Composition=Organization• Working with composition helps us to understand why certain photographs create the impressions they do• Two most fundamental types of design are contrasts and balance
Contrast• Contrast stresses the differences between graphic elements• The basis for composing an image is contrast between tone, color, form, sensations…• Johannes Itten created a theory of composition based on the idea of contrasts.
Gestalt Perception• A way of understanding perception• The mind goes from recognizing the individual parts of a photo to understanding the whole scene• When the viewer understands the image as a whole, it requires less effort for them to understand the picture
Gestalt and Kanisza Triangle• Gestalt theory of closure• Parts of a compositionSuggest a shape and thisPerceived shape helps toGive structure to the photo
Gestalt Laws1. Proximity-the mind groups things according to how close they are together2. Similarity-items of similar form or content are grouped together3. Closure-elements arranged together are seen to complete a shape4. Simplicity-the mind prefers simple visual explanations
Gestalt Laws5. Common Fate-grouped elements can be read as one6. Good Continuation-the mind continues shape beyond their end7. Segregation-in order for an object to be seen, it must be distinguishable from the background
Gestalt Principles1. Emergence-negative space pops out2. Reification-the mind fills in an area due to inadequate information(like closure)3. Multistability-inversion-you can t tell what is the subject and what is the background4. Invariance-objects can be recognized despite orientation
Balance• In photography, the mind tries to balance things based on the laws of the physical world – Gravity, weight, levers…• Balance is like a weighing scale, you try to even out the weight
Static Balance/Symmetrical• Everything is centered• You can place your object in the very center or place something on either side of the center
Figure and Ground• As viewers, we assume, all subjects have a setting or background. One thing is important while the other is secondary• You can create an ambiguity as to what is figure and what is ground. This adds tension.• Think about your negative space
Pattern, Texture, Many• Like rhythm, pattern in built on repetition, but it is not movement based. It is area based• Pattern on a large scale takes on the look of texture. Texture is a surface quality.• Many has more to do with content and the surprise of seeing so many of something at one time.
Perspective• The appearance of objects in space and their relationship to each other and the viewer.• Photography usually inherently shows perspective, so it s more a matter of the intensity of the impression of perspective
Aerial Perspective• Atmospheric haze reduces contrast as the scene get further from the camera• By not using filters you can maximize atmosphere• Telephoto lenses show more aerial perspective than wide angle because they show less of the nearby things that are not hazy
Visual Weight• Our eyes focus most on what in the frame will give us the most information – Ex: eyes, mouth, hands, writing…• Also, things that appeal to our emotions draw us – Ex: cuteness, sexuality, horror…• We tend to draw conclusions based on previous knowledge
Looking and Interest• Our eyes move from point of interest to point of interest quickly until we have the whole picture in our mind• This can be mapped to show how we take in images• We also look based on what we are looking for in the image