Anterior open bite by almuzian

1,660 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,660
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
144
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Anterior open bite by almuzian

  1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW Anterior open bite & high angle case Personal notes Dr. Mohammed Almuzian 1/1/2013 .
  2. 2. Table of Contents Definition........................................................................................................................................ 3 Incidence......................................................................................................................................... 3 True rotation, matrix rotation & apparent total rotation as described by Bjork 1969 .................... 5 Predictors of skeletal open bite....................................................................................................... 6 Features of high angle or long face syndrome................................................................................ 8 Overbite and Open bite................................................................................................................. 10 Indication of treatment.................................................................................................................. 10 The etiology can be classified into................................................................................................ 10 Treatment is dependent on the...................................................................................................... 13 Methods of treatment .................................................................................................................... 13 In details........................................................................................................................................ 14 1. For sucking habit ................................................................................................................... 14 Prevention of digit-sucking sucking habits, BOS guidelines 2000.......................................... 15 Treatment of digit-sucking habits, BOS guidelines 2000 ........................................................ 15 Correction of Problems Caused by Habit................................................................................. 16 2. For mouth breather ................................................................................................................ 16 3. For tongue thrust.................................................................................................................... 16 4. Myofunctional Therapy......................................................................................................... 16 5. Extraoral Traction.................................................................................................................. 18 6. Fixed Appliances ................................................................................................................... 19 8. Molar intrusion using skeletal anchorage.............................................................................. 20 9. Repelling magnets ................................................................................................................. 21 10. Orthognathic Surgery......................................................................................................... 22 11. Adjunctive procedure......................................................................................................... 22
  3. 3. Stability of AOB ........................................................................................................................... 22 Management of relapse................................................................................................................. 23 Difficulty associated with the treatment of AOB, Burford 2003 Sandler 2011............................ 23 Posterior open bite ........................................................................................................................ 24 Caused by...................................................................................................................................... 24 Treatment ...................................................................................................................................... 24 Summary of the evidences............................................................................................................ 24 Anterior open bite & high angle case
  4. 4. Definition  Dental AOB: It is present when there is no incisor contact and no vertical overlap of the lower incisors by the uppers (Houston, 1996). The severity varies, from almost an edge-to-edge relationship to a severe handicapping open bite.  The skeletal AOB is mainly due to growth problem that is associated with un-balanced growth between the AFH and PFH leading to posterior growth rotation and AOB. It characterized by increased in AFH, shortened PFH, steep MP, divergent facial profile and antegonial notch. Classification (worms 1971)  Pseudo pen bite which means that there is positive vertical overlap between U and L incisors with no contact.  True open bite: loss of vertical overlap Incidence  In children is 4% at age 9 years, falling to 2% by the early teenagers (O’Brien, 1993).  One measure of the importance of the inherited characteristics is the incidence of AOB in black and white individuals in the USA.  Blacks are 8 times more likely to have an AOB.  Worms 1971 showed 50% reduction from age of 7 till 12 (from 13.5% to 3.7%) Type of growth of the mandible Nielsen et al 1991 1. Normally A. The direction of condylar growth is vertical, with some anterior component, B. Always there is a balance between APH and PFH growth to achieve normal FH. If this is lost then either long or short face might develop C. AFH depend on the 1. Eruption of the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth 2. Growth at the posterior dentoalveolar area
