Presentation 4 fractures

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  • Stress fractures are small cracks in bones caused by overuse They happen when muscles become incapable of absorbing the stress of repetitive pounding on the body. The bones absorb the shock which causes them to crack Generally occur in the tibia and weight bearing bones of the feet
  • Presentation 4 fractures

    1. 1. Fractures Biology 120 Chapter 4 Allyson Lofgren
    2. 2. Fractures <ul><li>What are fractures? </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures are breaks in bone or cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Most fractures are caused by trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Bone diseases like cancer and osteoporosis make an individual more vulnerable to fractures since they weaken the bone </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fractures <ul><li>Three examples of fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Stress Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Comminuted Fractures </li></ul>
    4. 4. Stress Fractures <ul><li>What are stress fractures? </li></ul><ul><li>Stress fractures are small cracks in bones caused by overuse </li></ul><ul><li>They happen when muscles become incapable of absorbing the stress of repetitive pounding on the body. The bones absorb the shock which causes them to crack </li></ul><ul><li>Generally occur in the tibia and weight bearing bones of the feet </li></ul>
    5. 5. Contributing Factors in Stress Fractures <ul><ul><li>Increasing intensity and volume of training too quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no variation or periodization of training (i.e. runners who only run to train) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating in high impact sports like as track, tennis and gymnastics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using worn out equipment and/or practicing on hard surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive dieting and/or too low calcium and vitamin D intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis or osteopenia </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Symptoms and Treatment of Stress Fractures <ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation that worsens while active and decreases with rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walking boot, brace and/or crutches are used to reduce stress on the fracture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acetaminophen </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Spiral Fractures <ul><li>What are spiral fractures? </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral fractures, which are also called torsion fractures, resemble a corkscrew in x-rays. </li></ul><ul><li>They happen as a result of a twisting injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally occur in the tibia, fibula, radius and ulna. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Contributing Factors in Spiral Fractures <ul><ul><li>Participating in fast paced athletic activities such as skiing. Quick,transverse movements can cause these injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child abuse consisting of grabbing and twisting is another potential cause of spiral fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis or osteopenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone Cancers </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Symptoms and Treatment of Spiral Fractures <ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to bear weight on affected area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the shape of the fracture, healing time can be long. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery to plate and screw the bone internally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery to externally pin the bone to hold it in place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Casts to immobilize the bone </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Comminuted Fractures <ul><li>What are comminuted fractures? </li></ul><ul><li>Comminuted fractures are fractures that consist of at least 3 bone shards </li></ul><ul><li>They happen when the body is subjected to serious trauma or intense pressure like a major fall, traffic accident or bullet wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually surgery is required to treat a comminuted fracture </li></ul>
    11. 11. Symptoms and Contributing Factors in Comminuted Fractures <ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense swelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected area is hot to the touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to bear weight on affected area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often a compound fracture. Bone breaks skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone cancers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis and osteopenia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low calcium and vitamin D intake </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Treatment and Potential Complications of Comminuted Fractures <ul><ul><li>Treatments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most communited fractures require surgery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgically installed plates and screws </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External pins and splinting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stitches and/or surgical staples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acetaminophen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics if surgery and/or skin is broken </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential Complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avascular necrosis: bone tissue dies because blood cannot deliver oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atrophic non-union: callus does not form because blood cannot deliver oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Works Cited <ul><li>Book </li></ul><ul><li>Fremgen, Bonnie F. and Frucht, Suzanne S. “Musculoskeletal System” Medical Terminology: a Living Language . 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. 96-97. Print </li></ul><ul><li>Website </li></ul><ul><li>Mayo Clinic Staff, “Stress Fractures”, www.mayoclinic.com , http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-fractures/DS00556 </li></ul><ul><li>Nakate, Shashank, “Spiral Fracture:, 1/21/10, www.buzzle.com , http://www.buzzle.com/articles/spiral-fracture.html </li></ul><ul><li>American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Staff, “Stress Fractures”, 10/07, www.aaos.org , http:// orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00112 </li></ul>

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