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Injury Of Cranial Nerve

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this info. from clinically orented anatomy

this info. from clinically orented anatomy

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  • 1. Injury of Cranial Nerve
    By: Huda Almubarak
  • 2. Cranial Nerves
    CN I
    CN II
    CN III, IV, & VI
    CN V
    CN VII,
    CN VIII
    CN IX & X
    CN XI
    CN XII
  • 3. Memorize 2-3 sections/division
  • 4. Injury of Cranial Nerve
    Injury to the cranial nerve is a frequent complication of a fracture in the base of the cranium.
    some of causes:
    Trauma, tumor and aneurysm
  • 5. CN I Olfactory Nerve
    Not real nerves, why?
    Directly from the receptor to the center of vision!
  • 6. Injury of CN I
    Anosmia
    loss of smell.
    Causes:
    - Loss of olfactory fibers usually occurs whith aging
    - Injury to the nasal mucosa, olfactory nerve fibers, olfactory bulbs, or olfactory tract may impair smell
  • 7. Injury of CN I
    2. Olfactory Hallucination:
    False preception of smell
    Causes:
    Lesion in the temporal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere “temporal lobe epilepsy”
    Characterized by:
    • Imaginary disagreeable odors
    • 8. Involuntary movement of the lips and tongue.
  • CN II Optic Nerve
    Vision
    Intraocular movement (+ III)
    Blinking (+ V & VII)
    Circadian rhythm
  • 9. Injury of CN II
    Demyelinateing: Diseases and the Optic Nerve.
    - The optic nerve are actually CNS tract surrounded by myelin sheath. Consequently, the optic nerves are susceptible to the effects of demyelinating disease of the CNS , such as multiple sclerosis(MS), which usually don’t affect other nerves of the PNS.
  • 10. Injury of CN II
    2. Optic neuritis
    optic neuritis refers to lesions of the optic nerve that cause diminution of visual acuity Optic neuritis may be caused by inflammatory , degenerative , demyelinating , or toxic disorder
  • 11. Injury of CN II
    3. Visual field defect:
    Visual field defects result from lesions that affect different parts of the visual pathway
  • 12.
  • 13. Injury of CN III
    Ptosis
    Causes: A lesion of CN III results in ipsilateraloculomotor palsy
    Characterized by:
    - Dilated pupil.
    • Pupillary reflex on the side of the lesion will be lost.
    • 14. eyes turned down and out.
  • Injury of CN IV
    - The Trochlear nerve is relay pralyzed alone.
    • Lesion of the nerve or it’s nucleus paralysis of the superior oblique and impair the ability to turn the affected eyeball inferpmedially
    • 15. characteristic sign:
    Diplopia “double vision” when looking down.
  • 16. Injury of the V
    Trigeminal Nerve injured by:
  • Injury of the V
    Causes the following:
    • Paralysis of the muscle of mastication
    • 20. Loss of the ability to appreciate soft tactile, thermal, or painful sensation in the face.
    • 21. Loss of corneal reflex
  • Injury of the VI
    Paralysis of Abducent nerve result from:
    • Neurysm of the cerebral arterial circle (at the base of the brain)
    • 22. Pressure from an atherosclerotic internal carotid artery in the cavernous sinus.
    • 23. Septic thrombosis of the sinus subsequent to infection in the nasal cavities or paranasal sinus.
  • Injury of the VII
    Injury of Facial nerve result from:
    • Laceration or contusion in parotid region
    • 24. Fracture of temporal bone
    • 25. Intracranial hematoma “stroke”
  • Injury of the VI
    Causes the following:
    • Causing paralysis of the lateral rectus.
    • 26. Medial deviation of the affected eye.
  • Injury of the VII
    Causing:
    • Bell’s palsy: paralysis of facial muscle; eye remains; angle of mouth droops; forehead does not wrinkle.
    • 27. Dry cornea; loss of taste on anterior two third of tongue.
    • 28. Paralysis of contralateral facial muscle.
  • Injury of the VIII
    Lesion of Vestibulocochlear nerve may cause:
    • Tinnitus: ringing or buzzing in ear.
    • 29. Vertigo: dizziness, loss of balance.
    • 30. Impairment or loss of hearing.
  • Injury of the IX
    Isolate lesion of Glossopharyngel nerve is uncommon. Result from:
  • Injury of the IX
    Causing:
    • Taste is absent on the posterior third of tongue.
    • 32. Change in swallowing
    • 33. Loss of sensation on affected side of soft palate.
  • Injury of the X
    Injury of Vagus nerve results from:
    • Cancer of the larynx and thyroid gland
    • 34. Injury during surgery on (thyroid gland, neck, esophagus, heart, and lungs)
  • Injury of the X
    Injury of Vagus nerve results in:
    • Dysphagia: difficulty in swallowing.
    • 35. Dysphonia: difficulty in speaking.
    • 36. Aphonia: loss of voice.
    • 37. Inspiratorystridor: high respiratory sound.
  • Injury of the XI
    Injury to the spinal accessory nerve:
    Susceptible to injury durring surgical procedures such as lymph node biopsy, cannulation of the internal jugular vien, and carotid endarterectomy.
  • 38. Injury of the XII
    Injury to the Hypoglossal nerve:
    Paralyzes the ipsilateral half of the tongue, it’s apex deviate toward the paralyzed side.
  • 39. Fathers of Neuroscience
    Camillo Golgi
    (1843-1926)
    Santiago Ramon y Cajal
    (1852-1934)
  • 40. Father of Neurosurgery & Father of Neurology
    Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939)
    Jean-Martin Charcot
    (1825-1893)
  • 41. A CLINICAL LESSON AT "LA SALPETRIERE."
    Joseph Babinski, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Henri Parinaud
    Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Sigmund Freud,
    Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Axel Munthe, and Alfred Binet

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