inauguration
 Youngest – JFK 43 yrs old at time of
inauguration
 Oldest – Reagan ...
 Table 12-1 pg 259
 Chief Executive
 The head of the executive branch
 Handle national emergencies (riots or natural d...
 Head of State
 Serves as the ceremonial head of a country’s govt
and represents that country to the rest of the
world
▪...
 Diplomat
 Person who represents one country in dealing w/
representatives of another country
 President handles this d...
 President has become a leader in creating
legislation
 19th C. – presidents let Congress lead the way
 Has to address ...
 De facto leader of his political party
 not mentioned in Constitution
 Implement the party’s platform
 President choo...
 Article II of the Constitution lists the
powers
 Granted enough powers to balanceCongress
 Broad but vaguely listed po...
 3. To grant reprieves and pardons, except in
cases of impeachment
 4. Deliver the annual State of the Union
address to ...
 7. To receive ambassadors and other
representatives from foreign countries
 8. To commission all officers of the United...
 Treaty
 Formal agreement b/w 2 or more nations
 President has the power to sign and
negotiate treaties
 Senate approv...
 Pardon
 A release from punishment or the legal
consequences of a crime
 Restores a person to full rights and privilege...
 Most controversial
 Ford pardoning Nixon afterWatergate before any
charges were brought to court
 Carter granted a par...
 Veto
 Latin word for “I forbid”
 Refusal by a president or state governor to sign a
bill into law
 2/3 vote of both c...
 Andrew Johnson only vetoed 21 bills
 FDR
 372 regular vetoes, 9 were overridden
 263 pocket vetoes
 G.W. Bush used his veto power sparingly
 First 6 yrs of presidency, vetoed 1 bill (expanding
stem cell research)
 Demo...
 Presidents have complained about “pork-
barrel” legislation
 Federal spending tacked onto bills in order to bring $$
to...
 Inherent Powers
 Powers that are necessary to carry out the specific
responsibilities of the president given by the
Con...
 Constitution uses general language, each
president interprets it differently
 Washington set precedents
 Removed offic...
 Lincoln (during Civil War)
 Suspended certain constitutional liberties
 Spent funds that Congress did not appropriated...
 President sends special messages to
Congress
 Call on Congress to enact laws that the president
thinks are necessary
 ...
 Persuading others plays a large role in
determining presidents success
 Richard Neustadt
 “Presidential power is the p...
 Going Public
 Using press conferences, public appearances, and
televised events to gain public support of certain
legis...
 FDR had some the greatest expansion of
presidential power
 Regulated the economy during the Great Depression
 Since th...
 Figure 12-1 p 268
 Success is defined as how often a president
got his legislation passed
 “Honeymoon Period”
 Succes...
 Inherent power to issue Executive Orders
 Presidential orders to carry out policies described
in laws that have been pa...
 Signing Statement
 Written statement issued by a president at the
time they sign a bill into law
 James Monroe was fir...
 Reagan issued 249 signing statements
 Most contained constitutional issues
 Published in the U.S. Code Congressional a...
 Only Congress can declare war, Senate
approves treaties
 Washington
 Ignored an alliance w/ France when war broke out
...
 Executive Agreements
 Pacts b/w a president and other heads of state
 Same legal status as a treaty
 Do not require S...
 Can involve trade or assistance to other
countries
 FDR
 Formed an agreement w/ Churchill in 1940
 U.S. would lend de...
 Congress passed a law in 1972 that requires
the president to inform Congress w/in 60
days of making any executive agreem...
 U.S. has been involved in more than 200
military activities
 Congress has only declared war 5 times
 FDR ordered the N...
 EnteredVietnam w/o a declaration of war
 1970, Nixon invadedCambodia
 Reagan invaded Lebanon and Grenada in
1983
 Ord...
 Congress members became angry at the
lengthy involvement inVietnam in 1970s
 War Powers Resolution of 1973
 Passed ove...
 Congress passed a joint resolution
 Authorized the president to use “all necessary and
appropriate force against those ...
 President has the power to decide whether
or not to use nuclear weapons
 Truman made the decision in 1945, also, picked...
 Congress has advantage in areas of legislative
authorization, regulation of foreign and
interstate commerce, and some bu...
 At least one chamber of Congress is
controlled by a separate party than the
White House
 Difficult to get things passed...
 Congressmen have a regional focus (state
or district)
 Legislative success of their own (bases that
remain operative, p...
