Android & Android Phones Prepared by: Allyza Ann C. Alcid
What is Android?• Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later purchased in 2005,Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008.
• Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License. This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language. In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Androids primary app store, was 25 billion.
History of Android• Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T- Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV) to develop, in Rubins words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owners location and preferences". Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones. That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.
Interface• Androids user interface is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on- screen objects. The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers,gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel
MANUFACTURER USES ANDROID?• Android is a open source platform which can be used by any phone manufacturers on the world.Unlike other operating systems for mobile phones like iOS(Operating system by apple for iPhone, iPad and other iDevices.) Symbain is owned by Nokia and it comes only on Nokia Handsets.Android can be used by any manufacturer. So that if the latest research is to be believed over half of the smartphones in usa run on android.
Usage share of Android versions• Usage share of the different versions as of December 3, 2012• Usage share of the different versions as of February 5, 2013. Most Android devices to date still run the older OS version 2.3 Gingerbread that was released on December 6, 2010, due to most lower-end devices still being released with it.
Versions Distribution Version Code name Release date API level (February 5, 2013) November 13, 4.2 Jelly Bean 17 1.4% 2012 4.1.x Jelly Bean July 9, 2012 16 12.2% Ice Cream December 16, 4.0.x 15 29.0% Sandwich 2011 3.2 Honeycomb July 15, 2011 13 1.0% 3.1 Honeycomb May 10, 2011 12 0.3% February 9,2.3.3–2.3.7 Gingerbread 10 45.4% 2011 December 6,2.3–2.3.2 Gingerbread 9 0.2% 2010 2.2 Froyo May 20, 2010 8 8.1% October 26, 2.0–2.1 Eclair 7 2.2% 2009 September 15, 1.6 Donut 4 0.2% 2009
Applications• Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the applications APK file from a third-party site.] The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Googles compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the users device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download,and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the users monthly bill. As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion.
• Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools,including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks.• In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead.
Android Phones:• An Android phone is a smartphone running on Googles open-source Android operating system. Many different manufacturers make Android phones, including HTC, Motorola, and Samsung. Dozens and dozens of different Android phones are now available, and all of the major cellular carriers in the U.S. offer Android phones.
• An Android™ phone, sometimes called a Droid™ phone, is a mobile telephone that uses the Google-developed Android™ operating system. This operating system has become a popular option in recent years for so-called "smart phones," because developers and manufacturers may freely customize it to their specific needs. This customization means that different Android™ phones can have widely varying user interfaces. Most smart phones — including those using competing operating systems — offer similar overall capabilities, however, including Internet browsing, personal information management, video streaming, and access to a large repository of freeware and payware applications.
Multitasking• An Android™ phone can run multiple applications at the same time in the background, making multitasking easier. This makes the functionality of the phone more fluid than some competing platforms, although the extent of this capability depends on the hardware of the individual phone. Some handsets use multicore processors, which are more useful for "power users" who need their phones to run multiple simultaneous operations.
SDK• Android™ offers a Software Development Kit (SDK) to help developers create functional applications. While some parts of the Android™ operating system are protected under the Apache™ License to guard against applications that could compromise the phones basic functionality, much of it is released under the General Public License, which invites developers to freely make modifications. The SDK includes extensive resources and tools to facilitate this sort of development. It is updated regularly, together with the operating system itself, and a priority is placed upon supporting work on both newer and older versions of Android™.
To choose best Android• Select a cellular carrier that is currently carrying Android phones. Some carriers may have a carrier-specific version of Android, which could ultimately impact your decision.• Decide between a multi-touch display, a traditional physical QWERTY keyboard, or a hybrid; this will greatly narrow down your search.• Decide on the size and quality of the screen. Four inches has become the norm for multi-touch screens on smartphones, though they can go as big as five inches and as small as three. If you plan on watching HD video, 1280 x 720 (720p), is ideal. Any lower than that and the screen will be more pixelated and worse. Avoid lower than 320 x 480 resolution.• Choosing a phone with the technology you require is key. For example, if you would like to take high quality pictures, a device with a high mega-pixel camerais ideal. Likewise, if you’d like to use specific third-party peripherals, Bluetoothtechnology or integrated ports may be necessary.
• Consider the memory capacity. Those that want to store music, videos, photos, and other files on their device will require higher internal memory storage or the ability to add expandable memory storage.• Consider the CPU (or processor) that the phone runs on. This is very important, as a higher CPU operating frequency allows you to do heavier multitasking and assures quicker global phone responsiveness and operation. A Quad Core processor is the fastest currently available. It is ideal if you plan to play games with amazing graphics. If you are on a budget but still want to use your phone for games, a Dual Core smartphone is also good. Unless you are only using the phone for the bare essentials, your Android performance will be hindered by any processor less than 1Ghz Single Core.• Pick a device that supports what most carriers refer to as “multitasking”. This refers to the ability to use voice and data simultaneously. This is necessary to take advantage of the Android operating system’s full capabilities.
• Select a phone that meets your requirements in terms of weight and size. Android devices come in various sizes, ranging from tall, slender touch screens, to more compact designs. Selecting a device with a larger display will sacrifice portability and vice versa.• Compare the battery talk time and standby stats. For those that are using their device for work or other situations where a long lasting battery is key, this will be a major consideration when comparing devices.• Selecting a device that is capable of handling 4G technology is necessary to take advantage of 4G networks, which all carriers will be moving to soon. If you purchase a device that is only 3G- capable, you will not be able to benefit from the faster 4G networks once they become available.
• Respecfully submitted to Prof. Erwin M. Globio, MSIT