Ppt Lesson 04
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  • 1. Lesson 4 How a Computer Processes Data Unit 1—Computer Basics
  • 2. Objectives
    • Identify computer system components.
    • Explain how the CPU works.
    • Differentiate between RAM and ROM.
    • Describe how data is represented.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 3. Computer Systems
    • A computer system requires many components to do its job:
      • It requires some device or method to input data so it can be processed.
      • It requires circuit boards and programs to process the data.
      • It needs some type of output device to display the result of its processing.
      • It needs some mechanism for storing data.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 4. Common System Components Computer Concepts BASICS - - This figure shows several devices that are common components of a computer system.
  • 5. System Motherboard
    • The motherboard contains the electronic circuitry of the computer.
    • Components found on the motherboard include
      • The primary processing chip (CPU)
      • The memory chips
      • Expansion slots for system interface cards
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 6. System Motherboard (cont.)
    • Components found on a motherboard (cont.)
      • Ports for connecting external devices
      • BIOS chips that control system startup
      • The circuitry that enables all of these components to communicate
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 7. Example of a Motherboard Computer Concepts BASICS - - This figure shows the devices inside a PC case including the motherboard, the power supply, and some storage devices.
  • 8. The Central Processing Unit
    • The CPU is the brains of a computer system.
    • The CPU is housed on a silicon chip that contains millions of switches and circuits.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 9. The Central Processing Unit (cont.)
    • The CPU has two primary sections:
      • Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
        • This section performs arithmetic and logical operations.
      • Control unit
        • This section is the boss of the CPU and coordinates all activity within the CPU.
        • It uses programming instructions to control what actions the CPU performs and when it performs them.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 10. A CPU Chip Computer Concepts BASICS - - This figure shows a CPU chip for a small computer. Computer programs are written in programming languages. Each program statement causes one or more actions to occur in the CPU. The CPU determines which of the millions of switches that it contains should be turned on or off by processing program statements that tell it what to do.
  • 11. Computer Memory
    • Data being processed by a CPU is stored in system memory.
    • Memory consists of addressable locations within the machine that the computer can access directly.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 12. Computer Memory (cont.)
    • Data stored in memory is volatile.
      • If the power fails, everything in memory is lost.
    • Data must be stored on a disk or some other device when not being processed so it is not lost each time the computer shuts down.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 13. Types of Memory
    • RAM —Random Access Memory
      • RAM is short-term memory in which data is processed while a program is running.
      • Data stored here can be accessed and modified as needed.
      • This type of memory loses any data it holds if the computer is shut down.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 14. Types of Memory (cont.)
    • ROM —Read-Only Memory
      • ROM is memory placed on the motherboard by the manufacturer and contains instructions that tell the computer how to start itself.
      • This data cannot be accessed or modified by application programs.
      • The contents of this memory are not lost when the computer is shut down.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 15. The Instruction and Execution Cycles Computer Concepts BASICS - - The execution cycle is the amount of time required to execute the instruction and store the results. This figure illustrates the basic machine cycle involved in processing a program statement. The instruction cycle is the amount of time required to read and decode the instruction.
  • 16. The Machine Cycle Computer Concepts BASICS - - Machine cycles are measured in microseconds. The faster your computer can process machine cycles, the faster it can process data. The instruction cycle and one or more execution cycles create a machine cycle .
  • 17. Computer System Controllers
    • A PC motherboard contains several controllers.
    • Controllers are devices that control the transfer of data between the computer and peripheral devices.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 18. Computer System Controllers (cont.)
    • Common peripheral devices include a mouse, monitor, printer, keyboard, and so on.
    • Controllers usually are found on a single chip that can handle all common devices.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 19. Ports
    • Serial and parallel ports are used to connect peripheral devices to the computer circuitry.
      • Serial devices (mice/monitors) transmit data one bit at a time.
      • Parallel devices (printers) transmit data several bits at time.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 20. Ports (cont.)
    • USB is a newer, high-speed method of connecting devices and is beginning to replace serial and parallel ports.
      • USB can connect up to 127 external devices.
    • Firewire is another high-speed method.
      • Firewire can connect up to 63 external devices.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 21. Expansion Slots
    • Expansion slots are electrical connections in the motherboard that can accept circuit cards to perform specific functions.
    • These commonly are used to plug in sound cards, video cards, scanners, and other devices.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 22. A Typical Expansion Card Computer Concepts BASICS - - Electrical prongs along the bottom are used to plug into the expansion slot and make an electrical connection to the main board. This port protrudes from the back of the PC case and is used to attach the device that this card controls.
  • 23. Data Representation
    • Data is stored in a computer in binary format as a series of 1s and 0s.
    • Computers use standardized coding systems (such as ASCII) to determine what character or number is represented by what series of binary digits.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 24. Data Representation (cont.)
    • Data is stored in a series of 8-bit combinations called a byte.
    • Every letter, number, punctuation mark, or symbol has its own unique combination of 1s and 0s.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 25. Summary
    • Just about all computers perform the same general options: input, processing, output, and storage.
    • Input, output, and processing devices grouped together represent a computer system.
    • The motherboard is the center of all processing.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 26. Summary (cont.)
    • The motherboard contains the CPU, memory, and basic controllers for the system.
    • The motherboard also contains ports and expansion slots.
    • The central processing unit is the brains of the computer.
    • The computer is given instructions through computer programs.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 27. Summary (cont.)
    • The CPU has two main sections—the arithmetic logic unit and the control unit.
    • All calculations and comparisons take place in the ALU.
    • The control unit coordinates the CPU activities.
    • The motherboard contains different types of memory.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 28. Summary (cont.)
    • The machine cycle is made up of the instruction cycle and the execution cycle.
    • Random access memory is volatile and is used to store instructions, data, and information temporarily.
    • Read-only memory is nonvolatile and is used to store permanent instructions needed for computer operations.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 29. Summary (cont.)
    • A controller is used to control the transfer of data between the computer and peripheral devices.
    • Expansion slots contain expansion boards.
    • Expansion boards are used to connect specialized peripheral devices or to add more memory to the computer.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 30. Summary (cont.)
    • Peripheral devices are connected to the computer through serial and parallel ports.
    • The Universal Serial Bus is a newer standard expected to replace serial and parallel ports.
    • FireWire is a type of external bus that can connect up to 63 external devices.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -
  • 31. Summary (cont.)
    • SCSI, IrDA, and Bluetooth are special-purpose ports.
    • The ASCII and EBCDIC codes are standard codes used to represent the alphabet, numbers, symbols, and punctuation marks.
    Computer Concepts BASICS - -