  5. 5. 3. The amount of sutural lowering of the maxilla. 4. Surface remodelling at the anterior region of the mandible D. PFH depend on the 1. Downward growth of posterior cranial fossa 2. Lowering of the temporomandibular fossae 3. Condylar growth. 4. Surface remodeling at the posterior region of the mandible 2. In anterior or forward rotation  If the incisor occlusion is stable, the overbite remains unchanged during the growth period & the fulcruming point is located at the front teeth.  If the incisor occlusion is unstable, the fulcruming point is located further back along the occlusal plane. In this situation the bite normally becomes increasingly deep over time as the result of greater posterior face height increase in combination with lack of anterior tooth contact. This deterioration of the occlusion is most pronounced during puberty when growth intensity is at its greatest, but continues throughout the growth period. Patients with a pronounced tendency to anterior growth rotation and a deep bite should therefore be treated early and the occlusion supported throughout the growth period. Retention, especially in the mandibular arch, must also be maintained until mandibular growth is completed.  The erupting dentition in this type of mandibular growth characteristically undergoes a considerable amount of mesial migration of both the maxillary and mandibular teeth with some degree of proclination of the mandibular incisors. Where the amount of mesial migration of the lower posterior teeth does not equal the advancement of the incisors by proclination (due to trapping behind upper incisors), secondary crowding of the front teeth frequently develops. 3. In posterior rotation of the mandible
  6. 6.  If dentoalveolar growth is greater than vertical condylar growth, the resulting change in mandibular position is back ward or posterior rotation of the mandible. The increase in AFH is greater than in PFH, the mandible rotates posteriorly with the fulcrum at the condyle.  This posterior growth rotation may result in an anterior open bite, depending on the extent of vertical dentoalveolar compensation.  The associated dental eruption pattern of the posterior teeth is generally distal & vertical and in some instances the anterior teeth may even become more retroclined with time. Late crowding is common finding in this pattern of growth due to soft tissue maturation.  Because the centre for the growth rotation is located near the mandibular condyles, treatment should be postponed until after puberty or at least until the potential for backward or posterior rotation is reduced. The reason for late treatment is that A. The tendency to extrude the posterior teeth decreases when there is less active growth. B. In addition when treated orthodontically these patients are at increased risk for further mechanically induced posterior rotation by acceleration of their molar eruption and require careful control. C. The increased risk of extrusion in these patients is associated with their weaker masticatory musculature making vertical control an important consideration. True rotation, matrix rotation & apparent total rotation as described by Bjork 1969  The actual rotation or total rotation in humans is generally masked on average by 50% surface modelling within the jaws.  In a recent study of non-human primates, it was found that this modelling or intramatrix rotation in the Rhesus monkey masked the rotations by about 75% in the maxilla and 90% in the mandible.
  7. 7.  This surface modelling causes, in most instances, the lower border of the mandible to appear almost unchanged in its inclination to the cranial base and has led to misinterpretations of the actual growth changes and tooth movements in humans.  An example of this is seen in Figure below where the change in mandibular lower border inclination over time, the so-called matrix rotation, was -7.3° whereas the actual, or true rotation, was as much as -16.4° anteriorly Predictors of skeletal open bite A. Bjork's structural signs (Bjork, 1969) B. PFH:AFH ratio (Jarabak ratio) C. UAFH-LAFH ratio : Nahoum (1975) D. Molar and incisor dentoalveolar (Neilsen, 1991). E. Dung and Smith technique F. The degree of dentoalveolar compensation or dysplatic compensation Bjork 1969 A. Bjork's structural signs help to predict type of growth rotation , (Skieller and Bjork, 1969) 1. A backward inclination of the condyles; 2. A flat mandibular canal; 3. A lower border that is thinner anteriorly and convex, due to minimal remodelling along the lower border of the mandible and bony deposition at the posterior border of the ramus; 4. The symphysis is inclined backward within the face and the chin is receding; 5. The interincisor angle decreased 6. Interpremolar and intermolar angles are all decreased; 7. The lower anterior face height is increased and there is an anterior open bite.
