2. International Relations The study of relationships betweencountries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), internationalnongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) andmultinational corporations (MNCs). It is bothan academic and public policy field, and can beeither positive or normative as it both seeks toanalyze as well as formulate the foreign policy ofparticular states.
3. International Relations It is often considered a branch of politicalscience (especially after 1988 UNESCOnomenclature), but an important sectorof academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinaryfield of study.
4. International RelationsRefers to international relationshipamong sovereign and non-sovereignpolitical entities in global arena, for thepromotion of national interest of apolitical sector (state) in the pursuit ofpeaceful coexistence, mutualinterdependence and the right to self-preservation
5. Two Dominant Issues1. War and Peace (The negative features)2. Poverty and Health (The positive features of the world)
6. Propaganda Technique A form of communication ininternational relations by nation-states,intended to promote a particular cause bychanging the attitudes and behavior ofother states. The primary end is to justify anation’s program. Other ends would be theconciliation of friendly states, and theundermining of the positions of unfriendlyones.
7. International Politics and Domestics PoliticsDomestics Politics. Generally refers to the conductof state within its territorial borders.International Politics. Occurs among sovereignentities in international relations under commonagreement they so declared in the form ofinternational law. Such laws do not impose anobligation on its members but rather a politicalcommitment or declaration one may always shunwhen its interest so demand.
8. The Practice of Sovereignty Sovereignty is the legal capacity of ageographic unit to maintain ultimate responsibilityfor the conduct of its own affairs. It is socompelling a force that clothes a nation all thenecessary power to control its own turf orbailiwick. But, just because a nation is legallysovereign does not necessarily mean it reallycontrols its own grass (eg. Lebanon).
9. The Practice of Sovereignty Sovereignty does not precludes outsideintervention. Small and poor countries areroutinely dominated and influenced by large, richcountries. The efficacy of international law is oftenchallenged on the basis of its weakling capabilityto police non conformist-states, and to stop orprohibit dominant political actors in theinternational spectrum.
10. The Practice of Sovereignty Lacking the sovereignty that prevails inmost domestic situations, international relationsdepend a lot on power.Hans Morgenthau: Power is the basic elementof international politics and that idealistsignores it at their peril.
11. Theories of InternationalRelations1. The Realist and Structuralist Theory. Realists. “To understand internationalrelations, we must understand the behavior ofactors”. States are the main actors in their pursuitof power as state’s major goals. Structuralists. “To understand theinternational system, we concentrate on thestructures rather than on the behavior andchoices of the individual actors”.
12. Issues in International Relations “There is no international governmenteither to devise the law in the first place or tobe the last source of sanctions if the law isflouted. There is a body of international law butwhere does it come from and what is itsstatus? To whom does it apply? Individuals orwhat? Some hold that international law is aminor factor in international scene, state willalways ignore it if necessary. Others argue itinvolves a genuine guide to conduct and itssignificance will grow as its practice increases”.
13. Issues in International RelationsTwo major moral concerns :1. Dilemmas and paradoxes raised by theuse of war and violence;2. Obligations raised by the extent ofpoverty and the great disparity of incomeand wealth among the world’s inhabitants.Some Moral issues: i) War. Killing is never justified. Waris murder on a large scale, which ispacifism.
14. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] War. Theories that explains war.A) Macro Theories. States expand when theycan. Morgenthau: “ one country fearing thegrowth of a neighbor will strengthen itsdefenses or form alliances to offset theneighbor’s power”. It is explained by theaphorisms si vis pacem para bellus (if you wantpeace, prepare for war).
15. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] War. Theories that explains war.B) Micro Theories. Attempts to explain theengagement in war as the result of humanaggressiveness. Evolution have made peoplefighters obtain for food, defend their families,and guard their territories.
16. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] War.Sir Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) deliberatedon the morality of just war:1. That war had to be declared by a competent ruler in authority;2. That war was a result of a wrongdoing, or that war came to avenge a wrongful act;3. That war had the purpose to achieve good and avoid evil.
17. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] War. Jus ad bellum principle(the right of going to war):1. The war must be for just cause;2. War is rarely an issue of absolute rightagainst wrong. The aim of thecombatants should nevertheless beconsidered.3. There should be a reasonable chanceof winning. War must be purelyinstrumental to achieve a just outcome;
18. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] War. Jus ad bellum principle (the rightof going to war):4. War must be a proportional response to theoffense committed by the opponent;5. A war should be declared by a competentauthority, which is responsible for thegovernment of a society; and6. War should be resorted to only as a lastresort when all other options have beenexhausted.
19. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] War. Jus in bello Principle - Rights inWar:1. Prisoners should be properly treated, fed,given medical attention when necessary, andproperly housed;2. Noncombatants should not be attacked orkilled, when it is inevitable that some civilianswill be killed when a military target is attacked,such civilian casualties should be kept to theminimum; and
20. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] War. Jus in bello Principle - Rights inWar:3. A war should be terminated as soon asfeasible. Extreme conditions such asunconditional surrender that would prolong warshould not be demanded of an enemy. The League of Nations and the UnitedNations Organizations exist to shun warfareand bring about peace.
21. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] WarProposals to prevent or avert war:a) Diplomacy. The oldest approach, thrudiplomatic contact. There must be willingnessto compromise. This is often difficult becausecountries define vital interest as non-negotiableand are unwilling to cut them down tocompromising face.
22. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] WarProposals to prevent or avert war:b) Peacekeeping. Employs a third party militaryforce to support a truce or other agreement,but such peace keeping can not enforce peaceby stopping a conflict that is in progress.
23. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] WarProposals to prevent or avert war:c) Collective Security. The failure of theLeague of Nation to promote collective securityand international peace resulted in outbreak ofanother bigger war, World War II in 1939 to1945.
24. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 1.] WarProposals to prevent or avert war:d) World Government. Roskins (1997): thereal culprit is the old doctrine of sovereignty.The solution is to have states give-up some oftheir sovereignty to an internationalgovernment that would prevent war much asan individual country keeps peace within itsborder. But, would the U.S.
25. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 2.] Terrorism and Freedom FightersTerrorist conflict is an armed conflict where oneactive participant is not a member of an armyin the standard sense. Nicholson (1998) itsmilitary power is small in comparison of theiropponent. They can not engage in directcombat, instead they seek out ‘soft’ targets,and often with the primary aim of destroyingproperty, assassinate, bomb, or shoot peoplewhether they are relevant targets, to sow fear.
26. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 3.] Nuclear WarThe invention of weapons of mass destructionand nuclear weapons adds a new dimension tothe moral problems of war. Technically, it ispossible to eliminate society and eliminate lifeon this planet. Nuclear threat is an immoralaction. It is moral if the benefits of doing so arefor morals goals such as the preservation ofpeace.
27. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 4.] Human RightsAlmost always violated by structural violence,or by the government to extend freedom andcivil liberties consistent with their beings ashuman persons. Civil liberties should go withdeveloping basic economic well being of thepeople. Liberty involves the freedom of speechabd the right to express one’s opinion even ifthey offend people, the government, and thepowerful.
28. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 4.] Human RightsAlso include freedom from arbitrary arrest and fairtrial, freedom from discrimination of race or sex.States are not the primary guardian of people’swelfare, it implies that states are entitled tointervene activities of other states in order topromote human rights.
29. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 5.] Poverty and WealthIt is a truism that there exists wide discrepancy interms of spread of incomes between rich and poor.Rich countries should help the poor ones thrugovernment aid, economic assistance, or thruprivate organizations. It could be in the form ofenabling economies, or direct help in case of naturalcatastrophies. The most effective means of givingaid and the most useful tactics should enableeconomies.
30. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 6.] EnvironmentalismRapid industrialization, urbanization andglobalization breed new dimensions in worldpolitics. Ecology is the care and protection of theenvironment for future generation. Variousadvocacies came at the height of global warming,ozone depletion, acid rain, pollution, garbagedisposal, nuclear threat and other man-madecalamities. Effects of these, further agitated care forthe only planer suitable for human.
31. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 6.] Environmentalism…cont.If human beings continue to refuse and conserve theecological system, it will ultimately deteriorate thequality of human living and threaten humanexistance. Thus, nation-states should work togetherand cooperatively to avert or prevent thecatastrophic effects of ecological degradation.
32. Issues in International RelationsSome Moral issues: 6.] Environmentalism…cont.Ecologism, as political doctrine or ideology, isdeveloped on the grounds of ecologicalassumptions, notably about the essential linkbetween human kind and the natural world. It isconcerned with protecting nature, advocatingmeasures to preserve the ecosystem all for thefuture benefits of the human race.
