Art Appreciation-Chapter 12-Architecture

12,075 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
12,075
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
627
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
255
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • James Lynch/The Ancient Art & Architecture Collection Ltd.
  • Casement Creative Services Inc.
  • Casement Creative Services Inc.
  • Alistar Duncan © Dorling Kindersley.
  • Photograph: Duane Preble.
  • Copyright Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
  • Copyright Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
  • Copyright Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  • Stock Montage, Inc. © The Newberry Library.
  • © Art on File/CORBIS. All Rights Reserved.
  • Photograph: Ezra Stoller © Esto.
  • Photograph provided courtesy of the Denver International Airport.
  • Model of proposed 40-story skyscraper.
  • Photographer: Erika Ede, 1997. All rights reserved. Partial or total reproduction prohibited.
  • Scott Frances\\Esto Photographics, Inc.
  • Owner: First Community Housing. Architect: The Office of Jerome King. Structural Engineer: Vertech Engineering. Landscape Architect: Cottong & Taniguchi. Civil Engineer: Charles Davidson Co. Photo: Bernard André Photography.
  • Photo by Dean Kaufman, courtesy Museum of Contemporary Art Denver.
  • As exhibited at Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago. michelle@michellekaufmann.com. Photo by John Swain Photography, courtesy of Michelle Kaufmann.
  • Art Appreciation-Chapter 12-Architecture

    1. 1. Architecture Chapter 12
    2. 2. Architecture <ul><li>Architecture is essentially just a shelter from the elements </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, it can be an important record of a society </li></ul>
    3. 3. Three Key Issues in Architecture <ul><li>Function-how a building is used </li></ul><ul><li>Form-how it looks </li></ul><ul><li>Structure-how it stands up </li></ul>
    4. 4. An Art and Science <ul><li>As an art, architecture creates indoor spaces and an exterior that can be beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>As a science, architecture has to be able to withstand weather and stress </li></ul><ul><li>Three essential components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating equipment </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Dolmen . Crocuno, north of Carnac, France. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    6. 6. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Dry Masonry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically piling stones on top of one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the stones have been cut befores stacking they are dressed </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Great Zimbabwe . Zimbabwe. Plan. Before 1450. Height of wall 30'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    8. 8. Great Zimbabwe . Zimbabwe. Interior. Before 1450. Height of wall 30'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    9. 10. The Great Zimbabwe <ul><li>Built in the 12th century </li></ul><ul><li>It’s walls are made up of dressed stone </li></ul><ul><li>The walls are 15 feet thick at the bottom to add stability </li></ul><ul><li>There are no windows as these could weaken the structure </li></ul>
    10. 11. Machu Picchu-Dry Masonry
    11. 12. Mesa Verde-Dry Masonry
    12. 13. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Post and beam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical posts support horizontal beams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A row of columns connected be beams is called a colonade </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Post-and-Beam Construction . Figure 1. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    14. 15. Post-and-Beam Construction . Figure 2. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    15. 16. Colonnade and Court of Amenhotep III . Temple of Amun-Mut-Khonsu. View of the great court with double row of papyrus-clustered columns. Luxor, Thebes, Egypt. 18th dynasty. c. 1390 B.C.E. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    16. 17. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Round arch,Vault, and Dome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The round arch enabled builders to move their beams further apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An arch can be supported by a column or a pier, a massive column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vault is a curving ceiling or roof structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A barrel vault is when the arch is extended in depth to create a tunnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groin vault is an intersection of two barrel vaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keystone is the last stone placed in an arch at the top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arches supported by column creates and arcade </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Round Arch. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    18. 19. Barrel Vault. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    19. 20. Groin Vault. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    20. 21. Arcade . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    21. 22. Pont du Gard . Nîmes, France. 15 C.E. Height 161', length 902'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    22. 23. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>The dome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An arch rotated 180 degrees on it vertical axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be rounded or pointed </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Dome (arch rotated 180°). Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    24. 25. Dome on a cylinder. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    25. 26. Dome on pendentives. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    26. 27. Hagia Sophia <ul><li>A Byzantine cathedral built in the sixth century </li></ul><ul><li>The dome rests on curving triangular sections called pendentives over a square base </li></ul>
    27. 28. Hagia Sophia . Exterior. Istanbul, Turkey. 532–535. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    28. 29. Hagia Sophia . Interior. Istanbul, Turkey. 532–535. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    29. 30. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Pointed arch and vault </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the Gothic Arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed vaults allowed for wider aisles and higher ceilings </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Notre Dame de Chartres. Chartres, France. 1145–1513. Height 122', width 53', length 130'. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    31. 32. Gothic Arch . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    32. 33. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Butresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butresses are built on the outside of an arch to support the weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying butresses allowed even taller arches to be supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flying butresses also allowed for larger windows </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Flying Buttresses . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    34. 35. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Truss and frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truss is a triangular framework used to span and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balloon frame heavy timbers are replaced with thin studs nailed together </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Trusse s. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    36. 37. Balloon Frame . Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    37. 38. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Cast Iron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron is lighter and stronger than wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The invention of uniform smelting allowed iron to be used as a building material </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace . London. 1850–1851. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    39. 40. Styles, Materials, and Methods <ul><li>Steel and Reinforced Concrete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel frames and rising land prices fueled higher buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis Sullivan invented the skyscraper </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. Louis Sullivan. Wainwright Building . St. Louis, Missouri. 1890–1891. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    41. 42. Steel-Frame Construction. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    42. 43. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson. Seagram Building . New York. 1956–1958. Photograph: Ezra Stoller © Esto. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    43. 44. Recent Innovations <ul><li>We now have computers to help us plan structures and analyze structural physics </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension Structure and new materials like carbon fiber allow for exciting new designs </li></ul>
    44. 45. Suspension Structure. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    45. 46. Eero Saarinen. Shell Structure ( TWA Terminal ). Kennedy Airport, New York. 1956–1962. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    46. 47. Jeppesen Terminal Building . Denver International Airport. 1994. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    47. 48. Testa and Weiser. Carbon Tower . 2005. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    48. 49. Frank O. Gehry. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao . Bilbao, Spain. 1997. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    49. 50. Designing with Nature <ul><li>Most innovations in the 20th century did not involve working in conjunction with the surrounding environment </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the most influential architects of the era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was the first to use open planning in houses, eliminating wall between rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He often used the surrounding environment to plan his structures </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Frank Lloyd Wright. Fallingwater (Edgar Kaufmann Residence). Bear Run, Pennsylvania. 1936. Scott FrancesEsto Photographics, Inc. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    51. 52. OJK Architecture and Planning. Gish Family Apartments . San Jose, California. 2008. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    52. 53. David Adjaye. Museum of Contemporary Art, Denver . Denver, Colorado. 2007. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.
    53. 54. Michelle Kaufmann. mkSolaire Home . 2008. Copyright ©2011, ©2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc.

    ×