  8. 8. The authors reported that a combination of four variables ccounted for 86% of the variability observed. B. PFH:AFH ratio (Jarabak ratio) Jarabak, 1972  PFH:AFH, 59 – 63% is normal;  if 64 low angle case, deep OB;  58 high angle case, reduced OB C. UAFH-LAFH ratio: Nahoum (1975) believed that patients with a dental open bite and a UAFH- LAFH ratio of less than 65% (normally they are equal) are considered to be poor risks for conventional orthodontic treatment alone. D. Increased dentoalveolar height in molar region and reduced dentoalveolar height in incisor region due to strong muscle allowing molar eruption. (Neilsen, 1991). E. Dung and Smith Dung and Smith’s sample (1988). SN/MP angle 40º or greater OP/MP angle 22º or greater MxP/MnP angle 32º or greater AOB negative overbite PFH/AFH (Jarabak ratio 58% or less UFH/LFH (Nahoum ratio) 0.65 or less A seventh measurement was used, namely, the overbite depth indicator (ODI) 68 This was described by Kim in 1974, and is described as the angle the A-B plane makes with the mandibular plane combined with the angle of the palatal plane to the Frankfort horizontal. PP- FH is positive it is added this value from AB-MP and vice versa. A value of less than 68º is said
  9. 9. to indicate an open bite tendency. The value of this analysis is that it proposes to identify those patients who have an open bite tendency and identifies open bite patients who have a good potential for orthodontic correction.  The only measurements that were statistically significant were the overbite depth indicator (ODI) and the presence of an open bite at the start of treatment. F. The degree of dentoalveolar compensation or dysplatic compensation First described by Bjork 1969 and later discussed by Solow. These can be measured through the following:  In the maxilla, the maxillary zone, measured as the angle between the palatal plane (ANS-PNS) and the maxillary occlusal plane (mean 10°±3 ), describes the extent of compensatory or dysplastic development.  In the mandible, the mandibular zone, measured between the mandibular plane (GO-GN) and the mandibular occlusal plane (mean 20°±4°), similarly describes possible compensation.  If one or both of these measurements are increased in a patient with an increased vertical jaw relation, favorable dentoalveolar compensation is indicated.  On the other hand, if these measurements are normal or reduced in the same patient, either no compensation or dysplastic development has taken place.  This will help in determine the type of treatment. Eg. If the high angle case has no compensation or has dysplastic development, then treatment can be achieved through orthodontic treatment to initiate this compensation, but if the compensation is already present then the case is surgical. Features of anterior open bite angle and/or long face syndrome A. Skeletal feature
  10. 10. 1. Tapered facial type. 2. Long lower third of the face, 3. Long maxilla 4. Short mandible 5. Short ramus 6. Class II skeletal relationship B. Cephalometric feature. 1. Enlarged adenoid seeing in the ceph 2. Increased dentoalveolar height in molar region and reduced dentoalveolar height in incisor region due to weak muscle allowing molar eruption. (Neilsen, 1991) 3. Bjork’s seven features of posterior growth rotation (Bjork, 1969) 4. Jarabak ratio: 58 high angle case, reduced OB 5. UAFH-LAFH ratio: less than 65% 6. The overbite depth indicator (ODI) less than 68 degree C. Soft tissue features 1. Long lower third of the face, 2. Narrow nose 3. Narrow alar bases 4. Decreased nasolabial angle 5. Incompetent lip 6. VME & excessive exposure of maxillary anterior teeth and gingiva at rest and smiling which is due to dentoalveolar compensation of the anterior part of the maxilla to compensate for AOB. 7. Retruded chin D. Intraoral features 1. Open bite 2. Class 2 tendency 3. Increased overjet 4. Narrow upper arch 5. Crowded LLS E. Growth feature Usually posterior growth rotation
  11. 11. F. Path of closure Usually normal or may be associated with unilateral cross bite and mandibular displacement G. IOTN and OB  Overbite measured from any of the lateral or central incisors with the largest vertical discrepancy is recorded. Overbite and Open bite Overbite Open bite Grade and qualifier Grade and qualifier 2f Increased greater Than Or equal to 3.5 mm 2e Anterior or posterior open bite 0-2mm 3f Deep overbite complete on labial or palatal 'issues but no Trauma 3e Anterior or posterior open bite 2.1 mm — 4 mm 4f Increased and complete overbite with labial or palatal trauma 4e Extreme lateral open bites greater than 4 mm Indication of treatment 1. Difficulty with incision of food 2. Speech problems like lisping 3. Dental and facial appearance The etiology can be classified into 1. Transitional physiological factors 2. Skeletal factors 3. Soft tissue factors  Muscle of mastication  Neurological disturbances
  12. 12.  Chronic nasal obstruction  Adenoids 4. Habits,  Digit Sucking Habits.  Endogenous (primary) thrust 5. Pathology  Inflammatory  Hormonal 6. Traumatic 7. Local Dental factors 8. Iatrogenic factors 9. Combination In details 1. Transitional physiological causes, as the permanent incisors are erupting 2. Skeletal factors A. Genetic Vertical growth pattern more genetically correlated than horizontal one; if you had the long face in one generation then chances are high that you would have a long face in the next generation. (Hunter 1968) B. Environmental which subdivided into: I. Inflammatory: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis An inflammatory arthritis occurring before the age of 16 years and involving the temporomandibular joints can result in the development of a severe class II malocclusion and AOB due to restricted growth of the mandible II. Hormonal: Excessive growth hormone Overproduction of growth hormone from an anterior pituitary tumour causes gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults. In both circumstances, the patient presents with a worsening class III malocclusion characterized by mandibular excess and AOB. III. Traumatic:The condyle is the commonest site of fracture in the mandible during childhood and many go undiagnosed. In severe cases with bilateral fracture and dislocation from the glenoid