33. Foreign Policy A general set of principles which nation-statesadopts towards their external environment, a pattern ofbehavior that states adopts in pursuing its nationalinterests with other nation-states as part of the generalprogram of the government. It used to concern mainlywith the political and strategic relationship between oramong nation-states. Economic interactions andglobalization became the emerging thrust if state;sforeign policy directions nowadays. Every state pursues international relations as aresponse to independence, national pride, and to assertpolitical right as part of a global community of nationsto co-exists.
34. The DFA - OSEC The Office of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs(OSEC) advises the President on matters relating to theformulation and execution of Philippine foreign policies.Its functions are:1. Administration and coordination of Philippine foreign relations;2. Promulgation of rules and regulation which may be necessary to carry out foreign policy objectives; and3. Delegation of authority to perform any function or set of functions to officers and employees necessary for the conduct of Philippine Foreign Relations.
35. The DFA - OSEC The Secretary is assisted by three Undersecretaries in the formulation and implementation of the Department’s objectives and policies, and one of them may be designated in his absence. Under the rules and regulations of the DFA, the Secretary is given the power to designate Career of Mission as Assistant Secretaries to head 12 principal offices of the Department.
38. Foreign Policy System1. The Procedural Subsystem. It introduces how a foreign policy is initiated starting with the formulation of policy goals, or the interests that the state hold dear in dealing with other states. It by gathering of information or intelligence by the state’s diplomatic offices, data analysis, the translation of information into an alternative course of action, followed by planning and decision-making that would result in the adoption of policy goals. Policy-making power is vested in the executive or head of state and/or the Congress. The implementation comes thru the state’s agents or diplomats. Evaluation follows whether a policy is a success or a failure.
39. Foreign Policy System2. The Substantial Subsystem. It refers to the specificinterests that the state promotes in relation with othercountries. It is multifarious, social, poliyical, economic,cultural or military that may be the immediate orundelying purpose in a state’s relations abroad.3. The Directional Subsystem. Refers to the strategicpartnership which may be state to state dealings(bilateral), state to region relationship (regional), or stateto international organizations (multilateral).
40. National Interests A state pursue foreign relations and playsinternational politics on the basis of national interest.It may be understood as anything good for the nationas a whole in world affairs. As international politicsis inherently selfish, nations rarely behave like saints.Countries may practice generosity and altruism, butoften with an eye to enhancing their internationalpower and prestige. In broad terms, this refers to the general andcontinuing ends for which the nation acts. It is thesum total of all the national values, symbols andprestige a state promotes not only within its domesticpolicy but also largely in international relations.
41. Classification of National Interests1. Vital Interests v. Secondary Interests.Vital interests. Those interest which a nation mayultimately go to war only to preserve its sovereignty.Secondary interests. The less urgent and distant.Those which the state pursue but not to the extent ofgoing to war. They are desirable and dispensableand subject ot diplomatic negotiation ( like the needto contract foreign loans). To some extent, militaryactions may be necessary(like when US detestedIraq’s invasion over Kuwait in 1991, where oildiplomacy was threatened by such annexation ofterritory.
42. Classification of National Interests2. Temporary Interests v. Permanent Interests.Temporary interests. One which is of fixed duration(like when US support Iraq in 1980 war with Iran).Permanent interests. It may last over centuries (like USinterest in keeping hostile powers out of westernhemisphere).
43. Classification of National Interests3. Specific Interests v. General Interests.Specific interests. Centers on one singleproblem, issue or dilemma such as the Japanesetrade barriers to US goods in products.General interests. Might take the form ofuniversal respect for environmental protectionand human rights orotection. The US interests isgeneral, temporary, and secondary oneconcerning human rights and regional stability.
44. Framework for National SecurityDirection It is always important to carefully design a state’s course of action in view of promoting multifarious national goals: well-being, security, and preservation. It is important to strategize national security goals within the framework of geopoliticsvis-a-vis foreign policy relations based on two basic assumptions.
45. Framework for National SecurityDirection Two basic assumptions:i) What is the most problem among the array of problems discovered. Why is it a problem. To what extent does it veer away from our national security? What are its political nature, socio-cultural characteristics, economic dynamics, and military posturing?ii) To resolve this problem, what national objectives or ends should be adopted to give directions or focus to its resolution?
46. Next: Part XIConcepts and Models of International Law with International Law