Topics today• The beginnings and development of scholarly communication – what is it and how did it start?• Why do we publish?• How does it work?• Problems, challenges and possibilities today
DefinitionsWhat is scholarly communication?”How scholars find information, create knowledge, and communicate among themselves, with students, and beyond the academy with other audiences.” (Scholarly Communication Institute)
Scope and issuesExamples:• Author rights• Economics• Visibility• New models of publishing (e.g. Open Access)• Rights and access for the public• Preservation• …
In the beginning…• In the 17th century, scholars would meet to present and discuss papers and ideas. They also corresponded in private letters.• As the correspondence and the number of scholars increased, scholarly journals emerged. Photo: free as a ladybird (2009). (License CC-BY-SA)
Scholarly journals 1Le Journal des SçavansandPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Societywere both first published in 1665! Photo: Wikimedia, Public Domain.
Scholarly journals 2In the 18th – 19th century:• Specialised disciplines• Scientific priority• Public archiving Photo: On Being (2009), License CC-BY-NC-SA.
Scholarly journals 3In the 20th century:• Huge increase in scientific research after the Second World War• Commercial publishers take over• Electronic publishing Photo: At.morey.tota (2008). Public Domain.
Scholarly journals 4In the 21st century…?• The journal crisis• The Impact Factor• Open Access publishing• The Social Web Photo: Gideon Burton, CC-• … licens BY-SA
How does it work?Traditionally, scholars within academia create the information.These scholars then turn to publishers to produce and package the information.Libraries purchase the information from the publishers, organize it, and provide access to the publications.This allows for the dissemination of the scholarly information and continued use of it.
Why publish?• To finish/report results of a research project• To establish priority – first with these results!• To get more funding• To disseminate results• Quality control (peer review)• Archival issues
The publishing process• Finished project• Manuscript• Find suitable journal• Submit manuscript• Assessment by editor (within journal scope?)• Sent to peer review (rejected or accepted? Changes? Big or minor?)• Changes made by author (final proof)• Final acceptance• ’Cosmetic’ editing by journal (fonts, pagination, logotype…)• Publication!
So… what’s wrong with that, then?• It’s a public good in private hands!• Very few, very large publishers write the rules ($$)• Financial barrier text - reader• Exclusion of both scholars and other readers• Tax payers have no access to research they paid for• = Hampers the progress of both science and society!• …to name just a few things…
Interactions in the conventional publishing world: Stock owners PUBLISHER PROFIT and societies FREE $$$ ”FREE”SCHOLARS LIBRARY $$$ $$$ Government/ funds University
Background to Open AccessThe journal crisis + the Internet.Researchers and information specialists worldwide began to see a potential solution in the 1990s.Open Access is a new way of organising the distribution of scientific information.
Open Access 1What is Open Access?Open Access = ”free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to full texts of these articles” (The Berlin Declaration, 2003)
Open Access 2How do I publish Open Access?There are two ways!• By publishing in an Open Access journal or• By publishing in a traditional scientific journal AND depositing a copy in an institutional archive, like Epsilon. This is called parallel publishing or self- archiving.
A note: Scientific journals• Traditional journals• Open Access journals• Hybrid journals All three types of journals are peer reviewed!
A note: Parallel publishing• Allowed by most big publishers and many small• The best of both worlds• Absolutely free• Maximum dissemination• The SLU vice-chancellor strongly encourages it (policy 2008)• Deposit your text in the Epsilon Open Archive, managed by the SLU Library
Another note: Publishers and parallel publishing• Elsevier (if NOT mandated!)• Springer Verlag• Cambridge University Press they all allow parallel publishing of post-printsOthers allow parallel publishing with some restrictions (for example: embargo period), while others disagree with parallel publishing.Read carefully before signing anything!You can check the policy of the publisher at SHERPA/RoMEO (http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/). (More later)
Open Access 3This is catching on all over the world… Just a few examples:• The Swedish Research Council (VR) mandates OA publishing• FORMAS mandates OA publishing• NIH (National Institute of Health, USA) mandates OA publishing• All UK Reasearch Councils mandate OA• And the SLU Open Access policy!
Open Access 4Some advantages with OA publishing:• Faster turnaround time – faster dissemination of research results• Benefits the progress of science• Greater visibility - More citations (according to many studies)!• Searchable and retrieveable on the web (Google et al)• Ethics: Developing countries’ researchers and the general public have access. ”Science is public knowledge”.
Open Access 5Some possible disadvantages with OA publishing:• Someone still has to pay – who?• Loss of prestige??• Loss of quality?? Myths!• Risk of plagiarism increased??• And for the commercial publishers: losing a lot of power and money!
University Open access policiesSLU Open access policy:On the 11th of February 2008 the SLU Vice-Chancellor signed a policy where SLU scholars are urged to publish Open Access when possible (Dnr SLU ua 11-474/08)Many other universities have stronger mandates in favour of OA:• Chalmers Tekniska Högskola• Malmö Högskola• Harvard University• MIT
OA Journals and other OA scientificpublications and resources How do I find them ?
Some Open Access publishers• Public Library of Science (PLoS)• BioMed Central• Hindawi
The SLU Open Access policy- some benefits with OA publishing• Increased visibility of SLU research.• Publishing in Epsilon’s Open Archive can normally take place when the publication has been accepted by the journal.• Increased spread of SLU material.• Institutions in developing countries, where SLU has collaborative projects, can take part of the scientific results from SLU.• Savings in terms of reduced print costs.• Publications from SLU are stored in a comprehensive archive.• The archive is safe for long term depositing.
Where you publish makes adifference!Each author’s choice of where to publish adds another brick to a complex publishing structure.Your choice may have a dramatic effect on how accessible, or inaccessible, your research is.Your decision can limit or facilitate others’ digital access to significant research. (The Stanford Lane Medical Library)
Please feel free to contact me with questions about electronic publishing and open access: Jenny Ericsson, Alnarp library firstname.lastname@example.org 040-415049 http://www. .slu.se/en/library/publish/