 Different term limits and years per term
make the president and Congress have a
sense of urgency
 Try and get legislati...
 Dealing w/ natl crisis, setting foreign policy,
and in influencing public opinion
 President can make quick and decisiv...
 Public and Congress agree that the president
is allowed some secrecy in order to protect
natl security
 Executive Privi...
 Nixon invoked exec privilege when trying
to keep the tapes of conversations being
given to Congress
 Watergate Scandal
...
 Bush used it after Democrats started
investigating some of his actions
 Blocked people from testifying and stopped
Cong...
 Constitution doesn’t mention assistants or
advisers for the president
 “may require the Opinion, in writing, of the pri...
 14 cabinet members today
 Table 12-2 pg 273
 Additional members can be added
depending on the president
 Vice Preside...
 Use is up to the president
 Kitchen Cabinets
 Very informal group of persons to whom the
president turns for advice
 ...
 Appointed a large number of “czars”
 Each have responsibility for a certain policy area
 Critics feel that the czars u...
 The Executive Office of the President (EOP)
 Group of staff agencies that assist the president in
carrying out major du...
 EOP has changed over the years depending
on the president
 Table 12-3 pg 274
 All of the offices w/in the EOP are subj...
 White House Office
 Personal office of the president
 Personnel handle political needs and manage the
media
 Direct c...
 Press Secretary
 Meets w/ reporters and makes public statements
for the president
 Has a counsel that serves as theWhi...
 Investigates and analyzes problems that require
the presidents attention
 Gather info and advise the president
 Screen...
 Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
 Agency in the EOP that assists the president in
preparing and supervising the ad...
 Head of the OMB is appointed by the
president and confirmed by the Senate
 Gives the budget to Congress and is involved...
 The National Security Council (NSC) 1947
 Council that advises the president on domestic
and foreign matters concerning...
 President will pick someone to balance out
the ticket
 President from the South might choose someone
from theWest to be...
 Almost no responsibilities
 Still can become president (9VP’s have become
president b/c of death or resignation)
 One ...
 25th Amendment
 When the president believes he is incapable of
performing the duties of the office, he must inform
Cong...
 IfVP becomes vacant, president chooses
another
 2/3 of both chambers of Congress approve or deny
 Ford was picked asVP...
 President andVp both die, resign, or are
disabled; Speaker of the House takes
presidency
 Senate ProTempore is after Sp...
Ch12 presidentppt
Ch12 presidentppt
Ch12 presidentppt
Ch12 presidentppt
Ch12 presidentppt
Ch12 presidentppt
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Ch12 presidentppt

  1. 1.  Article II, Section 1  1. must be a natural born citizen  2. at least 35 yrs old  3. been a resident of the U.S. for at least 14 years  Most common job before becoming president has been the legal profession
  2. 2.  Avg age is 55 yrs old at the time of inauguration  Youngest – JFK 43 yrs old at time of inauguration  Oldest – Reagan 69 yrs old  Youngest to serve as president was Theodore Roosevelt (42 yrs old)  JFK was first Catholic to win presidency
  3. 3.  Table 12-1 pg 259  Chief Executive  The head of the executive branch  Handle national emergencies (riots or natural disasters)  Appoint/remove federal officials w/ approval from Senate  Commander in Chief  Commander in chief of the U.S. military  War powers divided b/w the president and Congress  Congress declares war  President can send troops wherever he wants
  4. 4.  Head of State  Serves as the ceremonial head of a country’s govt and represents that country to the rest of the world ▪ Throwing out first pitch at a baseball game, lighting the Christmas tree, giving out awards, dedicating parks, etc.  Some feel this leaves no time for “real work”
  5. 5.  Diplomat  Person who represents one country in dealing w/ representatives of another country  President handles this duty as Chief Diplomat  Constitution does not explicitly give him this power  Has power to recognize foreign govts, appoint ambassadors  Lead foreign policy
  6. 6.  President has become a leader in creating legislation  19th C. – presidents let Congress lead the way  Has to address Congress from “time to time”  State of the Union Address  Congress and the president have shared legislative powers
  7. 7.  De facto leader of his political party  not mentioned in Constitution  Implement the party’s platform  President chooses the chairperson for the party’s national committee  Appoint and remove people from positions  Practice patronage  Giving govt jobs to individuals belonging to the winning party  People who helped the president win  “Fund-raiser in chief”
  8. 8.  Article II of the Constitution lists the powers  Granted enough powers to balanceCongress  Broad but vaguely listed powers  1. Serve as commander in chief of the armed forces and the state militias  2. appoint, w/ Senate’s consent, the heads of exec depts, ambassadors, justices of the Supreme Court, and other top officials
