Art Appreciation-Chapter15

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  • Scala/Ministero per i Beni e le Attività culturali/Art Resource, NY.
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Fletcher Fund, 1932 (32.11.1). Photograph: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  • Museo Acheologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Art Resource, NY.
  • Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy. Photograph: Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Vatican Museum, Vatican State, Rome. Photograph: Copyright Giraudon/Art Resource, NY.
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa Collection, Malibu, California.
  • Art Resource, NY.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Samuel H. Kress Collection. Photograph © 2001 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington. 1939.1.24.(135)/PA. Photo by Richard Carafelli.
  • Photograph: Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Museo dei Conservatori, Rome. Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Kenneth J. Conant, “Old St. Peter's Basilica, Rome.” Restoration study. Courtesy of the Frances Loeb Library, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University.
  • Photograph: Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Photograph: Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Photograph: Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Photograph: Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Photograph © 2001 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Andrew W. Mellon Collection. 1937.1.1.(1)/PA.
  • Kulakovsky Barrow No. 2; Crimea. The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.
  • Photograph: © The British Museum.
  • The Board of Trinity College Library, Dublin, Ireland.
  • Photograph: Gianni Dagli Orti/Picture Desk, Inc./Kobal Collection.
  • © John Elk, III.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Art Appreciation-Chapter15

    1. 1. The Classic and Medieval West Chapter 15
    2. 2. Greece <ul><li>Greek culture regarded humans as the highest creation in nature </li></ul><ul><li>They subscribed to a religion multiple deities </li></ul><ul><li>They invented democracy </li></ul><ul><li>They had sophisticated philosophers (Plato…) </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the artist was to create naturalistic yet ideal human figure </li></ul>
    3. 3. Greece <ul><li>Stages in Greek history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaic period-influenced by Egypt and and the Near East </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Euphronios Krater . c. 515 B.C.E. Height 18&quot;, diameter 21-3/4&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    5. 5. Euphronios Krater <ul><li>In the Archaic “red-figure” style </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts a scene from Homer’s Odyssey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Trojan warrior Sarpedon in carried off to eternity by the gods of sleep and death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Euphronios is the artist that created the piece </li></ul><ul><li>Krater refers to the handled shape of the vessel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally used for ceremonial beverages </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Kouros . Statue of standing youth. Greek, Attic. c. 580 B.C.E. Height 76&quot; (193 cm). Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    7. 7. Kouros <ul><li>Kouros is Greek for male youth </li></ul><ul><li>Kore is Greek for female youth </li></ul><ul><li>The archaic style is influenced by Egyptian art </li></ul><ul><li>The figure stands is a rigid position with arms by his sides and his left leg forward </li></ul><ul><li>This sculpture does differ from Egyptian art in it freestanding/in the round aspect as well as the fact that it does not represent a godlike ruler </li></ul>
    8. 8. Greece <ul><li>Stages in Greek History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>480-323 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classical art emphasizes simplicity, order, and restrained emotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An interest in anatomy leads to more naturalistic artwork with more relaxed poses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ideal human form was a major subject of Greek art in this period </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Polykleitos of Argos. Spear Bearer ( Doryphoros ). Roman copy of Greek original. c. 440 B.C.E. Height 6'6&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    10. 10. Spear Bearer <ul><li>The artist, Polykleitos, wrote about the perfect proportions of the human form and created this sculpture as an example </li></ul><ul><li>By studying various models and working with the idea that the body is a set of harmonious ration, he created a mathematical guide for creating the perfect human body </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts an athlete who originally held a spear </li></ul><ul><li>It does not depict a particular individual, but rather an ideal human </li></ul><ul><li>He bears most of his weight on one leg, known as contraposto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraposto means counterpoised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It gives a lifelike quality to the figure </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Ictinus and Callicrates. Parthenon . Acropolis, Athens. View from the northwest. 448–432 B.C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    12. 12. Ictinus and Callicrates. Parthenon . Acropolis, Athens. View from the southwest. 448–432 B.C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    13. 13. The Parthenon <ul><li>The largest of several buildings on the Acropolis </li></ul><ul><li>Was designed and built as a gift to Athena </li></ul><ul><li>Ictinus and Callicrates built the parthenon based on the Egyptian tradition of temple design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post and beam construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The axis of the building was carefully calculated so that on Athena’s birthday the rising sun would shine through the east doorway </li></ul><ul><li>The proportions of the structure are based on harmonious ratios </li></ul><ul><li>None of the major lines in the structure are perfectly straight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entasis, a very slight bulge, makes columns appear straighter </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Ictinus and Callicrates. The Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs . Metope from the Parthenon. c. 440 B.C.E. Height 67-3/4&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    15. 