Developmental goals
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Developmental goals Developmental goals Document Transcript

  • 20 THURSDAY, AUGUST 27, 2009, DELHI www.livemint.com Economy & Politics mint the Wall STREET JOURNAL. SLOWDOWN HITS DEVELOPMENT GOALS Large pockets of extreme poverty and hunger persist in Asia, where the global downturn makes it more difficult to achieve United Nations (UN) goals to reduce the ranks of the poor, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) said on Wednesday. Supporting smaller businesses where most Asians are employed is key to fuelling domestic demand and growth, the Manila-based GOAL 3: Promote gender equality and lender said in a report on key economic indicators. In 19 Asian economies, including the most populous China and India, at least 10% of the people live on less than $1.25 (Rs61) a day and at least 10% are malnourished. This is despite the region’s success over the last 15 years in empower women cutting the number of poor from one in two to around one in four, the report said. Nepal is the worst off with 55.1% of its population Male-female equality in primary school enrolment has now been surviving on less than $1.25 a day. In China and India, 15.9% and 41.6% of the population live below the poverty line, respectively. Among achieved in most economies in the region and good progress has been the so-called UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is cutting in half extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 and reducing maternal made at the secondary level, but fewer countries have achieved gender mortality by three-quarters over the same period. The report said Asia faces serious challenges in meeting goals linked to sanitation and equality in tertiary education. When women do enrol in school, they tend maternal deaths, which remain unacceptably high in countries such as Afghanistan, Nepal and Laos. Governments should focus not only to study longer than men. on fiscal stimulus and large enterprises, but on supporting small- and medium-sized enterprises—where most Asian workers are TARGET: employed—to build a substantial urban middle class with spending power, said chief ADB economist Lee Jong-Wha. AP  To obtain equality of males and females in primary, secondary, and tertiary education enrolment. By Teresa Cerojano & Eileen Ng Source: Asian Development Bank report feedback@livemint.com Graphics by Sandeep Bhatnagar and Ahmed Raza Khan/Mint GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger GOAL 2: Achieve universal primary education Primary school female-male enrolment ratios Extreme poverty and hunger affects at least 10% of the population in Substantial progress has been made towards achieving universal primary 2007 1991 many countries in the Asia and Pacific region. Children are often education and basic reading and writing skills. But in economies with or nearest year or nearest year underweight and economic growth is insufficient to provide full and lower literacy rates, there are clear gender disparities—women are still Bangladesh 1.08 1.05 more likely to be illiterate than men. Armenia 1.03 1.01 productive employment and decent work for all. Nauru 1.03 1.16 TARGET: TARGET: Mongolia 1.02 1.02 Palau 1.02 0.93  Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less  Children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full Chinese Taipei 1.02 1.01 than one dollar a day. Note that this is a purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted course of primary schooling. Kiribati 1.01 1.01 dollar that has the same purchasing power in all countries. The “dollar-a-day” Micronesia 1.01 0.99 poverty threshold was recently reviewed and the threshold has been increased to Kazakhstan 1.00 0.99 $1.25. For convenience, it is still referred to by its old name. Sri Lanka 1.00 0.96 Thailand  Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women Total net enrolment ratio in primary education Samoa 1.00 1.00 0.98 1.02 and young people. This target was introduced in the revised MDG framework. Azerbaijan 0.99 0.99 2007 1991 Nepal 0.99 0.63  Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. or nearest year or nearest year Brunei 0.99 0.94 Hunger here is measured by the percentage of the population below