  13. 13. fossa, an anterior open bite can be one of the presenting features due to a loss in ramus height. A long-term sequelae of early trauma to the mandibular condyle can be asymmetry, with an ipsilateral decrease in ramus height and deviation of the chin point to the affected side.The severity of outcome is in part related to the age at the time of injury. However, a high percentage of children sustaining a condylar fracture have normal mandibular growth due to the reparative capacity of the condyle, even when displaced from the glenoid fossa. 3. Soft tissue factors I. Muscle of mastication: Hunt 1997 & Benington 1999 showed large muscle fibres in deep bite and small size muscle fibres in AOB. This again is classified under the genetic effect II. Neurological disturbances and Muscle weakness III. Chronic nasal obstruction (Solow & Tallgren 1976) IV. Adenoids (Aronson, 1979). However, Vig (1985) that “ the magnitude of the morphological difference attributed to adenoid removal was far too small to be of any clinical significance” 4. Habits, I. Digit Sucking Habits.  The incidence of digit sucking is around 30% at 1 year of age, reducing to 12% at 9 years and 2% by 12 years. Most persistent suckers are female (Brenchely, 1992).  The severity of the malocclusion depends on the age of the patient, the intensity, frequency and duration of the habit. Larsson, 1987 II. Long term pacifier (Larsson 1987) III. Endogenous (primary) thrust  Very rare & affects 1% of population  Usually associated with lack of neuromuscular control e.g. Downs syndrome  May cause AOB which is difficult to close  Usually associated with a lisp, bimaxillary proclination, reverse COS in the lower and deep COS in the upper. The diagnosis is therapeutic which means the high tendency to relapse after treatment. 5. Local Dental factors  Localized failure of development of anterior teeth  Over eruption of posterior teeth
  14. 14.  Proclination of incisors 6. Idiopathic factors Idiopathic like idiopathic condylar resorption 7. Combination Treatment is dependent on the 1. Age 2. Family history 3. Medical condition 4. Growth 5. Concerns 6. Profile 7. Etiology 8. Severity 9. Intra and intermamaxillary relationship 10. Compliance 11. Clinician philosophy Methods of treatment For sucking habit For mouth breather For tongue thrust Myofunctional Therapy Muscle exercise  Vertical holding appliance  Spring-loaded bite block  Passive posterior bite-blocks  The functional regulator appliance (FR IV) Myofunctional+EOA combination Therapy  Teuscher activator  BIS  MIS  Concorde appliance
  15. 15.  Van Beek appliance  Twin block appliance modifications including: 1. TB with high-pull headgear inserted in the flying spring 2. Thick Twin block appliance 3. TB with occlusal stopper 4. Avoid trimming the appliance Extraoral Traction  Vertical pull chin-cup  High-pull headgear Fixed Appliances  Extraction of terminal molars  Bracket set up  Wire bending  Tongue timer which act as a tongue thrust breaker  Vertical intermaxillary elastics  Segmental arch mechanics  Kim mechanics  Modified Kim mechanics Molar intrusion using skeletal anchorage Repelling magnets Orthognathic Surgery Adjunctive procedure In details 1. For sucking habit Please refer to my summary about Digit sucking & dummy-sucking habit
  16. 16. Prevention of digit-sucking sucking habits, BOS guidelines 2000 1. If a dummy is provided, there appear to be fewer problems in the long-term, because the majority of dummy sucking habits are self-limiting and stop before eruption of the permanent teeth. Any persistent dummy sucking habit is easily broken by removal of the dummy. 2. It has been suggested that if a digit-sucking habit is noticed, a dummy should be given to the child. 3. If a dummy is used, it must not be sweetened. After the age of 2, to prevent problems with speech development, it should be used as little as possible during the day Treatment of digit-sucking habits, BOS guidelines 2000 1. The child must want to stop otherwise any approach is likely to be unsuccessful. 2. A child who is undergoing severe psychological trauma is unlikely to respond to habit breaking. A psychologist’s input may be required 3. The use of orthodontic pacifiers which is oval shape and has a vent to reduce the effect of dummies. 4. The following methods for breaking the habit are listed in the order in which they should be used: A. Non-physical methods  Explanation  Reward  Habit reversal Teach the child to carry out alternative activities when they have the urge to suck the digit B. Physical methods Reminder therapy like finger bandage, finger paint or thermoplastic finger post C. Intra-oral appliances These deterrent appliances have been shown to be effective within 10 months. They must be fitted with the full understanding and co-operation of the child and must not compromise compliance with any future orthodontic treatment.  Fixed appliance like palatal appliance with crib or Blue grass appliance (Huang 1990)  Removable appliance  Functional appliance can stop habit
