Chapter 2:        Design Basics         Design basics
Composition=Organization•  Working with composition helps us to   understand why certain photographs   create the impressi...
Contrast•  Contrast stresses the differences between   graphic elements•  The basis for composing an image is contrast   b...
many   one
flatcontrasty
delicate/harsh
soft/hard
More Contrast Examples
Strong/Weak
Diagonal/Circular
Large/Small
Large/Small
Still/Moving
Long/Short
Light/Dark
Sweet/Sour
Gestalt Perception•  A way of understanding perception•  The mind goes from recognizing the   individual parts of a photo ...
Gestalt and Kanisza Triangle•  Gestalt theory of closure•  Parts of a compositionSuggest a shape and thisPerceived shape h...
Gestalt
Gestalt Laws1.  Proximity-the mind groups things according    to how close they are together2.  Similarity-items of simila...
Gestalt Laws5.  Common Fate-grouped elements can    be read as one6.  Good Continuation-the mind continues    shape beyond...
Gestalt Principles1.  Emergence-negative space pops out2.  Reification-the mind fills in an area due to    inadequate info...
Balance•  In photography, the mind tries to   balance things based on the laws of the   physical world  –  Gravity, weight...
Static Balance/Symmetrical•  Everything is centered•  You can place your object in the very   center or place something on...
static balance
bilateral symmetry
William Eggleston
Dynamic Balance/          Asymmetrical•  Opposes forces of nature and creates a   more dynamic look•  A large object can b...
imbalance
dynamic balance
Dynamic Tension•  Using diagonals, rhythm…you can   create dynamic tension instead of   balance•  It keeps the eye moving ...
dynamic tension
dynamic tension
Figure and Ground•  As viewers, we assume, all subjects   have a setting or background. One   thing is important while the...
figure and ground
Rhythm•  Several similar elements or repeating   elements can create rhythm•  The viewer will continue the rhythm out   of...
rhythm
dynamic rhythm
Pattern, Texture, Many•  Like rhythm, pattern in built on repetition, but   it is not movement based. It is area based•  P...
many
regular pattern
irregular pattern
breaking pattern
Perspective•  The appearance of objects in space and   their relationship to each other and the   viewer.•  Photography us...
perspective
Linear Perspective•  This occurs when lines converge.•  In reality we know that parallel lines   never cross, but as they ...
linear perspective
Diminishing Perspective•  This is a form of linear perspective•  Objects get successively smaller as   they move a way fro...
diminishing perspective
Aerial Perspective•  Atmospheric haze reduces contrast as   the scene get further from the camera•  By not using filters y...
aerial perspective
lack of aerial perspective
Visual Weight•  Our eyes focus most on what in the   frame will give us the most information  –  Ex: eyes, mouth, hands, w...
visual weight
visual weight
visual weight
visual weight
visual weight
Looking and Interest•  Our eyes move from point of interest to   point of interest quickly until we have   the whole pictu...
intended order
Content, Weak and Strong•  Content is the subject matter..conctrete   or abstract•  Strong content calls for practical   c...
strong content
James Nachtwey
James Nachtwey
Mainly Form•  Photo taken with visuals as the focus
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements
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Photo Design_Chapter 2_Design Elements

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Design Basics Design basics
  2. 2. Composition=Organization•  Working with composition helps us to understand why certain photographs create the impressions they do•  Two most fundamental types of design are contrasts and balance
  3. 3. Contrast•  Contrast stresses the differences between graphic elements•  The basis for composing an image is contrast between tone, color, form, sensations…•  Johannes Itten created a theory of composition based on the idea of contrasts.