15. The Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs <ul><li>Surrounding the Pathenon, above the colonnade, are evenly spaced metopes </li></ul><ul><li>Metope-square panel </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts that war between the reasonable Lapiths and the warlike Centaurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents Greek triumph, especially the triumph over the Persians </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Venus de Medici ( Medici Venus ). 3rd Century B.C.E. Height 5'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    17. 17. Venus de Medici <ul><li>During the latter part of the classical period, Greek sculpture took a turn away from serious idealism and turned to a more sensuous vision </li></ul><ul><li>Venus de Medici is a roman copy of the 4th century Greek original by Praxiteles </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the ideal female form </li></ul>
    18. 18. Greece <ul><li>Stages in Greek history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hellenistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the 4th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coincided with the decline of Greek culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artwork was often created for non-Greek patrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hellenistic means Greek-like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art became less idealized and more dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More expressive and uses exaggerated movement </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. The Laocoön Group . Roman copy of a 1st- or 2nd-century B.C.E. Greek original, perhaps after Agesander, Athenodorus, and Polydorus of Rhodes. c. 1st Century C.E. Height 95-1/4&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    20. 20. Laocoon <ul><li>Roman copy of a Hellenistic work </li></ul><ul><li>Laocoon was a priest that warned against the Trojan horse and he and his sons were later attacked by snakes as a sign of the gods’ disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical proportion-Laocoon is shown as larger than his sons to show his importance </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the amount of emotion and movement as compared with earlier Greek sculpture </li></ul>
    21. 21. Rome <ul><li>Became the major power by the 2nd century </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans were less idealistic and more practical than the Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>They admired and copied Greek works, but they did develop their own style as well </li></ul>
    22. 22. Unknown. Portrait Head of an Old Man . Italy. 25 B.C. – 10 A.D. Height 34.9 × 17.7 × 24.7 cm (13-3/4&quot; × 6-15/16&quot; × 9-3/4&quot;). Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    23. 23. Portrait Head of an Old Man <ul><li>High degree of individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Warts and all style stemmed from creating death masks and recreating them in marble </li></ul><ul><li>Great attention was paid to the flaws that make a person unique </li></ul>
    24. 24. The Colosseum . Rome. 70–80 C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    25. 25. The Colloseum <ul><li>Built between 68 and 80 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of brick and stone </li></ul><ul><li>The exterior is a three story, round-arch, colonnade </li></ul><ul><li>Used for amusements such as gladiator games </li></ul>
    26. 26. Pantheon . Rome. View of the entrance. 118–125 C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    27. 27. Pantheon . Rome. Plan and Section. 118–125 C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    28. 28. Giovanni Paolo Panini. The Interior of the Pantheon, Rome . c. 1734. c. 1734. 1.280 × .990 cm (50-1/2&quot; × 39&quot;). Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    29. 29. Pantheon <ul><li>A major temple dedicated to all the gods </li></ul><ul><li>A immense domed space </li></ul><ul><li>It is essentially a cylinder with a dome with a single entrance </li></ul><ul><li>The walls are 20 feet thick with stone and concrete masonry </li></ul><ul><li>The dome is patterned with coffers, recessed squares and was originally covered with gold </li></ul>
    30. 30. Early Christian and Byzantine Art <ul><li>Romans first regarded Christianity as a strange cult and suppressed it </li></ul><ul><li>Many Christians hid their religion and art in their homes and catacombs </li></ul><ul><li>Early Christian art used Greco-Roman style painting of figures to tell the stories of the bible </li></ul>
    31. 31. Christ and the Apostles . Early Christian fresco.Catacomb of S. Domitilla, Rome, Italy. Mid-4th Century C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    32. 32. Christ and Apostles <ul><li>One point perspective and other devices used to represent 3D space were forgotten and not rediscovered until the Renaissance </li></ul>
    33. 33. Head of Constantine . c. 312 C.E. Height 8'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    34. 34. Head of Constantine <ul><li>Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (now Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine was the first Christian emperor </li></ul>
    35. 35. Old St. Peter's Basilica . Rome. Reconstruction drawing. c. 320–335. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    36. 36. Interior view of basilica of Old Saint Peter's. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    37. 37. Old St. Peter's Basilica . Rome. Plan. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    38. 38. Old St. Peter’s Basilica <ul><li>The Roman basilica was adapted for use in worship </li></ul><ul><li>Has a long central aisle called a nave </li></ul><ul><li>The nave ended in an apse , a semicircular projection </li></ul><ul><li>The main focus of these buildings was the grandeur of the interior </li></ul>
