Injury of Cranial Nerve Injury to the cranial nerve is a frequent complication of a fracture in the base of the cranium. some of causes: Trauma, tumor and aneurysm
CN I Olfactory Nerve Not real nerves, why? Directly from the receptor to the center of vision!
Injury of CN I Anosmia loss of smell. Causes: - Loss of olfactory fibers usually occurs whith aging - Injury to the nasal mucosa, olfactory nerve fibers, olfactory bulbs, or olfactory tract may impair smell
Injury of CN I 2. Olfactory Hallucination: False preception of smell Causes: Lesion in the temporal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere “temporal lobe epilepsy” Characterized by:
CN II Optic Nerve Vision Intraocular movement (+ III) Blinking (+ V & VII) Circadian rhythm
Injury of CN II Demyelinateing: Diseases and the Optic Nerve. - The optic nerve are actually CNS tract surrounded by myelin sheath. Consequently, the optic nerves are susceptible to the effects of demyelinating disease of the CNS , such as multiple sclerosis(MS), which usually don’t affect other nerves of the PNS.
Injury of CN II 2. Optic neuritis optic neuritis refers to lesions of the optic nerve that cause diminution of visual acuity Optic neuritis may be caused by inflammatory , degenerative , demyelinating , or toxic disorder
Injury of CN II 3. Visual field defect: Visual field defects result from lesions that affect different parts of the visual pathway
Injury of the XI Injury to the spinal accessory nerve: Susceptible to injury durring surgical procedures such as lymph node biopsy, cannulation of the internal jugular vien, and carotid endarterectomy.
Injury of the XII Injury to the Hypoglossal nerve: Paralyzes the ipsilateral half of the tongue, it’s apex deviate toward the paralyzed side.
Fathers of Neuroscience Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934)
Father of Neurosurgery & Father of Neurology Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939) Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
A CLINICAL LESSON AT "LA SALPETRIERE." Joseph Babinski, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Henri Parinaud Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Sigmund Freud, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Axel Munthe, and Alfred Binet