WHAT IS NATIONALISMA.M. SALVAFS DIP 112: Philippine Nationalism and Culturehttp://www.palgrave.com/politics/ideologies/resources/chaptersummaries/Nationalism.html
What is Nationalism Nationalism can broadly be defined as the belief that the nation is the central principle of political organization. It is based upon two core assumptions:● that humankind is naturally divided into distinct nations, and● that the nation is a political community in the sense that it is the most appropriate, and perhaps only legitimate, unit of political rule.
A doctrine or an ideology?● classical political nationalism, is the belief that all nations are entitled to independent statehood, suggesting that the world should consist of a collection of nation- states.● as an ideology in its own right, it is seen to encompass a diverse range of forms, political, cultural and ethnic.
As an ideology Political nationalism includes any attempt to use the nation ideal to further specifically political ends, which may be highly diverse; Cultural nationalism emphasises the regeneration of the nation as a distinctive civilisation, and thus stresses the need to defend or strengthen a national language, religion, or way of life rather than achieve overt political ends.
As an ideology Ethnic nationalism overlaps with cultural nationalism, but as ethnic groups are seen, correctly or incorrectly, to have descended from common ancestors, it implies a stronger and perhaps more intense sense of distinctiveness and exclusivity.
Political nationalism a complex and diverse phenomenon. Its major forms are:➢ liberal nationalism,➢ conservative nationalism,➢ expansionist nationalism and➢ anticolonial nationalism.
Political nationalismLiberal nationalism assigns to the nation amoral status similar to that of theindividual, meaning that nations haverights, in particular the right to self-determination. As liberal nationalism holdsthat all nations are equal, it proclaims thatthe nation-state ideal is universallyapplicable.
Political nationalismConservative nationalism is concernedless with the principled nationalism of self-determination and more with the promiseof social cohesion and public orderembodied in the sentiment of nationalpatriotism. From this perspective, patrioticloyalty and a consciousness of nationhoodis largely rooted in the idea of a sharedpast, turning nationalism into a defence oftraditional values and institutions that havebeen endorsed by history.
Political nationalismExpansionist nationalism is an aggressiveand militaristic form of nationalism that isinvariably associated with chauvinisticbeliefs and doctrines, which tends to blurthe distinction between nationalism andracialism. In its extreme form, sometimesreferred to as integral nationalism, itarises from a sentiment of intense, evenhysterical nationalist enthusiasm.
Political nationalismAnticolonial nationalism links the strugglefor national liberation in Africa and Asia inparticular to the desire for socialdevelopment, and was typically expressedthrough socialist doctrines, mostcommonly through the vehicle ofrevolutionary Marxism. However,developing-world nationalism has sincethe 1970s assumed a postcolonialcharacter, which has been expressedmost clearly through religiousfundamentalism.
there have been claims that nationalism is becoming an anachronism.● These are based upon the fact that nationalism has achieved its aim in that the world is now mainly composed of nation-states; that nation-states are themselves losing authority as a result of globalization and the growth of supranationalism; and that ethnic and regional political identities are displacing national ones.
Normative character of nationalism nationalism has a changeable political character. At different times, nationalism has been:● progressive and reactionary,● democratic and authoritarian,● rational and irrational, and● left-wing and right-wing.
Character of nationalismNationalists argue that a higher loyaltyand deeper political significance attachesto the nation than to any other socialgroup or collective body because nationsare natural political communities.Nationalism is merely the recognition ofthis fact given ideological form.
Character of nationalismSupporters of nationalism, moreover, viewnationalism as a means of enlargingfreedom and defending democracy, sinceit is grounded in the idea of self-government. Such a defence ofnationalism is most easily developed inrelation to liberal nationalism andanticolonial nationalism.
Character of nationalismopponents of nationalism argue that it isimplicitly and sometimes explicitlyoppressive, and that it is invariably linkedto intolerance, suspicion and conflict.Nationalism is oppressive both in thesense that it submerges individual identityand conscience within that of the nationalwhole, and because of the potential itgives political leaders and elites tomanipulate and control the masses.
Character of nationalismThe argument that nationalism isinherently divisive stems from the fact thatit highlights differences amongsthumankind and legitimises anidentification with, and preference for,ones own people or nation; in short, itbreeds tribalism.
Character of nationalismThis may be implicit in conservativenationalism and explicit in expansionistnationalism, but all forms of nationalismmay harbour a darker face that isessentially chauvinistic and potentiallyaggressive.A.M. SALVAFS DIP 112: Philippine Nationalism and Culturehttp://www.palgrave.com/politics/ideologies/resources/chaptersummaries/Nationalism.html
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