  17. 17. Correction of Problems Caused by Habit Active orthodontic treatment should not be attempted until the habit is broken. Fortunately, most of the problems created by the habit are reversible once the habit is eliminated. It has been suggested that digit-sucking beyond the age of 7 has been associated with an increased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment 2. For mouth breather Although prolonged mouth breathing may be a contributory factor for malocclusion, it is not necessarily the main etiological factor. Therefore, adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy is not recommended in the prevention of malocclusion and should be done for medical purposes only. Another justification for not performing elective adenoidectomy in mouth breather is the high risk of prion disease transmission. 3. For tongue thrust  Parker (1971) used spurs soldered to upper central incisor bands to produce dramatic changes in anterior open bite and posterior crossbite by altering tongue posture. The suggestion is that anterior tongue posture is responsible for anterior open bites in cases of normal skeletal proportions with no history of a digit sucking habit. The tongue spurs should be placed approximately 3-4 mm behind the upper incisors and should be angled backwards and downwards so that they establish a positive overlap with the lower incisors. Tongue spurs might cause psychological problems Haryett et al (1967, 1970). Careful explanation of the purpose of tongue spurs is therefore essential before embarking on treatment. Huang et al (1990) showed a similar results. Tongue cribs or spurs should be worn for six months after a positive over bite is achieved; careful patient motivation is required and sharpened spurs are preferred to smooth ones. The spurs may be carried over to the retainer if desired.  Sometime for primary tongue thrust glossotomy is recommended. 4. Myofunctional Therapy 1. Muscle exercise described by Laurie Park 2007 (Patients were instructed to clench their teeth together as hard as possible for 15 seconds and to repeat this process at least four times for a total
  18. 18. of one minute; this one-minute exercise was to be performed as often as possible throughout the day). 2. Vertical holding appliance (TPA with acrylic pad that kept away from palate and rely on the tongue force to intrude the posterior teeth. 3. Spring-loaded bite block, the spring-loaded bite block has helical springs that are placed both lingually and buccally between the first premolar region and the last molar region. The ends of the springs are embedded occlusally in the molar regions of the acrylic part of the device. The upper and lower acrylic occlusal blocks are connected by palatal and lingual wires, which are activated to a force of 450 g bilaterally. Patients are instructed to use the appliance for an average of 16 h daily 4. Passive posterior bite-blocks are functional appliances that are used to open the bite 3–4 mm beyond the rest position. In growing patients, this inhibits the increase in height of the buccal dentoalveolar processes, thus preventing a downwards and backwards rotation of the mandible. It also allows differential eruption to occur as the labial segments can erupt unhindered, hence closing the AOB. 5. The functional regulator appliance (FR IV) It works by allowing vertical eruption of upper and lower incisors and retraction of the maxillary incisors, and may also encourage upward and forward mandibular rotation. Cochrane review, by Oliveira , 2007 showed that there is weak evidence that the interventions FR-4 with lip-seal training and palatal crib associated with high- pull chin cup are able to correct anterior open bite. Given that the trials included have potential bias, these results must be viewed with caution. 6. Teuscher activator 7. BIS 8. MIS
  19. 19. 9. Concorde appliance 10. Van Beek appliance 11. Twin block appliance modifications including:  TB with high-pull headgear inserted in the flying spring can be utilized to correct the anteroposterior discrepancy while controlling the vertical dimension. Park 2001  Thick Twin block appliance: The ramps measure 5 mm to 8 mm in thickness in the premolar region. This impinges on the patient's freeway space, which, in turn, results in increased masseter tension. This tension not only restricts vertical descent of the maxillary posterior teeth, but also produces a relative intrusion of the posterior aspect of the maxilla in growing patients." This phenomenon, which is called the bite-block effect, provides excellent vertical control. Although long-term studies documenting the results of this treatment are not yet available, the early results are promising. Clark 2010  TB with occlusal stopper  Avoid trimming the appliance 5. Extraoral Traction 1. Vertical pull chin-cup therapy has been used to limit excessive vertical growth and has been shown to close AOBs when combined with premolar extractions and fixed appliances as well as palatal crib 2. High-pull headgear applied to the maxillary molar teeth worn for 14 hours per day has been used to inhibit eruption of the posterior teeth and hence limit vertical growth. Many strategies available including:  High pull headgear to a maxillary splint.  High pull headgear to buccal splint.  Headgear can be applied directly to the upper molar bands of a fixed appliance . Cochrane review, by Oliveira , 2007 showed that there is weak evidence that the interventions FR-4 with lip-seal training and palatal crib associated with high-pull chin cup are able to correct anterior open bite. Given that the trials included have potential bias, these results must be viewed with caution.
