B18 mendel genetics vocab powerpoint


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B18 mendel genetics vocab powerpoint

  1. 1. Biology Week 18Mendel, Heredity, and GeneticsChapter 10.1 Pg. 253 Explain why • some brown eyed parents may have blue eyed children, while • other brown eyed parents cannotGregor Mendel (1822-1884)The Father of Genetics
  2. 2. Eye color is a trait – a characteristic Different forms of the same that can be trait (gene) are called alleles. What are two alleles for eye color? inherited Traits are coded for by sections of DNA called genes which make up chromosomes in the nucleus
  3. 3. Heredity Genetics  The passing on of  the branch of characteristics from parents to offspring biology that studies heredityWrite observations for each generation.
  4. 4. Trait Characteristics that are inherited
  5. 5. Gamete A male or female sex cell, has 1 set of chromosomes, half of the amount of a normal body cell A human male A human female A human body gamete has + gamete has = cell has 1 set of 1 set of 2 sets of23 chromosomes 23 chromosomes 23 chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes
  6. 6. Fertilization When the male gamete unites with the female gamete The first cell is called a zygote
  7. 7. Zygote The cell which results from the fusing of male and female gametes, which will develop into a seed Female gamete Male gamete
  8. 8. Pollination The transfer of pollen grains in a plant from a male reproductive organ to a female reproductive organ
  9. 9. Hybrid The offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait, such as yellow or green – which below is a hybrid?
  10. 10. Allele Different gene forms,ex. for eye color B (brown) or b (blue)
  11. 11. Dominant Recessive Traits that  traits that don’t always appear, can be masked always appear, by dominant alleles, CAPITAL LETTER  lower case
  12. 12. Human Traits: autosomal 1. Shape of face (probably polygenic) Oval dominant, square recessive 2. Cleft in chin No cleft dominant, cleft recessive 3. Hair curl (probably polygenic)     Assume incomplete dominance Curly:  homozygous Wavy:  heterozygous Straight: homozygous 4. Hairline Widow peak dominant, straight hairline recessive 5. Eyebrow size Broad dominant, slender recessive 6. Eyebrow shape Separated dominant, joined recessive 7. Eyelash length Long dominant, short recessive 8. Dimples Dimples dominant, no dimples recessive 9. Earlobes Free lobe dominant, attached recessive 10. Eye shape  Almond dominant, round recessive 11. Freckles  Freckles dominant, no freckles recessive 12. Tongue rolling Roller dominant, nonroller recessive 13. Tongue folding Inability dominant, ability recessive 14. Finger mid-digital hair   Hair dominant, no hair recessive 15. Hitch-hikers thumb Straight thumb dominant, hitch-hiker thumb recessive 16. Bent little finger Bent dominant, straight recessive 17. Interlaced fingers Left thumb over right dominant, right over left recessive 18. Hair on back of hand Hair dominant, no hair recessive 19. Tendons of Palmar MuscleTwo tendons dominant, three tendons recessive
  13. 13. Law of Segregation States that every individual has two alleles of each gene (ex. TT, Tt, or tt) and when gametes are produced, each gamete receives one of these alleles
  14. 14. Phenotype Genotype The way an  The alleles that organism looks and an organism has behaves
  15. 15. Homozygous An organism that has the same two alleles for a trait, like TT or tt
  16. 16. Heterozygous An organism that has different alleles for a trait, like Tt
  17. 17. Law of Independent Assortment States that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
  18. 18. Punnett Square Predicts the proportion of genotypes in the offspring produced by a cross Aa aa Aa aa
  19. 19. Monohybrid Dihybrid Cross Cross (mono-, "one, single"):  (di-, "two"): a cross a cross involving one involving two set of alleles, different alleles ex. Aa x Aa RrYy x RrYy
  20. 20. Mahalo!