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Performance Management
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Performance Management

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How do ability and motivation relate to performance? And how can you use this relationship to foster improvement? Learn how to diagnose and improve performance concerns, how to utilize intrinsic......

How do ability and motivation relate to performance? And how can you use this relationship to foster improvement? Learn how to diagnose and improve performance concerns, how to utilize intrinsic motivators, and how those relate to Dan Pink\'s "Drive" framework.

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  • 1. Employee of the MonthAbraham Maslow Leon FestingerFrederick Herzberg Edward Deci PerformanceDouglas McGregor Management Daniel Larsen Ability, Motivation, and Getting the Performance You’re Looking For
  • 2. Input/Output
  • 3. Input and Output Traditional theory holds that harder work leads to better performance.
  • 4. Input and Output Hard Work
  • 5. Input and Output Good Performance
  • 6. Input and Output But that theory creates a problem.
  • 7. Input and Output Poor Performance If managers see poor performance come out…
  • 8. Input and Output They assume poor Poor Work work went in…
  • 9. Input and Output It’s not that simple, and that thinking can lead to solutions that cause more harm than good.
  • 10. Input and Output Motivation Aptitude Good Performance Reality looks more like this.
  • 11. The PerformanceDiagnosis Model
  • 12. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Salience
  • 13. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives This framework can help us Salience diagnose problems and create meaningful solutions.
  • 14. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Do both parties agreethat performance needs to be improved? Salience
  • 15. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Do both parties agreethat performance needs to be improved? If not, then there’s a Salience perception problem.
  • 16. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Do both parties agreethat performance needs You can’t fix the root to be improved? problem until you fix Salience the perception.
  • 17. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Do both parties agreethat performance needs to be improved? It would be futile Salience to continue.
  • 18. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Then, we look at Salience ability and motivation.
  • 19. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N N Perception Y Expectations Motivation Y IncentivesDoes the problem stem from inadequate ability? Salience
  • 20. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N N Perception Y Expectations Motivation Y IncentivesDoes the problem stem frominadequate motivation? Salience
  • 21. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Once you determine the root cause to Salience be either ability or motivation, you can move on to a deeper diagnosis.
  • 22. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N N Perception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Is the lack of ability dueto inadequate resources? Salience
  • 23. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y IncentivesIs the lack of ability dueto inadequate training? Salience
  • 24. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y IncentivesIs the lack of ability dueto inadequate aptitude? Salience
  • 25. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y IncentivesIs the lack of motivation due to poorly understood or unmotivating expectations? Salience
  • 26. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y IncentivesIs the lack of motivation due to rewards not being linked to performance, or being unfair? Salience
  • 27. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y IncentivesIs the lack of motivation due to unsalient rewards? Salience
  • 28. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Once you get to the root Salience cause, then you can start working on solutions.
  • 29. Performance Diagnosis Model Resources Ability Y Training Aptitude N NPerception Y Expectations Motivation Y Incentives Keep in mind we’ll just be covering Salience solutions in brief. In reality, each could be it’s own detailed presentation.
  • 30. Enhancing Ability
  • 31. Enhancing AbilityResources Training Aptitude To enhance ability, use the “Five R’s”.
  • 32. Enhancing AbilityResources Training Aptitude To get the most out of them, use them in this order.
  • 33. Enhancing Ability Resources Training Aptitude ResupplyProvide the resources the person needs.
  • 34. Enhancing AbilityResources Training Aptitude Retrain Help the person develop the skills they need.
  • 35. Enhancing AbilityResources Training Aptitude Refit Reassign Align the person’s responsibilities with their capabilities…
  • 36. Enhancing AbilityResources Training Aptitude Refit Reassign …or find a position that suits their capabilities.
  • 37. Enhancing Ability Resources Training Aptitude If none of the first four R’s work, and the issue is indeed with ability, thenRelease unfortunately it’s time to let them find an opportunity where they can succeed.
  • 38. Enhancing Ability Resources Training AptitudeRelease Somewhere else.
  • 39. Enhancing Ability Resources Training Aptitude Fired!Release
  • 40. Enhancing Ability Resources Training Aptitude I prefer “managed outRelease of the organization…”
  • 41. EnhancingMotivation
  • 42. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience Set SMART Feedback Goals SMART goals and feedback canclarify expectations. Make sure touse two-way communication whensetting goals and giving feedback.
  • 43. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience Linked, Fair Rewards Provide incentives, and make sure that they are fair and linked to performance.
  • 44. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience Rewards that Matter Provide meaningful rewards that matter.
  • 45. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience Rewards that Matter But what kind of rewards really matter?
  • 46. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience Imagine you work in a library…
  • 47. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience …and you want to motivate your employees to find misplaced books and put them where they belong.
  • 48. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience You have the idea…