  20. 20. 6. Fixed Appliances Anterior open bites can be closed using fixed appliances with A. Extraction of terminal molars B. Bracket set up (more gingival at anterior teeth, reduced canine tipping) C. Wire bending to allow incisor extrusion D. Tongue timer which act as a tongue thrust breaker E. Vertical intermaxillary elastics to extrude the anterior teeth. Use of anterior elastics may be successful in patients in whom a digit sucking habit has artificially inhibited eruption, but should not be used if the etiology is primarily skeletal. F. Segmental arch mechanics using 17*17 elgioalloy to extrude the incisor similar to Rickets mechanics. G. Kim mechanics  Also, it has been noted that one of the features of a skeletal anterior open bite is mesial tipping of the molars, resulting in rotation of the occlusal plane (Kim, 1987).  Therefore, by uprighting the molars the anterior open bite can be closed. This can be achieved using multi-loop archwires or curved nickel– titanium wires, creating an increased curve of Spee in the maxillary arch and a reduced curve of Spee in the mandibular arch combined with anterior elastics.  To help upright and distalize the buccal dentition again, loss of the terminal molar is recommended.  Using a multiloop edgewise archwire appliance in conjunction with heavy anterior elastics has been shown to achieve molar intrusion and simultaneous incisor extrusion in the closure of anterior open bites.  This is usually achieved using multiloop edgewise archwires made from 0.016 x 0.022 stainless steel archwires. Kim recommends an 0.018” slot and standard edgewise brackets for reasons that are obscure.  Use of the technique with an 0.022” straight-wire appliance system has produced no problems.
  21. 21.  The archwires are an ideal shape with five L-lopps on each side starting from between the lateral incisors and canine and working distally until between 6s and 7s.  The vertical dimensions of the loops should be 2-3 mm and the horizontal dimensions 5 mm except in the molar region where it is increased to 8 mm. Tip backs of 3-5º are placed on each loop.  This effectively produces a curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse curve of Spee in the lower arch.  These are counteracted by placing 3/16” heavy elastics vertically between the most anterior loops in the maxilla and mandible.  This transfers all the active force in the archwire to the posterior segments thus intruding and uprighting the posterior buccal segments.  When the terminal molars are out of contact and no further reduction of the anterior open bite occurs; at this stage, flat 0.016” x 0.022” archwires are placed to upright the molars while continuing the anterior elastics.  H. Modified Kim mechanics  For some years clinicians have used reverse curve nickel-titanium archwires instead of multiloop wires and they seem to work well. Enacar et al (1996) and (Harradine and Birnie, 2000).  Hooks are provided by using crimpable hooks. 7. Molar intrusion using skeletal anchorage Like Dental implants, mini-plates, mini-screws , ankylosed teeth (Cousely 2008 use TPA with two palatal TAD for posterior teeth intrusion, while Etilita et al 2012 use TPA with two buccal TAD). Park et al (2008). This technique showed that the pd is improved as the crestal bone is moved more coronal and thus improving the crown root ratio. Byani 2012 The following points should be considered:  consider the skeletal relationship including the vertical, transverse, and anterior-posterior relations. For example, a skeletal class 2 open bite with a long anterior facial height can be