  9. 9.  3. To grant reprieves and pardons, except in cases of impeachment  4. Deliver the annual State of the Union address to Congress and to send other messages to Congress from time to time  5. To call either house or both houses of Congress into special sessions  6. To make treaties w/ advice and consent of Senate
  10. 10.  7. To receive ambassadors and other representatives from foreign countries  8. To commission all officers of the United States  9. To ensure that the laws passed by Congress “be faithfully executed”
  11. 11.  Treaty  Formal agreement b/w 2 or more nations  President has the power to sign and negotiate treaties  Senate approves a treaty by a 2/3 vote of the members present  Senate did not approveTreaty ofVersailles afterWWI  Senate approved Carter giving back the PanamaCanal
  12. 12.  Pardon  A release from punishment or the legal consequences of a crime  Restores a person to full rights and privileges of citizenship  Check on judicial power  Can’t grant a pardon for someone who has been impeached
  13. 13.  Most controversial  Ford pardoning Nixon afterWatergate before any charges were brought to court  Carter granted a pardon for tens of thousands people that avoided the draft duringVietnam War  Clinton pardoned 140 people before he left office
  14. 14.  Veto  Latin word for “I forbid”  Refusal by a president or state governor to sign a bill into law  2/3 vote of both chambers of Congress can override a veto  President has 10 days to sign  Pocket veto
  15. 15.  Andrew Johnson only vetoed 21 bills  FDR  372 regular vetoes, 9 were overridden  263 pocket vetoes
  16. 16.  G.W. Bush used his veto power sparingly  First 6 yrs of presidency, vetoed 1 bill (expanding stem cell research)  Democrats took over Congress, vetoed 11 bills (4 overridden)  Obama has rarely vetoed bills in his first 2 yrs
  17. 17.  Presidents have complained about “pork- barrel” legislation  Federal spending tacked onto bills in order to bring $$ to a congressmen’s district ▪ Ex – expenditures for a sports stadium might be added to a bill about crime  President would have to veto entire bill to eliminate the pork  Line-Item veto  Veto one part of the bill, not whole thing  Clinton did it in 1996, Supreme Court said it was unconstitutional in 1998
  18. 18.  Inherent Powers  Powers that are necessary to carry out the specific responsibilities of the president given by the Constitution  Some rights given to the president have been implied  Constitution is very vague as to how to carry out the expressed powers in the Constitution
  19. 19.  Constitution uses general language, each president interprets it differently  Washington set precedents  Removed officials from office  Met regularly w/ members from each branch for political advice  Chief Legislator
  20. 20.  Lincoln (during Civil War)  Suspended certain constitutional liberties  Spent funds that Congress did not appropriated  Blockaded southern ports  Banned “treasonable correspondence” from the US mail  Did all this under the Commander in Chief power and constitutional responsibility to “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed”
  21. 21.  President sends special messages to Congress  Call on Congress to enact laws that the president thinks are necessary  Persuade Congress to support certain legislation  Send aids to lobby on Capitol Hill
  22. 22.  Persuading others plays a large role in determining presidents success  Richard Neustadt  “Presidential power is the power to persuade.”  President needs cooperation from others in order to get things done  Important b/c of our divided govt  President must overcome opposition of Congress if it belongs to the opposite party
  23. 23.  Going Public  Using press conferences, public appearances, and televised events to gain public support of certain legislation  Public can pressure their legislators to go along w/ the president  Support of the public plays a huge role in the legislative process  Public opinion of the president has been known to follow whether or not our economy is doing well
  24. 24.  FDR had some the greatest expansion of presidential power  Regulated the economy during the Great Depression  Since then, we expect the president to be involved in economic and social issues  Economic Report of the President  Budget suggestion from the president to Congress  State of the nation’s economy and ways to improve it
  25. 25.  Figure 12-1 p 268  Success is defined as how often a president got his legislation passed  “Honeymoon Period”  Success very high in the beginning of the term  Media looks at the first “100 days” to see how well a president is doing  Obama had the most successful first year in the last 50 years
  26. 26.  Inherent power to issue Executive Orders  Presidential orders to carry out policies described in laws that have been passed by Congress  Have the force of law  Examples ▪ RestructureWhite House bureaucracy, ration consumer goods and set wage and price controls during emergencies, regulate export of certain goods, etc.  Issued frequently, some presidents issue around 100 in a year