the minimum Kiribati 9 9 .7 9 9 .2 Malaysia 0.99 0.99 level of dietary energy consumption as determined by the Food and Agriculture Tuvalu 0.99 1.02 ChineseTaipei 9 9 .3 9 8 .7 Kyrgyz Republic 0.99 0.99 Organization. Samoa 9 9 .1 9 4 .2 China 0.99 0.93 Kazakhstan 9 9 .0 8 6 .7 South Korea 0.98 1.01 South Korea 9 8 .5 9 9 .7 Bhutan 0.98 0.85 Philippines 0.98 0.99 Tonga 9 8 .5 88.2 Vanuatu 0.97 0.96 Economies where more than 10% of the Indonesia 9 8 .0 9 6 .7 Georgia 0.97 1.00 Mongolia 9 7 .6 9 5 .7 Uzbekistan 0.97 0.98 population lives on less than $1.25 a day Malaysia 9 7 .5 9 7 .7 Maldives 0.97 1.01 Tajikistan 9 7 .5 7 6 .7 Cook Islands 0.97 0.95 Latest year Earliest year Fiji 0.97 1.00 Maldives 9 7 .0 9 8 .0 Marshall Islands 0.97 0.98 Nepal 55.1 68.4 Sri Lanka 9 6 .7 9 9 .1 Indonesia 0.96 0.98 Bangladesh 49.6 66.8 Brunei 9 6 .5 9 2 .7 Tajikistan 0.96 0.98 Palau 9 6 .4 9 6 .8 India 0.96 0.77 Uzbekistan 46.3 32.1 Solomon Islands 0.96 0.87 Azerbaijan 9 5 .4 8 8 .8 Laos Tonga 0.95 0.98 44.0 55.7 Hong Kong 9 4 .9 9 7 .5 Hong Kong 0.95 1.01 India 41.6 49.4 Georgia 9 4 .5 9 7 .1 Vietnam 0.94 0.93 India 9 4 .3 8 4 .9 Timor-Leste 0.94 0.93 Cambodia 40.2 48.6 Fiji 9 4 .2 9 9 .4 Cambodia 0.93 0.81 Papua New Guinea 35.8 - Vietnam 9 4 .0 9 0.5 Laos 0.90 0.79 Armenia 9 3 .9 Papua New Guinea 0.84 0.85 Bhutan 26.2 - 9 2 .8 Pakistan 0.82 0.68 Turkmenistan Uzbekistan 9 3 .6 7 8 .2 Afghanistan 0.63 0.55 24.8 63.5 Kyrgyz Republic 9 2 .4 9 2 .3 0.95 Pakistan 22.6 64.7 Philippines 9 1 .7 9 6 .3 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Philippines 22.6 30.7 Bangladesh 8 9 .6 8 9 .5 Mongolia Cambodia 8 9 .4 7 5 .1 22.4 18.8 Kyrgyz Republic 21.8 18.6 Vanuatu Laos 8 7 .7 9 1 .9 Secondary school female-male enrolment ratios 8 6 .3 6 1 .9 Vietnam Bhutan 7 9 .9 5 6 .4 2007 1991 21.5 63.7 or nearest year or nearest year Tajikistan 21.5 44.5 Nepal 7 6 .5 6 7 .0 Nauru 7 2 .3 ... Nauru 1.19 1.21 China 15.9 60.2 Cook Islands 6 8 .8 8 6 .3 Kiribati 1.14 1.18 Sri Lanka 14.0 15.0 Marshall Islands 6 6 .5 8 8 .1 Samoa 1.13 1.96 Georgia 13.4 4.5 Pakistan 6 5 .6 5 7 .2 Fiji 1.12 0.95 Timor-Leste 6 3 .0 6 8 .1 Mongolia Armenia 10.6 17.5 1.11 1.14 Solomon Islands 6 1 .8 95 6 3 .3 Malaysia 1.10 1.05 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Philippines 1.10 1.04 Thailand 1.10 0.96 Percentage of population suffering from hunger Percentage of children starting grade 1 Cook Islands 1.08 1.08 Maldives 1.07 1.07 2003–2005 and reaching last grade of primary education Micronesia 1.07 1.05 1990–1992 Tajikistan 34 34 2007 1999 Bangladesh 1.06 1.01 Mongolia 29 30 or nearest year or nearest year Armenia 1.05 1.06 Bangladesh 27 36 Georgia 100 99.4 Brunei 1.04 1.09 Cambodia 26 38 Kazakhstan 99.5 95.9 Tonga 1.04 1.04 Pakistan 23 22 Tajikistan 99.4 96.7 Sri Lanka 1.02 1.09 Timor-Leste 22 18 Hong Kong 99.3 99.3 Marshall Islands 1.02 1.06 Sri Lanka 21 27 Uzbekistan 99.2 99.5 China 1.01 0.75 India 21 24 Azerbaijan 98.7 96.6 Indonesia 1.01 0.83 Armenia 21 46 Brunei 98.2 98.0 Kyrgyz Republic 1.01 1.02 Myanmar 19 44 Armenia 97.7 79.3 Chinese Taipei 1.01 1.04 Laos 19 27 South Korea 97.4 99.5 Thailand 17 29 Kyrgyz Republic 96.5 94.5 Georgia 1.00 0.97 Indonesia 17 19 Samoa 95.9 92.4 Hong Kong 1.00 1.05 Philippines 16 21 Indonesia 94.7 85.9 Timor-Leste 1.00 0.99 Nepal 15 21 Sri Lanka 93.4 ... Kazakhstan 0.99 1.03 Vietnam 14 28 Vietnam 92.1 82.8 Uzbekistan 0.98 0.91 Uzbekistan 14 5 Tonga 90.9 94.6 Palau 0.97 1.07 Georgia 13 47 Malaysia 89.3 97.7 Azerbaijan 0.96 1.01 Azerbaijan 12 27 Bhutan 84.4 81.3 Tuvalu 0.93 ... Solomon Islands 9 25 Mongolia 84.1 87.2 South Korea 0.93 0.97 China 9 15 Kiribati 81.4 69.7 Vietnam 0.92 0.90 Vanuatu 7 10 Fiji 75.6 82.1 Bhutan 0.91 0.81 Maldives 7 9 Philippines 73.2 75.3 Nepal 0.91 0.46 Turkmenistan 6 9 Myanmar 72.7 55.2 Vanuatu 0.86 0.80 Kiribati 5 8 Pakistan 69.7 ... Samoa <5 9 Tajikistan 0.84 0.86 India 65.8 62.0 Fiji <5 8 Solomon Islands 0.84 0.61 Tuvalu 62.6 72.7 Malaysia <5 <5 Nepal 61.6 58.0 India 0.83 0.60 Brunei <5 <5 Laos 61.5 54.3 Cambodia 0.82 0.43 South Korea <5 <5 Bangladesh 54.8 ... Laos 0.79 0.62 Kyrgyz Republic <5 17 Cambodia 54.5 48.6 Pakistan 0.76 0.48 Kazakhstan <5 <5 Nauru 25.4 ... Afghanistan 0.38 0.51 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 95 0.95 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5