    39. 39. San Vitale . Ravenna, Italy. Exterior. 526–547. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    40. 40. San Vitale . Ravenna, Italy. Plan. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    41. 41. San Vitale . Ravenna, Italy. Empress Theodora. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    42. 42. San Vitale . Ravenna, Italy. Apse Mosaic. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    43. 43. San Vitale <ul><li>Mosaic compositions cover most of the interior </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts Emporer Justinian and his wife Theodora </li></ul><ul><li>The elongated, abstracted figures are symbolic rather than naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>The figures are shown with heavy outlines and stylized shading </li></ul><ul><li>The only representation of space is through overlapping </li></ul><ul><li>At this time, there was the controversy of the iconoclastsAndrei Rublev. Icon of the Old Testament Trinity . c. 1410. 55-1/2&quot; × 44-1/2&quot;. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Byzantine School. Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne . Byzantine, 13th Century. 0.815 × 0.490 cm (32-1/8&quot; × 19-3/8&quot;); framed: .908 × 583 × .076 cm; (35-3/4 &quot; × 22-15/16&quot; × 3&quot;). Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    45. 45. Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne <ul><li>Based on linear patterns and circular shapes </li></ul><ul><li>The drapery scarcely hints at the bodies beneath </li></ul><ul><li>The throne represents Mary’s position as queen of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Christ appears as a wise little man </li></ul><ul><li>Icons were made of precious materials like gold leaf and lapis lazuli </li></ul>
    46. 46. The Middle Ages in Europe <ul><li>The one thousand years that follows that fall of the Roman Empire is called the middle ages or Medieval Period </li></ul><ul><li>New influences were moving in from non-Greeks called barbarians </li></ul><ul><li>Eurasian nomads created a distinct style called the animal style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually on small portable objects like jewelry, weapons, and saddles/harnesses </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Scythian Animal . ( Bridle Plaque with a Beast of Prey Curved Round ). Scythian culture. 5th Century B.C.E. 10.5 × 9.7 cm. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    48. 48. Scythian Anima <ul><li>Abstracted animal shapes </li></ul><ul><li>This piece contains two animal forms with heads near the top and bottom </li></ul>
    49. 49. Purse Cover . From the Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, Suffolk, England. Before 655. Length 7-1/2&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    50. 50. Purse Cover <ul><li>Gold and enamel </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts a man standing between confronting animals </li></ul>
    51. 51. Chi-Rho Monogram ( XP ). TCD MS 58. Page from the Book of Kells . FOL 34 r. Late 8th Century. 12-3/4&quot; × 9-1/2&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    52. 52. Chi Rho Monogram from the Book of Kells <ul><li>Book of Kells is a illustrated holy book from Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>The first letter in a manuscript was intricately embellished </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This began as a drop cap and eventually began to take up a whole separate page </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Romanesque <ul><li>Romanesque refers to medieval art of Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque art developed in a time dominated by feudalism and monasticism </li></ul><ul><li>The structures began to revive some of the Roman interior styles </li></ul><ul><li>Many sculptors deviated from traditional human proportions to add symbolism </li></ul>
    54. 54. Christ of the Pentecost . Saint Madeleine Cathedral, Vézelay, France. 1125–1150. Height of the tympanum 35-1/2&quot;. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    55. 55. Christ of the Pentecost <ul><li>A relief carving above the doorway of Saint Madeleine Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>The largeness of Christ in comparison to the other figures show his importance </li></ul><ul><li>The elongation of Christ and the small size of his head make him seem more monumental </li></ul>
    56. 56. Gothic <ul><li>Gothic style replaced Romanesque about 1145 </li></ul><ul><li>The differences are most easily seen in architecture </li></ul><ul><li>The pointed arch replaced the round arch </li></ul><ul><li>The pointed arches and flying buttresses made some of the most spectacular buildings in existence </li></ul>
    57. 57. Notre Dame de Chartres . Chartres, France. View from the southeast. 1145–1513. Cathedral length 427'; facade height 157'; south tower height 344'; north tower height 377'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    58. 58. Notre Dame de Chartres . Chartres, France. West Front. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    59. 59. Notre Dame de Chartres . Chartres, France. &quot; Rose de France &quot; Window . c. 1233. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    60. 60. Notre Dame de Chartres . Chartres, France. Old Testament Prophet, Kings, and Queen . c. 1145-1170. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    61. 61. Notre Dame de Chartres . Chartres, France. Plan based on Latin cross. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    62. 62. Notre Dame de Chartres <ul><li>Took three hundred years to complete </li></ul><ul><li>Includes many styles since it’s building spanned such a long time period </li></ul><ul><li>The main goal was to fill the church with light, a metaphor for the presence of God </li></ul><ul><li>Stained glass windows color the light entering the building and change as the day progresses </li></ul>
    63. 63. Notre Dame de Chartres <ul><li>The rose window, Rose de France, is dedicated to the Virgin Mary </li></ul><ul><li>The Old Testament Kings and Queen show a more serene kind of sculpture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanesque sculptures were very active, the Gothic sculptures have a more passive and calm feeling </li></ul></ul>

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