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Pelvimetry,  Pelvic Abnormalities, Congenital defects of Female Rep.Tract Prepared By:  Dr. alok bharti(M.V.Sc.), C.V.Sc (...
Pelvimetry <ul><li>Pelvimetry is defined as the branch of obstetrics which deals with measurement of pelvis. </li></ul><ul...
Types <ul><li>External/indirect pelvimetry </li></ul><ul><li>Internal/ direct pelvimetry </li></ul><ul><li>Radiographic pe...
External pelvimetry <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the distance between the two external angle of ilia….(A) <...
<ul><li>Calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic outlet diameters : </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse diameter of the pelvic outle...
Internal/ direct pelvimetry Measurement of the interior of the pelvis through the rectum with a pelvimeter.
Diameters of pelvic inlet <ul><li>Superio- inferior or sacro-pubic or conjugate diameter : From sacral promontory to the c...
 
<ul><li>Pelvic diameters in different species  (cm.) </li></ul>
Pelvic Abnormalities <ul><li>Upright pelvis - where the floor of the pelvic bones is directly under the sacrum instead of ...
<ul><li>3. Exaggerated lowness to the ground with a shortening of the bones in an animal with exaggerated angulation. Beca...
Congenital Defects of the female reproductive tract <ul><li>Congenital lesions of the ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>One or bot...
ABNORMALITIES OF THE UTERINE TUBES, UTERUS AND CERVIX <ul><li>Segmental aplasia of the paramesonephric ducts </li></ul><ul...
Uterus unicornis . Note normal left and right ovaries (o) and complete right horn (h). The left horn comprises a flat band...
White heifer disease .  Note both ovaries (o) are normal with a corpus luteum present in the right and horns (h) distended...
Uterus didelphys   with double external os uteri.
Uterus didelphys   showing two completely separate cervical canals.
Extra-uterine Pregnancy <ul><li>Condition where the uterus ruptures and the foetus is evacuated into the abdomen along sid...
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Pelvimetry, pelvic abnormalities,congenital defects of female rep.tract

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Pelvimetry, pelvic abnormalities,congenital defects of female rep.tract

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Transcript of "Pelvimetry, pelvic abnormalities,congenital defects of female rep.tract"

  1. 1. Pelvimetry, Pelvic Abnormalities, Congenital defects of Female Rep.Tract Prepared By: Dr. alok bharti(M.V.Sc.), C.V.Sc (SVVU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
  2. 2. Pelvimetry <ul><li>Pelvimetry is defined as the branch of obstetrics which deals with measurement of pelvis. </li></ul><ul><li>For selective breeding and cross breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Culling of undesired animals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types <ul><li>External/indirect pelvimetry </li></ul><ul><li>Internal/ direct pelvimetry </li></ul><ul><li>Radiographic pelvimetry </li></ul>
  4. 4. External pelvimetry <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the distance between the two external angle of ilia….(A) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the distance between two ischial tuberosities directly…..(B) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the height from hip joint to the highest point of croup…(C) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic outlet diameters : </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse diameter of the pelvic outlet (X)=1/4*(A+B) </li></ul><ul><li>Superio-inferior diameter of the pelvic outlet (Y)=3/4*C </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic inlet diameters : </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse diameter of the pelvic inlet =1.22*X </li></ul><ul><li>Sacro- pubic diameter of the pelvic inlet =1.3*Y </li></ul>
  6. 6. Internal/ direct pelvimetry Measurement of the interior of the pelvis through the rectum with a pelvimeter.
  7. 7. Diameters of pelvic inlet <ul><li>Superio- inferior or sacro-pubic or conjugate diameter : From sacral promontory to the cranial end of the pubic symphysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Superio- transverse diameter : Diameter at the upper third of pelvic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Inferio- transverse diameter : between two psoas tubercles. </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique sacro-ilial diameter : from the sacro-ilial joint through the centre of the pelvic cavity to the psoas tubercle of the opposite side. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Diameter : From the cranial of the pubic symphysis to the junction of 3 rd and 4 th sacral vertebrae. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Pelvic diameters in different species (cm.) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Pelvic Abnormalities <ul><li>Upright pelvis - where the floor of the pelvic bones is directly under the sacrum instead of behind and below the sacrum. The upright pelvis occurs in animals with an abnormally high tail setting often associated with a straight stifle joint and its consequent lamenesses. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Goose rumps, where the drop in the topline occurs at or in front of the sacro-iliac joint, i.e. at or just in front of the haunch bone . May be due to accident and faulty nutrition but in the majority of cases they are inherited. There is a flattening of the pelvic girdle so that there is insufficient room from the roof to the floor for the passage of a foetus. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>3. Exaggerated lowness to the ground with a shortening of the bones in an animal with exaggerated angulation. Because of this shortening of the bones, the angle made at the pelvis with the thigh becomes too acute so that the pelvis is laid too much in the horizontal plane and does not leave sufficient room from the roof to the floor of the pelvic girdle for the passage of a normal sized puppy. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Rickets and other rare causes can give a narrowing of the pelvis but this is very uncommon today because of the care in feeding of pedigree dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Accidents to the pelvis. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Congenital Defects of the female reproductive tract <ul><li>Congenital lesions of the ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>One or both ovaries are absent (ovarian agenesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian hypoplasia -one or both ovaries are small, functionless and composed of largely undifferentiated parenchyma. Oocytes and follicles are virtually absent. </li></ul>
  12. 13. ABNORMALITIES OF THE UTERINE TUBES, UTERUS AND CERVIX <ul><li>Segmental aplasia of the paramesonephric ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental defects of the paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts lead to a wide range of anomalies of the vagina, cervix and uterus. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Uterus unicornis . Note normal left and right ovaries (o) and complete right horn (h). The left horn comprises a flat band of tissue with no lumen (b) and a blind residual segment.
  14. 15. White heifer disease . Note both ovaries (o) are normal with a corpus luteum present in the right and horns (h) distended with accumulated fluid.
  15. 16. Uterus didelphys with double external os uteri.
  16. 17. Uterus didelphys showing two completely separate cervical canals.
  17. 18. Extra-uterine Pregnancy <ul><li>Condition where the uterus ruptures and the foetus is evacuated into the abdomen along side the viscera. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions predisposing to extra-uterine pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine rupture associated with </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine torsion </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical non-dilatation </li></ul><ul><li>Gross uterine distension that occurs with twins in one horn </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrallantois </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive fetal size </li></ul><ul><li>Breech presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient uterine space for the extension of a limb or head, inordinate traction on a wrongly disposed oversized fetus and excessively vigorous retropulsion are the immediate causes of uterine rupture. </li></ul><ul><li>External violence </li></ul>
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