Injury of Cranial Nerve <br />Injury to the cranial nerve is a frequent complication of a fracture in the base of the cranium. <br /> some of causes: <br />Trauma, tumor and aneurysm <br />
CN I Olfactory Nerve<br />Not real nerves, why?<br />Directly from the receptor to the center of vision! <br />
Injury of CN I <br />Anosmia<br />loss of smell.<br />Causes: <br />- Loss of olfactory fibers usually occurs whith aging <br />- Injury to the nasal mucosa, olfactory nerve fibers, olfactory bulbs, or olfactory tract may impair smell <br />
Injury of CN I <br />2. Olfactory Hallucination: <br />False preception of smell <br />Causes: <br />Lesion in the temporal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere “temporal lobe epilepsy” <br />Characterized by: <br /><ul><li>Imaginary disagreeable odors
Involuntary movement of the lips and tongue. </li></li></ul><li>CN II Optic Nerve<br />Vision<br />Intraocular movement (+ III)<br />Blinking (+ V & VII)<br />Circadian rhythm<br />
Injury of CN II <br />Demyelinateing: Diseases and the Optic Nerve. <br />- The optic nerve are actually CNS tract surrounded by myelin sheath. Consequently, the optic nerves are susceptible to the effects of demyelinating disease of the CNS , such as multiple sclerosis(MS), which usually don’t affect other nerves of the PNS. <br />
Injury of CN II <br />2. Optic neuritis<br />optic neuritis refers to lesions of the optic nerve that cause diminution of visual acuity Optic neuritis may be caused by inflammatory , degenerative , demyelinating , or toxic disorder<br />
Injury of CN II <br />3. Visual field defect: <br />Visual field defects result from lesions that affect different parts of the visual pathway<br />
Injury of CN III <br />Ptosis<br />Causes: A lesion of CN III results in ipsilateraloculomotor palsy <br />Characterized by: <br />- Dilated pupil. <br /><ul><li>Pupillary reflex on the side of the lesion will be lost.
eyes turned down and out. </li></li></ul><li>Injury of CN IV <br />- The Trochlear nerve is relay pralyzed alone. <br /><ul><li>Lesion of the nerve or it’s nucleus paralysis of the superior oblique and impair the ability to turn the affected eyeball inferpmedially
Meningeal infection </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the V <br />Causes the following: <br /><ul><li>Paralysis of the muscle of mastication
Loss of the ability to appreciate soft tactile, thermal, or painful sensation in the face.
Loss of corneal reflex </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the VI <br />Paralysis of Abducent nerve result from: <br /><ul><li>Neurysm of the cerebral arterial circle (at the base of the brain)
Pressure from an atherosclerotic internal carotid artery in the cavernous sinus.
Septic thrombosis of the sinus subsequent to infection in the nasal cavities or paranasal sinus. </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the VII <br />Injury of Facial nerve result from: <br /><ul><li>Laceration or contusion in parotid region
Intracranial hematoma “stroke” </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the VI <br />Causes the following: <br /><ul><li>Causing paralysis of the lateral rectus.
Medial deviation of the affected eye. </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the VII <br />Causing: <br /><ul><li>Bell’s palsy: paralysis of facial muscle; eye remains; angle of mouth droops; forehead does not wrinkle.
Dry cornea; loss of taste on anterior two third of tongue.
Paralysis of contralateral facial muscle. </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the VIII <br />Lesion of Vestibulocochlear nerve may cause: <br /><ul><li>Tinnitus: ringing or buzzing in ear.
Loss of sensation on affected side of soft palate. </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the X <br />Injury of Vagus nerve results from: <br /><ul><li>Cancer of the larynx and thyroid gland
Injury during surgery on (thyroid gland, neck, esophagus, heart, and lungs) </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the X <br />Injury of Vagus nerve results in: <br /><ul><li>Dysphagia: difficulty in swallowing.
Inspiratorystridor: high respiratory sound. </li></li></ul><li>Injury of the XI <br />Injury to the spinal accessory nerve: <br />Susceptible to injury durring surgical procedures such as lymph node biopsy, cannulation of the internal jugular vien, and carotid endarterectomy. <br />
Injury of the XII <br />Injury to the Hypoglossal nerve:<br />Paralyzes the ipsilateral half of the tongue, it’s apex deviate toward the paralyzed side. <br />
Fathers of Neuroscience<br />Camillo Golgi <br />(1843-1926)<br />Santiago Ramon y Cajal<br /> (1852-1934)<br />
Father of Neurosurgery & Father of Neurology<br />Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939)<br />Jean-Martin Charcot<br />(1825-1893)<br />
A CLINICAL LESSON AT "LA SALPETRIERE."<br />Joseph Babinski, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Henri Parinaud<br />Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Sigmund Freud, <br />Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Axel Munthe, and Alfred Binet<br />
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