  4. 4. many one
  5. 5. flatcontrasty
  6. 6. delicate/harsh
  7. 7. soft/hard
  8. 8. More Contrast Examples
  9. 9. Strong/Weak
  10. 10. Diagonal/Circular
  11. 11. Large/Small
  12. 12. Large/Small
  13. 13. Still/Moving
  14. 14. Long/Short
  15. 15. Light/Dark
  16. 16. Sweet/Sour
  17. 17. Gestalt Perception•  A way of understanding perception•  The mind goes from recognizing the individual parts of a photo to understanding the whole scene•  When the viewer understands the image as a whole, it requires less effort for them to understand the picture
  18. 18. Gestalt and Kanisza Triangle•  Gestalt theory of closure•  Parts of a compositionSuggest a shape and thisPerceived shape helps toGive structure to the photo
  19. 19. Gestalt
  20. 20. Gestalt Laws1.  Proximity-the mind groups things according to how close they are together2.  Similarity-items of similar form or content are grouped together3.  Closure-elements arranged together are seen to complete a shape4.  Simplicity-the mind prefers simple visual explanations
  21. 21. Gestalt Laws5.  Common Fate-grouped elements can be read as one6.  Good Continuation-the mind continues shape beyond their end7.  Segregation-in order for an object to be seen, it must be distinguishable from the background
  22. 22. Gestalt Principles1.  Emergence-negative space pops out2.  Reification-the mind fills in an area due to inadequate information(like closure)3.  Multistability-inversion-you can t tell what is the subject and what is the background4.  Invariance-objects can be recognized despite orientation
  23. 23. Balance•  In photography, the mind tries to balance things based on the laws of the physical world –  Gravity, weight, levers…•  Balance is like a weighing scale, you try to even out the weight
  24. 24. Static Balance/Symmetrical•  Everything is centered•  You can place your object in the very center or place something on either side of the center
  25. 25. static balance
  26. 26. bilateral symmetry
  27. 27. William Eggleston
  28. 28. Dynamic Balance/ Asymmetrical•  Opposes forces of nature and creates a more dynamic look•  A large object can be balanced by a small one if it is far enough away from the center of the frame
  29. 29. imbalance
  30. 30. dynamic balance
  31. 31. Dynamic Tension•  Using diagonals, rhythm…you can create dynamic tension instead of balance•  It keeps the eye moving outward from the center of the image•  Leading Lines
  32. 32. dynamic tension
  33. 33. dynamic tension
  34. 34. Figure and Ground•  As viewers, we assume, all subjects have a setting or background. One thing is important while the other is secondary•  You can create an ambiguity as to what is figure and what is ground. This adds tension.•  Think about your negative space
  35. 35. figure and ground
  36. 36. Rhythm•  Several similar elements or repeating elements can create rhythm•  The viewer will continue the rhythm out of the frame•  Rhythm indicates a directionality
  37. 37. rhythm
  38. 38. dynamic rhythm
  39. 39. Pattern, Texture, Many•  Like rhythm, pattern in built on repetition, but it is not movement based. It is area based•  Pattern on a large scale takes on the look of texture. Texture is a surface quality.•  Many has more to do with content and the surprise of seeing so many of something at one time.
  40. 40. many
  41. 41. regular pattern
  42. 42. irregular pattern
  43. 43. breaking pattern
  44. 44. Perspective•  The appearance of objects in space and their relationship to each other and the viewer.•  Photography usually inherently shows perspective, so it s more a matter of the intensity of the impression of perspective
  45. 45. perspective
  46. 46. Linear Perspective•  This occurs when lines converge.•  In reality we know that parallel lines never cross, but as they get further from the camera they appear to move towards each other
  47. 47. linear perspective
  48. 48. Diminishing Perspective•  This is a form of linear perspective•  Objects get successively smaller as they move a way from the lens
  49. 49. diminishing perspective
  50. 50. Aerial Perspective•  Atmospheric haze reduces contrast as the scene get further from the camera•  By not using filters you can maximize atmosphere•  Telephoto lenses show more aerial perspective than wide angle because they show less of the nearby things that are not hazy
  51. 51. aerial perspective
  52. 52. lack of aerial perspective
  53. 53. Visual Weight•  Our eyes focus most on what in the frame will give us the most information –  Ex: eyes, mouth, hands, writing…•  Also, things that appeal to our emotions draw us –  Ex: cuteness, sexuality, horror…•  We tend to draw conclusions based on previous knowledge
  54. 54. visual weight
  55. 55. visual weight
  56. 56. visual weight
  57. 57. visual weight
  58. 58. visual weight
  59. 59. Looking and Interest•  Our eyes move from point of interest to point of interest quickly until we have the whole picture in our mind•  This can be mapped to show how we take in images•  We also look based on what we are looking for in the image
  60. 60. intended order
  61. 61. Content, Weak and Strong•  Content is the subject matter..conctrete or abstract•  Strong content calls for practical composition•  With weaker content you can play more with the composition
  62. 62. strong content
  63. 63. James Nachtwey
  64. 64. James Nachtwey
  65. 65. Mainly Form•  Photo taken with visuals as the focus
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