  22. 22. treated successfully by the intrusion of the posterior teeth as this would produce a closing counterclockwise rotation of the mandible with a shortening of the anterior facial height and a correction of the open bite. Sugawara et al (2002) reported that during intrusion of the molars with a skeletal anchorage system, the anterior lower facial height, mandibular plane angle, and ANB difference reduced significantly, whereas the overbite and Wits appraisal increased significantly. Hence, the intrusion of the molars is best suited to skeletal open bite patients who show long face types with class 1 or mild class 2 skeletal patterns whereas in class 3 open bites, the class 3 malocclusion would get worse as the anterior open bite closed  Incisor exposure at rest and smile are important objectives to consider before treatment. Patients who do not show sufficient incisor exposure should not be treated by molar intrusion, making the more conventional method of incisor extrusion a more suitable option for open bite correction  Periodontal condition should be carefully considered.  For patients with a dual occlusal plane, segmental intrusion of the posterior buccal segments is indicated. However, during the active intrusion phase, careful monitoring of the first, second, and third order relationship of the intruded molars should be monitored. This can be achieved by a. placing miniscrews on both the buccal and palatal, b. using a transpalatal bar or a splint c. An alternative design of splint 8. Repelling magnets (Kiliaridis, 1990) Kalra, Burstone and Nanda (1989) have suggested that magnets may be beneficial in treating anterior open bites by: • intruding upper and lower posterior teeth so as to allow mandibular autorotation • distracting the condyle downwards and forwards to allow compensatory condylar growth which would again favour mandibular autorotation
  23. 23. 9. Orthognathic Surgery  Where there is an obvious step in the occlusal plane, two piece maxilla  No step, one piece maxilla.  Subapical osteotomy of the anterior (Kole technique) or posterior segment (Schuchart technique)depend on the etiology  Recently Bisase 2009 recommend anticlockwise rotation of BSSO with rigid fixtion. 10. Adjunctive procedure  Glossectomies. Their effectiveness in closing anterior or posterior open bite problems has not been substantiated (Proffit, 1990).  Surgical procedures to improve the patency of the airway  Occlusal equilibration (Janson 2008)  Corticotomy assisted molar intrusion (Akay 2009) Stability of AOB 1. In general: AOBs treatment is stable in approximately 80% of treated cases with slightly better with surgical treatment than non-surgical (5% differences).(Huang, 2002). Lopez-Gavito 1985 showed that 1/3 is lost. 2. Extraction: There is also evidence of greater stability of open bite correction when orthodontic treatment is undertaken with extractions (Janson et al., 2006). 3. Extrusion or intrusion: In treatment resulting in molars intrusion, the rate of relapse ranges from 17 to 30%: whilst in treatments with incisor extrusion, relapse may be even greater, reaching sometimes 40% of treated cases. (Suguwara 2011) Causes of relapse  Continued unfavorable posterior mandibular growth rotation  Unfavorable tongue position  Continued habit  Excessive extrusion of incisors  Relapse after surgery
  24. 24. Management of relapse  Overcorrection is recommended to compensate for any relapse.  Using headgear attached to a URA with a high pull direction of force untile growth cessed.  Retainer with passive bite blocks, which supposedly place intrusive forces on the posterior teeth, could be used &should be continued until facial growth has almost ceased and this is often well into late teens.  Some recommend lip and tongue muscle exercises once a day, which was supervised once a week by a speech and language therapist  Daytime wraparound retention with modified contour, in which the wire is engaged in the CEJ to counteract the intrusion relapse of anterior teeth, usually this is used at day time while at night a different appliance is used but with tongue crib.  PFR can be used as removable retainer with posterior bite plane. If the tongue play a role in the open bite then holes or spur in the palate can help to minimize the relapse.  Fixed Modified Nance-Hyrake appliance to train the tongue Difficulty associated with the treatment of AOB, Burford 2003 Sandler 2011 1. Tendency to vertical growth rotation which worsens the class 2 and makes the use of functional appliance challenging 2. Most of the orthodontic treatment are extrusive which make the treatment worse 3. Quick loss of the extraction space for two reasons: the masticatory muscles restrict the posterior mandibular teeth more than their maxillary counterparts; and the thin cortices and
