9. Bee pasturages/ bee forage/ nectar and pollen plants
Honey flow period, major honey flow period, minor honey flow period and dearth period. During dearth period artificial feeding of sugar solution (1:1) or (2:1) may be given in the feeder during evening/ night.
Pollen substitute is as under
Expelled soy flour : 3 parts
Medicated yeast : 1 parts
Skimmed dry milk : 1 parts
Water should be provided near the apiary as such small flow of running water may be provided near the apiary. The crops, vegetables, fruits, wild trees available in different localities may serve as the sources of pollen and nectar.
The adult and brood are affected by various bacteria virus, fungi, protozoa, mites etc. the brood diseases commonly caused by bacteria ,virus and fungi. The common symptoms are discolored larvae, dark capping, punctured and sunken capping as American foul board in which infected colony is burned ,use of sulpha antibiotic drugs ,sac brood, chilled brood.
11. Honey extraction, processing and packing for marketing. Indigenous method of squeezing out honey Frame with honey comb and bees
The agricultural farmer use pesticides to protect the crop from pest problem and accordingly the honey as well as bees get exposed to pesticide during collection of pollen and nectar. The common symptoms are: appearance of large number of dead bees in front of hives, paralytic bees, uncoordinated movements, distended abdomen, irritated aggressive bees may sting, chilling of broods, contaminated pollen and honey may produce dead young bees, queen stops laying and longevity may reduced.
The measures may be taken as to advice the farmers to spray in the evening or night time. Inform the bee keepers in the locality about the schedule of spray of pesticides and accordingly close the gate for prevention of foraging the bees, selection the pesticides as organic than inorganic ones. Use of bee repellents in pesticides, use of fresh pollen and sugar solution to protect the babies, transfer of colonies to safer place washing the comb by soaking in fresh water and uniting the bee colonies.
Some times fake/ adulterated honey with sugar solution/ water is sold in the market, which may be injurious to consumers. Therefore honey should be purchased from standard/ reputed/ faithful/ govt. shops/ organization. However the consumers can go for spot test for purity of honey as under.
Put 2-3 drops of honey in clean transparent water from top. The pure honey will straightway go to the bottom and settled. The fake honey will dissolve and leave a ray of sugar solution while going to the bottom.
Drop the honey on a glass plate which will form zig-zag structure for pure honey but expand on the plate for fake honey.
The pure honey is transparent but fake honey is not so transparent.
The bee keeping can be started with two boxes/ hives, extractors, bee veil, gloves, decapping knife, hive tools etc. initially 4-5 farmers will keep only one honey extractor. The current price is as under.
S. No. Items Price (Rs.)
Bee hive/ box 1200.00
Frame with bees @ Rs. 300.00 each for five frames 1500.00
The bee farmer can start with 5-10 colonies which can sale 5-10 colonies each after proper division with retention of 5-10 colonies with them. Also the farmers can produce 2-3 colonies each year from single colony with modern scientific management.