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The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle
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The menstrual cycle

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  • 1. Menstrual cycle
  • 2. DEFINITION • Rhythmical series of physiological changes that occur in fertile women • Under the control of the endocrine system • Necessary for reproduction • Average length: 28 days, but typically varies, with shorter and longer cycles
  • 3. DEFINITION • Menarche: a woman's first menstruation – typically occurs around age 12 – occurrence depends on overall health and diet • Menopause: end of a woman's reproductive phase, commonly occurs between ages 45 and 55 – age of menopause is largely the result of genetics
  • 4. DEFINITION • Physiological changes during menstrual cycle can be observed at three different levels: – neuroendocrine level – ovaries – uterus • Menstrual cycle can be divided into 3 phases: – menstrual phase – proliferative / follicular (estrogen) phase – secretory / luteal phase (progesterone) phase
  • 5. Phase Average start and end day (assuming a 28-day cycle) Menstrual phase 1-4 Proliferative phase 5-13 Ovulation 13-16 Secretory phase 16-28
  • 6. MENSTRUAL PHASE • Menstruation – menstrual bleeding, menses, period – discharge of bloody fluid containing endometrial cells, glandular secretions and blood cells, lasts 3 -5 days – result of the previous menstrual cycle – due to strong vasoconstriction and proteolytic activity, functional stratum of endometrial tissue dies and is discharged during menstrual bleeding
  • 7. MENSTRUAL PHASE • Endometrium becomes very thin, but due to low estrogen levels, hypophysis secretes more FSH • FSH stimulates secretion of estrogen, and estrogen serves as proliferation signal to the endometrial basal layer
  • 8. FOLLICULAR PHASE • Due to the rise of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during the first days of the cycle, several ovarian follicles are stimulated • Follicles compete with each other for dominance • The follicle that reaches maturity is called a Graafian follicle
  • 9. FOLLICULAR PHASE • As they mature, the follicles secrete increasing amounts of estrogen, which thickens the new functional layer of endometrium in the uterus • Estrogen also stimulates crypts in the cervix to produce fertile cervical mucus • At the end of this phase ovulation occurs
  • 10. OVULATION • During the follicular phase, estrogen suppresses production of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland • When the ovum has nearly matured, levels of estrogen reach a threshold above which they stimulate production of LH (positive feedback loop) • The release of LH matures the ovum and weakens the wall of the follicle in the ovary, causing the fully developed follicle to release its secondary oocyte • After being released from the ovary, the ovum is swept into the fallopian tube
  • 11. LUTEAL PHASE • Corpus luteum: solid body formed in an ovary after the ovum has been released into the fallopian tube • Produces significant amounts of progesterone, which plays a vital role in making the endometrium receptive to implantation of the blastocyst • High levels of E and P suppress production of FSH and LH that the corpus luteum needs to maintain itself • Falling levels of progesterone trigger menstruation and the beginning of the next cycle
  • 12. CYCLE ABNORMALITIES • Anovulation • Anovulatory cycle • Hypomenorrhea • Metrorrhagia • Oligomenorrhea • Amenorrhea • Polymenorrhea

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