  25. 25. trabecular bone of the maxilla provide less resistance to movement than the thick cortices and more dense trabeculae of the mandible 4. Poor soft tissue compliance that make stability poor Posterior open bite Caused by 1. Failure of eruption 2. Tongue interfere with eruption 3. Trauma and Ankylosis 4. Hemimandibualr hyperplasia when the vertical compensation is not sufficient Treatment 1. Habit breaker posteriorly 2. Composite build up 3. Orthodontic extrusion by FA or TAD 4. Segemental dentoalveolar osteotomy 5. Segemental maxillary or mandibular surgery Summary of the evidences  Definition: Dental AOB: It is present when there is no incisor contact and no vertical overlap of the lower incisors by the uppers (Houston, 1996).  Incidence: In U children is 4% at age 9 years, falling to 2% by the early teenagers (O’Brien, 1993).  Type of growth of the mandible: Nielsen et al 1991  True rotation, matrix rotation & apparent total rotation as described by Bjork 1969  Bjork's structural signs help to predict type of growth rotation , (Bjork, 1969)  PFH:AFH ratio (Jarabak ratio) Jarabak, 1972, 58 high angle case, reduced OB  UAFH-LAFH ratio: Nahoum (1975) believed that patients with a dental open bite and a UAFH-
  26. 26. LAFH ratio of less than 65% (normally they are equal) are considered to be poor risks for conventional orthodontic treatment alone.  Increased dentoalveolar height in molar region and reduced dentoalveolar height in incisor region due to strong muscle allowing molar eruption. (Neilsen, 1991).  Dung and Smith (1988).  Overbite depth indicator (ODI) Kim in 1974  Skeletal factors: Mainly genetically in origin. Vertical growth pattern more genetically correlated than horizontal one; if you had the long face in one generation then chances are that you would have a long face in the next generation. (Hunter 1968)  Soft tissue factors : Muscle of mastication: Hunt 1997 & Benington 1999 showed large muscle fibres in deep bite and small size muscle fibres in AOB  Chronic nasal obstruction (Solow & Tallgren 1976)  Adenoids (Aronson, 1979).  Digit Sucking Habits: The incidence of digit sucking is around 30% at 1 year of age, reducing to 12% at 9 years and 2% by 12 years. Most persistent suckers are female (Brenchely, 1992).  The severity of the malocclusion depends on the age of the patient, the intensity, frequency and duration of the habit. Larsson, 1987  Prevention of digit-sucking sucking habits, BOS guidelines 2000  Myofunctional Therapy : Muscle exercise described by Laurie Park 2007  The functional regulator appliance (FR IV) Cochrane review, by Oliveira , 2007 showed that there is weak evidence that the interventions FR-4 with lip-seal training and palatal crib associated with high-pull chin cup are able to correct anterior open bite. Given that the trials included have potential bias, these results must be viewed with caution.  TB with high-pull headgear inserted in the flying spring can be utilized to correct the anteroposterior discrepancy while controlling the vertical dimension. Park 2001  Thick Twin block appliance: This phenomenon, which is called the bite-block effect, provides excellent vertical control. Although long-term studies documenting the results of this treatment are not yet available, the early results are promising. Clark 2010  Kim mechanics, (Kim, 1987).  Modified Kim mechanics, for some years clinicians have used reverse curve nickel-titanium
  27. 27. arch-wires instead of multiloope wires and they seem to work well (Harradine and Birnie, 2000).  Molar intrusion using skeletal anchorage: Like Dental implants, mini-plates, mini-screws , ankylosed teeth (Cousely 2008 use TPA with two palatal TAD for posterior teeth intrusion, while Etilita et al 2012 use TPA with two buccal TAD)  In general: AOBs tend to relapse in approximately 20% of treated cases.(Huang, 2002)  Extraction: There is also evidence of greater stability of open bite correction when orthodontic treatment is undertaken with extractions (Janson et al., 2006).  Extrusion or intrusion: In treatment resulting in molars intrusion, the rate of relapse ranges from 17 to 30%: whilst in treatments with incisor extrusion, relapse may be even greater, reaching some-times 40% of treated cases. (Suguwara 2011)

×