  • 49. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience …the brilliant idea…
  • 50. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience …to hide lollipops in random places, thinking that this will motivate employees to look for misplaced books…
  • 51. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience …only to realize…
  • 52. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience Ain’t no one cares about lollipops.
  • 53. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience That’s “salience” - making sure rewards are meaningful.
  • 54. Enhancing Motivation Expectations Incentives Salience But if lollipops aren’t salient, what is?!?!
  • 55. Intrinsic and Extrinsic
  • 56. Intrinsic and Extrinsic There are two basic kinds of motivators.
  • 57. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Extrinsic motivators are based on actions taken by another – money, feedback, awards, etc.
  • 58. Intrinsic and Extrinsic
  • 59. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Intrinsic motivators are self- administered, and include things like satisfaction from a job well done.
  • 60. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Because they are self-administered they are much more direct, and thus much more powerful.
  • 61. Intrinsic and Extrinsic There are many needs theories out there…
  • 62. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
  • 63. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Herzberg’s Two- Factor Model.
  • 64. Intrinsic and Extrinsic McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y.
  • 65. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Lewin’s Force Field Theory.
  • 66. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Locke’s Goal Theory.
  • 67. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Vroom’s Expectancy Theory.
  • 68. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Taylor’s Scientific Management.
  • 69. Intrinsic and Extrinsic That’s not a very good one.
  • 70. Intrinsic and Extrinsic McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory.
  • 71. Intrinsic and Extrinsic To name a few.
  • 72. Intrinsic and Extrinsic We’re going to look briefly at another theory, presented by Dan Pink…
  • 73. Intrinsic and Extrinsic …and see how it relates to intrinsic motivation.
  • 74. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Those who are familiar with other theories should be able to see how it fits into those frameworks.
  • 75. Motivation 3.0
  • 76. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory Pink analogizes that the world is like a computer, running on a motivation OS.
  • 77. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory
  • 78. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory Back in the early days of the world, we ran on Motivation 1.0 Motivation 1.0 Four F’s
  • 79. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory This OS was based on biological needs, like the 4 F’s. Motivation 1.0 Four F’s
  • 80. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory Feeding, Fighting, Fleeing, and Mating. Motivation 1.0 Four F’s
  • 81. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory Ha Motivation 1.0 Four F’s
  • 82. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory But we grew civilized, formed societies, and added rewards and punishments to the equation.
  • 83. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory Enter Motivation 2.0 - carrots and sticks.
  • 84. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory (Rewards and punishments)
  • 85. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory But Pink argues that in our day and age, using only carrots (rewards) and sticks (punishments) is outdated.
  • 86. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory We need Motivation 3.0
  • 87. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory And just to review why we’re interested in Motivation 3.0…
  • 88. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory Salience People need salient rewards to be motivated, and the most salient rewards are intrinsic.
  • 89. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory SalienceAutonomy Mastery Purpose Motivation 3.0 suggests three specific types of intrinsic rewards.
  • 90. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory Salience Autonomy Mastery PurposeTask – WhatTime – WhenTechnique – HowTeam – With whomAccountabilityComplete autonomy, and a ROWE (results only work environment) may be hard, butgiving people increasing control over their decisions, and holding them accountable to their choices, is certainly possible.
  • 91. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory SalienceAutonomy Mastery Purpose A Pain A Mindset An Asymptote Mastery won’t be achieved overnight, but helping people to work towards it will help them find fulfillment and remain engaged.
  • 92. Dan Pink’s Drive Theory SalienceAutonomy Mastery Purpose Being part of something BIGGER than yourself While “profit maximization” is important, “purpose maximization” is become more and more important for individuals as well.
  • 93. What Now?
  • 94. Use the performance diagnosis model as a way to deal with performance issues.Ability problems are fairly straightforward. Motivation problems can be trickier.
  • 95. Task Time Technique Team A good start to enhancing motivation is to start by increasing autonomy. Use Pink’s framework as a springboard…
  • 96. Task Time Technique Team ? ? ? ? …to brainstorm areas where decision-making power could be delegated down to others.
  • 97. Conclusion
  • 98. The Input/Output model is inaccurate Good performance is dependent on ability and motivationThe Performance Diagnosis Model helps create effective solutions Ability is a function of supply, training, and aptitude Motivation is a function of expectations, incentive, and salience Enhance ability with the Five R’s Resort to termination only as a last resort when other efforts failEnhance motivation through thoughtful and meaningful incentivesIntrinsic rewards are much more powerful than extrinsic rewardsMotivation 2.0 (carrots and sticks) is outdated in the modern age Motivation 3.0 can harness the power of intrinsic rewards Motivation 3.0 includes autonomy, mastery, and purpose
  • 99. Employee of the Month Abraham Maslow Leon Festinger Frederick Herzberg Edward Deci Performance Douglas McGregor Management Daniel Larsen Ability, Motivation, and Getting the Performance You’re Looking ForDaniel Larsen - http://www.linkedin.com/pub/daniel-larsen/19/8b8/910