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Art Appreciation-Chapter 12-Architecture

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  • James Lynch/The Ancient Art & Architecture Collection Ltd.
  • Casement Creative Services Inc.
  • Casement Creative Services Inc.
  • Alistar Duncan © Dorling Kindersley.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Copyright Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
  • Copyright Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
  • Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Stock Montage, Inc. © The Newberry Library.
  • © Art on File/CORBIS. All Rights Reserved.
  • Photograph: Ezra Stoller © Esto.
  • Photograph provided courtesy of the Denver International Airport.
  • Model of proposed 40-story skyscraper.
  • Photographer: Erika Ede, 1997. All rights reserved. Partial or total reproduction prohibited.
  • Scott Frances\\Esto Photographics, Inc.
  • Owner: First Community Housing. Architect: The Office of Jerome King. Structural Engineer: Vertech Engineering. Landscape Architect: Cottong & Taniguchi. Civil Engineer: Charles Davidson Co. Photo: Bernard André Photography.
  • Photo by Dean Kaufman, courtesy Museum of Contemporary Art Denver.
  • As exhibited at Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago. michelle@michellekaufmann.com. Photo by John Swain Photography, courtesy of Michelle Kaufmann.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Architecture Chapter 12
    • 2. Architecture
      • Architecture is essentially just a shelter from the elements
      • BUT, it can be an important record of a society
    • 3. Three Key Issues in Architecture
      • Function-how a building is used
      • Form-how it looks
      • Structure-how it stands up
    • 4. An Art and Science
      • As an art, architecture creates indoor spaces and an exterior that can be beautiful
      • As a science, architecture has to be able to withstand weather and stress
      • Three essential components
        • Supporting skeleton
        • Outer skin
        • Operating equipment
    • 5. Dolmen . Crocuno, north of Carnac, France. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 6. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Dry Masonry
        • Basically piling stones on top of one another
        • If the stones have been cut befores stacking they are dressed
    • 7. Great Zimbabwe . Zimbabwe. Plan. Before 1450. Height of wall 30'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 8. Great Zimbabwe . Zimbabwe. Interior. Before 1450. Height of wall 30'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 9.  
    • 10. The Great Zimbabwe
      • Built in the 12th century
      • It’s walls are made up of dressed stone
      • The walls are 15 feet thick at the bottom to add stability
      • There are no windows as these could weaken the structure
    • 11. Machu Picchu-Dry Masonry
    • 12. Mesa Verde-Dry Masonry
    • 13. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Post and beam
        • Vertical posts support horizontal beams
        • A row of columns connected be beams is called a colonade
    • 14. Post-and-Beam Construction . Figure 1. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 15. Post-and-Beam Construction . Figure 2. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 16. Colonnade and Court of Amenhotep III . Temple of Amun-Mut-Khonsu. View of the great court with double row of papyrus-clustered columns. Luxor, Thebes, Egypt. 18th dynasty. c. 1390 B.C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 17. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Round arch,Vault, and Dome
        • The round arch enabled builders to move their beams further apart
        • An arch can be supported by a column or a pier, a massive column
        • A vault is a curving ceiling or roof structure
        • A barrel vault is when the arch is extended in depth to create a tunnel
        • Groin vault is an intersection of two barrel vaults
        • Keystone is the last stone placed in an arch at the top
        • Arches supported by column creates and arcade
    • 18. Round Arch. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 19. Barrel Vault. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 20. Groin Vault. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 21. Arcade . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 22. Pont du Gard . Nîmes, France. 15 C.E. Height 161', length 902'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 23. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • The dome
        • An arch rotated 180 degrees on it vertical axis
        • They can be rounded or pointed
    • 24. Dome (arch rotated 180°). Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 25. Dome on a cylinder. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 26. Dome on pendentives. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 27. Hagia Sophia
      • A Byzantine cathedral built in the sixth century
      • The dome rests on curving triangular sections called pendentives over a square base
    • 28. Hagia Sophia . Exterior. Istanbul, Turkey. 532–535. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 29. Hagia Sophia . Interior. Istanbul, Turkey. 532–535. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 30. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Pointed arch and vault
        • Also called the Gothic Arch
        • Pointed vaults allowed for wider aisles and higher ceilings
    • 31. Notre Dame de Chartres. Chartres, France. 1145–1513. Height 122', width 53', length 130'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 32. Gothic Arch . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 33. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Butresses
        • Butresses are built on the outside of an arch to support the weight
        • Flying butresses allowed even taller arches to be supported
          • Flying butresses also allowed for larger windows
    • 34. Flying Buttresses . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 35. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Truss and frame
        • Truss is a triangular framework used to span and support
        • Balloon frame heavy timbers are replaced with thin studs nailed together
    • 36. Trusse s. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 37. Balloon Frame . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 38. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Cast Iron
        • Iron is lighter and stronger than wood
        • The invention of uniform smelting allowed iron to be used as a building material
    • 39. Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace . London. 1850–1851. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 40. Styles, Materials, and Methods
      • Steel and Reinforced Concrete
        • Steel frames and rising land prices fueled higher buildings
        • Louis Sullivan invented the skyscraper
    • 41. Louis Sullivan. Wainwright Building . St. Louis, Missouri. 1890–1891. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 42. Steel-Frame Construction. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 43. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson. Seagram Building . New York. 1956–1958. Photograph: Ezra Stoller © Esto. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 44. Recent Innovations
      • We now have computers to help us plan structures and analyze structural physics
      • Suspension Structure and new materials like carbon fiber allow for exciting new designs
    • 45. Suspension Structure. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 46. Eero Saarinen. Shell Structure ( TWA Terminal ). Kennedy Airport, New York. 1956–1962. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 47. Jeppesen Terminal Building . Denver International Airport. 1994. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 48. Testa and Weiser. Carbon Tower . 2005. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 49. Frank O. Gehry. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao . Bilbao, Spain. 1997. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 50. Designing with Nature
      • Most innovations in the 20th century did not involve working in conjunction with the surrounding environment
      • Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the most influential architects of the era
        • He was the first to use open planning in houses, eliminating wall between rooms
        • He often used the surrounding environment to plan his structures
    • 51. Frank Lloyd Wright. Fallingwater (Edgar Kaufmann Residence). Bear Run, Pennsylvania. 1936. Scott FrancesEsto Photographics, Inc. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 52. OJK Architecture and Planning. Gish Family Apartments . San Jose, California. 2008. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 53. David Adjaye. Museum of Contemporary Art, Denver . Denver, Colorado. 2007. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    • 54. Michelle Kaufmann. mkSolaire Home . 2008. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.