  27. 27.  Signing Statement  Written statement issued by a president at the time they sign a bill into law  James Monroe was first to write one  Praise the legislation, criticize the opposition, note constitutional problems, provide details on how the exec branch will interpret the law
  28. 28.  Reagan issued 249 signing statements  Most contained constitutional issues  Published in the U.S. Code Congressional and Administrative News  G.W. Bush’s 161 signing statements challenged 1100 clauses of federal law  Some felt this was a constitutional crisis  Thought he was trying to reinstate the line item veto  RejectedCongress’s authority to ban torture and affirmed that the president could open anyone’s mail
  29. 29.  Only Congress can declare war, Senate approves treaties  Washington  Ignored an alliance w/ France when war broke out b/w them and Great Britain  Wanted to remain neutral  Led the way for presidents to decide whether or not to engage in military action or not
  30. 30.  Executive Agreements  Pacts b/w a president and other heads of state  Same legal status as a treaty  Do not require Senate approval ▪ Congress can refuse to fund the executive agreement
  31. 31.  Can involve trade or assistance to other countries  FDR  Formed an agreement w/ Churchill in 1940  U.S. would lend destroyers to Britain to help protect that nation and its shipping duringWWII  U.S. was given permission to use military bases on British territories inWestern Hemisphere
  32. 32.  Congress passed a law in 1972 that requires the president to inform Congress w/in 60 days of making any executive agreement  Didn’t actually limit the # of executive agreements
  33. 33.  U.S. has been involved in more than 200 military activities  Congress has only declared war 5 times  FDR ordered the Navy to “shoot on sight” any German submarine that entered theW. Hemisphere security zone  Truman sent troops to Korea in 1950
  34. 34.  EnteredVietnam w/o a declaration of war  1970, Nixon invadedCambodia  Reagan invaded Lebanon and Grenada in 1983  Ordered fighter jets to attack Libya in 1986 in retaliation for terrorist attacks on U.S. soldiers
  35. 35.  Congress members became angry at the lengthy involvement inVietnam in 1970s  War Powers Resolution of 1973  Passed over Nixon’s veto  Requires the president to notify Congress w/in 48 hrs of deploying troops  Prevents the president from sending troops abroad for more than 60 days (90 days if more time is needed)  Congress must approve a longer time period, if not, troops must return home
  36. 36.  Congress passed a joint resolution  Authorized the president to use “all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001.”  2002 – joint resolution authorizing invasion of Iraq  Executive orders  Created military tribunals for trying terrorist suspects  Could holdAmerican citizens as “enemy combatants” denying them an attorney
  37. 37.  President has the power to decide whether or not to use nuclear weapons  Truman made the decision in 1945, also, picked the locations himself  President travels at all times w/ the “football”  Briefcase containing the codes used to launch a nuclear attack
  38. 38.  Congress has advantage in areas of legislative authorization, regulation of foreign and interstate commerce, and some budgetary matters  Congress passes legislation and appropriates $$  President can only veto a bill  Presidents pay attention to approval ratings of the public and meets w/ the press  Tries to gain leverage in Congress
  39. 39.  At least one chamber of Congress is controlled by a separate party than the White House  Difficult to get things passed  Clinton, after Republicans took over in 1995, had his success rate drop from 86.4% to 36.2%  Bush had same problem in 2007
  40. 40.  Congressmen have a regional focus (state or district)  Legislative success of their own (bases that remain operative, public-works programs that create jobs, trade rules that benefit a big employer)  President focuses on whole nation  Natl defense, homeland security, natl economy  Puts president at odds w/ own party members sometimes
  41. 41.  Different term limits and years per term make the president and Congress have a sense of urgency  Try and get legislation passed as fast as possible  First year of the presidents term
  42. 42.  Dealing w/ natl crisis, setting foreign policy, and in influencing public opinion  President can make quick and decisive decisions when a crisis happens  Some feel the president becomes too powerful during a crisis and others feel it is necessary
  43. 43.  Public and Congress agree that the president is allowed some secrecy in order to protect natl security  Executive Privilege  An inherent power  President can w/hold info from, or refuse to appear before, Congress or the courts  Also pass along the privilege to other exec members
  44. 44.  Nixon invoked exec privilege when trying to keep the tapes of conversations being given to Congress  Watergate Scandal  An illegal break in at the Democratic National Committees office in 1972 by Nixon’s reelection staff  Clinton used it to keep details of his sexual relations w/ Monica Lewinsky
