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Cooperative Learning for Inviting Schools
 

Cooperative Learning for Inviting Schools

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Students in schools that practice Invitational Education benefit greatly from cooperative learning.

Students in schools that practice Invitational Education benefit greatly from cooperative learning.

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    Cooperative Learning for Inviting Schools Cooperative Learning for Inviting Schools Presentation Transcript

    • Cooperative Learning for Inviting Schools
    • Cooperative Learning for Inviting Schools April / May 2009
      • Sue Bowen, IAIE HK IE Coordinator
      • Columbus Ohio, USA
      • Allyson Schoenlein, Director
      • Cabell County WV, USA
      • Lim Lan Chin, Principal
      • Seng Kang Primary School, Singapore
    • 3 Approaches to Teaching and Learning
      • Competitive Learning
      • Individual Learning
      • Cooperative Learning
    • Competitive Learning
      • Students want to be better than their classmates.
      • Students want to be graded on the curve.
      • There are winners and losers
    • Individual Learning
      • Each student works at his or her own speed.
      • Students’ goal achievement is independent of the achievement of others.
    • Cooperative Learning
      • Students work together to accomplish shared goals.
      • Students know they can reach their goals only if other students also reach their goals.
    • Cooperative Learning IS NOT…
      • students sitting in groups talking while they do their individual assignments
      • students who finish work first help those who are still working.
      • a group assignment where one student does all of the work and others take credit for it.
    • 5 Requirements of Cooperative Learning
      • Positive interdependence
      • Face to face interaction
      • Individual accountability
      • Social skill practice
      • Group processing
    • Why use Cooperative Learning?
      • 1. Promote student learning and academic success
      • 2. Help students develop skills in oral communication.
      • 3. Increase student retention
      • 4. Enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience.
    • Why use Cooperative Learning?
      • 5. Help build a positive classroom climate.
      • 6. Findings indicate that people who cooperate learn to like each other
      • Promote feelings of belonging, acceptance and caring
    • Why use Cooperative Learning?
      • One of the five basic principles of Invitational Education states, “Educating should be a collaborative, cooperative activity.”
    • 5 Basic Principles of I.E.
      • People are able, valuable, and responsible and should be treated accordingly.
      • Educating should be a collaborative, cooperative activity.
      • The process is the product in the making.
      • People possess untapped potential in all areas of human endeavor.
      • This potential can best be realized by places, policies, programs, and processes specifically designed to invite development and by people who are intentionally inviting with themselves and others personally and professionally.
      • (Purkey and Novak, Inviting School Success, 1996, p.3)
    • Think, Pair, Share
      • Engages all students in the class
      • Easy to use in large classes
      • Providing “think time” increases quality of responses
      • Helps students store information to memory
    • Explain Think…Pair…Share with Students
      • Everyone has a partner
      • A question is asked by the teacher
      • Students first THINK about the answer to the question
      • Students PAIR with the partner to compare answers to the question
      • The teacher walks around and hears some good answers
      • The teacher calls on one or more students to SHARE an answer with the whole class
    • WRITE-PAIR-SHARE
      • Write your answer to a question.
      • Pair with a partner and discuss your answers.
      • Share your answer or your partner’s answer when called upon.
    • FORMULATE-SHARE- LISTEN-CREATE
      • Formulate your answer to the question.
      • Share your answer with your partner
      • Listen carefully to your partner’s answer noticing similarities and differences.
      • Create a new answer that incorporates the best of the ideas.
      • Share the combined answer if called on by the teacher.
    • Make 2 Appointments
      • Make one appointment for morning and one for the afternoon
      • Make appointments with 2 people you do not already know well
      • Get signatures for appointments in the next 5 minutes
    • Lan Chin shares I.E.
    • Lan Chin shares I.E.
    • First Appointment!
      • THINK-PAIR-SHARE
      • Think about what Lan Chin told us
      • Discuss with your partner what you found most memorable from her experiences.
      • Be prepared to share something from your discussion if you are asked to speak to the group.
    • Jigsaw Teaching
    • Jigsaw
      • Students in each team are assigned to read parts of a document, chapter, etc.
      • When everyone finishes reading, students from different teams who read the same assignment work in “expert groups” to discuss their section of the material.
    • Jigsaw
      • The experts then return to their teams and take turns teaching their teammates about their topics.
      • Finally, students are assessed on their knowledge.
      • The team is rewarded based on the combined scores on assessments.
    • Jigsaw
      • Students are motivated to study their material well and to work hard in the expert groups so that they can help their team do well.
      • Every student depends on the other teammates to provide information needed for the assessment.
    • Jigsaw Activity: The 5 P’s of Invitational Education
    • Cooperative Learning is Not a New Idea