  45. 45.  Bush used it after Democrats started investigating some of his actions  Blocked people from testifying and stopped Congress from seeing different documents dealing w/ firings of attorneys
  46. 46.  Constitution doesn’t mention assistants or advisers for the president  “may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments”  Cabinet  An advisory group selected by the president to assist w/ making decisions  Heads of the exec depts and other officers the president can appoint  Original 4 were secretaries of state, treasury, and war and the attorney general
  47. 47.  14 cabinet members today  Table 12-2 pg 273  Additional members can be added depending on the president  Vice President is usually a member  Clinton added 10 officials, Bush added 5  Obama added various members
  48. 48.  Use is up to the president  Kitchen Cabinets  Very informal group of persons to whom the president turns for advice  Cabinet members sometimes more worried about their own offices and own political ambitions  Trying to better their depts than helping the president
  49. 49.  Appointed a large number of “czars”  Each have responsibility for a certain policy area  Critics feel that the czars undercut the authority of cabinet members  Czars don’t have to be confirmed by Senate like the cabinet members do ▪ Congress loses leverage
  50. 50.  The Executive Office of the President (EOP)  Group of staff agencies that assist the president in carrying out major duties  FDR set it up during Great Depression to help w/ increasing responsibilities  Expanded more w/ growing govt and expanding economy and society
  51. 51.  EOP has changed over the years depending on the president  Table 12-3 pg 274  All of the offices w/in the EOP are subject to change  Add or get rid of certain offices
  52. 52.  White House Office  Personal office of the president  Personnel handle political needs and manage the media  Direct contact w/ the president  Chief of Staff is the head of theWhite House Office  Advises president on important matters and directs operations  Aid president w/ natl security, economy, or political affairs
  53. 53.  Press Secretary  Meets w/ reporters and makes public statements for the president  Has a counsel that serves as theWhite House lawyer and handles legal matters  White House Office has over 400 members
  54. 54.  Investigates and analyzes problems that require the presidents attention  Gather info and advise the president  Screen questions and issues in order to decide if someone other than the president can handle it  Handle public relations (media and press corps)  Staff ensures that the president’s initiatives reach the right people  some work directly with a congressmen
  55. 55.  Office of Management and Budget (OMB)  Agency in the EOP that assists the president in preparing and supervising the administration of the federal budget  Budget lists the revenues and the spending of the federal govt  President can influence the direction and policies of the govt w/ changes in the budget
  56. 56.  Head of the OMB is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate  Gives the budget to Congress and is involved in persuading Congress to pass it  Once approved, OMB enforces the budget  OMB also checks legislation to make sure the president’s position is represented
  57. 57.  The National Security Council (NSC) 1947  Council that advises the president on domestic and foreign matters concerning the safety and defense of the nation  President,VP, and the secretaries of state and defense are the members  President’s link to his foreign and military advisers  Special assistant for natl security heads the NSC
  58. 58.  President will pick someone to balance out the ticket  President from the South might choose someone from theWest to be theirVP ▪ Bush picked Cheney for his experience on the natl level ▪ McCain chose Palin to get female votes ▪ Obama chose Biden for his 35 yrs of experience in Congress
  59. 59.  Almost no responsibilities  Still can become president (9VP’s have become president b/c of death or resignation)  One of the most important advisers to the president  Carter relied heavily onVPWalter Mondale  Clinton relied on Gore  Cheney  Placed important party members throughout govt so Bush could have influence everywhere
  60. 60.  25th Amendment  When the president believes he is incapable of performing the duties of the office, he must inform Congress in writing  VP then serves as acting president until the president can resume his normal duties  If president can’t communicate then a majority of the cabinet and theVP tell Congress  No timeline of when the president will come back, 2/3 of both chambers of Congress vote to see ifVP stays in
  61. 61.  IfVP becomes vacant, president chooses another  2/3 of both chambers of Congress approve or deny  Ford was picked asVP afterAgnew resigned  Nixon then resigned, Ford became president and he chose Rockefeller as his VP  First time in U.S. history neither the president nor theVP were elected by the people
  62. 62.  President andVp both die, resign, or are disabled; Speaker of the House takes presidency  Senate ProTempore is after Speaker of the House  Succession table 12-2 pg 273
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