      • The Hebrew Talmud (oral -> written law 500 AD)
      • The Roman Philosopher, Seneca (30 AD)
      • Johann Amos Comenius (1592-1679)
      • Joseph Lancaster (late 1700’s)
      • Francis Parker (1870-1900)
    • Cooperative Learning History
      • By the late 1930's, however, competition between students became more popular.
      • In the late 1960’s, individualistic learning began to be used extensively.
      • In the 1970’s, psychological researchers began developing new cooperative learning methods for the classroom and many schools turned again to cooperative learning strategies.
    • Modern Cooperative Learning
      • JIGSAW was created by Elliot Aronson at the University of Texas in 1978 and was later expanded to JIGSAW II at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD.
      • THINK-PAIR-SHARE was created by Frank Lyman at the University of Maryland in 1981.
      • SAY SOMETHING was created in 1988 by Jerome Harste, Kathy Short and Carolyn Burke at Indiana University.
    • We Learn:
      • 10 % of what we read
      • 20 % of what we hear
      • 30 % of what we see
      • 50 % of what we both see and hear
      • 70 % of what is discussed with others
      • 80 % of what we experience personally
      • 95 % of what we teach someone else.
      • William Glasser , author of Control Theory in the Classroom
    • According to Fortune 500 Companies: Top Skills Sought by Employers
      • 1970
      • READING
      • COMPUTATION
      • WRITING
      • 2000
      • INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
      • PROBLEM
      • SOLVING
      • TEAMWORK
    • Linking Cooperative Learning to Invitational Education
      • “ In order for peer relationships to be constructive influences, they must promote feelings of belonging, acceptance support, and caring, rather than feelings of hostility and rejection.” (Johnson, 1980)
    • History of Invitational Education
      • Founded in 1982 at Lehigh University in USA by 12 original members
      • Believes all people are able, valuable and responsible
      • Promotes positive, organizational change
      • Cultivates personal and professional growth
    • History of Invitational Education
      • “ Every person and every thing in and around schools either adds to, or subtracts from the process of being a beneficial presence in the lives of human beings.”
      • Dr. William Purkey
    • History of Invitational Education
      • The factors of people, places, policies, programs and processes should be so intentionally inviting as to create a world in which each individual is cordially summoned to develop intellectually, socially, physically, psychologically, and spiritually.
    • 5 Basic Principles of I.E.
      • People are able, valuable, and responsible and should be treated accordingly.
      • Educating should be a collaborative, cooperative activity.
      • The process is the product in the making.
      • People possess untapped potential in all areas of human endeavor.
      • This potential can best be realized by places, policies, programs, and processes specifically designed to invite development and by people who are intentionally inviting with themselves and others personally and professionally.
      • (Purkey and Novak, Inviting School Success, 1996, p.3)
    • Intentionally Inviting Others
      • Number off in groups of 4
      • Accept closed paper ticket
      • When you hear the sound, open tickets and show only to your group.
      • If someone has an X on their ticket, each member marks an X on their ticket too.
    • Intentionally Inviting Others
      • Switch to make new groups of 4 with people not in your first group.
      • Repeat the sharing and marking of tickets.
      • Switch one more time, repeating the sharing and marking of tickets.
      • CHECK RESULTS
    • SAY SOMETHING
      • Say Something is a reading strategy where students collaborate in pairs or small groups responding to what they read or view.
      • Responses from the readers may predict, question, comment, clarify, or connect ideas.
    • SAY SOMETHING
      • In pairs, or in a small group, students read the same material, stopping to discuss it after reading sections assigned by the teacher.
      • Students receive a list of prompts to help them make their comments.
      • Students take turns saying something about the section of text, choosing from the different types of responses
    • SAY SOMETHING: Make a Prediction
      • I predict that…
      • I bet that…
      • I think that…
      • Since this happened I think that next…
      • I wonder if… is about to happen next.
    • SAY SOMETHING Ask a Question
      • Why did …?
      • What’s this part about?
      • What would happen if…?
      • What causes….?
      • What is the difference between …..and …..?
      • What does the word …….mean?
    • SAY SOMETHING Make a Comment
      • I like the part where…
      • This is confusing because…
      • This is good/bad because…
      • My favorite part is
    • SAY SOMETHING Clarify Thinking
      • That makes sense because…
      • I get it….
      • Now I understand…
      • At first I thought…… but now…..
    • SAY SOMETHING Make Connections
      • This part reminds me of…
      • This character makes me think of…
      • This setting reminds me of…
      • This is similar to…
      • I have also….(name something in the text that has also happened to you)
    • SAY SOMETHING Activity
      • Preview Reading Assignment
      • Choose Method of Prompting
      • Observe Strategy
      • Practice with a Partner
    • Second Appointment!
      • Name 3 cooperative learning strategies we practiced today.
      • Share 2 reasons to use cooperative learning with your students.
      • Discuss 1 cooperative learning strategy you will try next week.
    • Learning Together is Enlightening!