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  • 1. Parte Dos!
  • 2. Table of Contents1. Imperfect vs Preterite2. Future vs Conditional3. Por4. Para5. Commands6. Present Perfect7. Double Object Pronouns8. Adverbs9. Subjunctive10. Se Impersonal11. Progressive w/ir, andar, y seguir
  • 3. Imperfect vs Preterite Imperfect tense is used to represent things that The preterite tense allows you to refer to specific happened in the past that occurred repeatedly or past actions performed (1) at a fixed point in time, occurred over a period of time. It’s like a movie in (2) a specific number of times, (3) during an the past. enclosed amount of time. Form AR ER/IR Form -AR -ER, -IR Yo -é -í Yo -aba -ía Tú -aste -iste Tu -abas -ías Ella/Él/Ud. -ó -ió El/Ella/Usted -aba -ía Nosotros -amos -imos Nosotras/Nosotros -ábamos -íamos Vosotros -asteis -isteis Vosotros/Vosotras -abais -íais Ellos/Ellas/ -aron -ieron Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes -aban -ían Uds. Trigger Word Translation Ayer Yesterday Anteayer The day before yesterday IR SER Anoche Last night VER iba era éramos La Semana Pasada Last weekveía veíamos ibas eras erais El Mes Pasado Last monthveías veíais iba El Año Pasado Last yearveía veían era eran íbamos El Fin De Semana Pasado Last weekend ibais iban
  • 4. The future tense is used The conditional is usedto tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.However, the future tense Future vs Conditional to express probability, possibility, and is translated as would,is NOT used to express a could, must have or willingness to do probably. something. ía HablarForm Ending ías HablaríaYo -é ía Hablarías Ex: Using the verb íamos HablaríaTú -ás hablar, to speak. íais Hablaríamos Yo  Hablé ían HablaríaisElla/Él/Ud. -á Tu  Hablás Ella  Hablá HablaríanNosotros -emos Nosotros  HablemosEllos/Ellas/Uds. -án Ellos  Hablán salir decir hacer Verb Stem Verb Stem yo saldría yo diría yo haría Change Change Decir Dir- Venir Vendr- poner saber tener Hacer Har- Poder Podr- yo pondría yo sabría yo tendría Poner Pondr- Querer Querr- Salir Saldr- Saber Sabr- venir poder querer Tener Tendr- Valer Valdr- yo vendría yo podría yo querría
  • 5. Por Object of searchDuration of an action For, in search of For, during, in Means by which something is done Por ejemplo By, by way of, by means of Por eso Por aquí Por fin Exchange or substitution For, in exchange for Reason or motive for an action Units of measure Because of, on account of, on behalf of Per, by
  • 6. Para Destination Describes the purpose + nounToward, in the direction of For, used for Purpose or goal + infinitive In order to Deadline or a specific time in the future By, for Comparison with others or an opinion For, considering Recipient of something For In the employ of For
  • 7. Commands are used when telling someone what to do. Informal commands are used when talking to a friend or a child. Formal commands are used when you want to be polite or show respect.If the ‘yo’ form is irregular in present tense, it carries over to the command form as well. Tener – Tengan Traer – Traiga Venir -- Venga •Start with the ‘yo’ form of present indicative •Drop the ‘-o’ ending •Add on the following endings: -AR verbs: -e (Ud.) –en (Uds.) -ER and IR verbs: -a (Ud.) –an (Uds.)
  • 8. Present Perfect The present perfect is created by taking the verbs ‘has’ or ‘have’ and combining them with the past participle. Two verbs are required: the main verb and the ‘have’ or ‘has’.The past participial is created by dropping the infinitive ending and adding –ado or –ido. --(yo) He comido. I have eaten. --(tú) Has comido. He You have eaten. --(él) Ha comido. Has He has eaten. Ha --(nosotros) Hemos comido. We have eaten. Hemos --(vosotros) Habéis comido. Habéis You-all have eaten. --(ellos) Han comido. Han They have eaten.
  • 9. Double Object Pronouns DO Pronouns English me me te you (familiar) lo, la him, her, it, you (formal) nos us os you-all (familiar) le lo = se lo le la = se la los, las them, you-all (formal) le los = se los le las = se las les lo = se lo les la = se la les los = se losles las = se las
  • 10. Most Spanish adverbs are formed Adverbs by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. This ending corresponds to -ly in English.Adjective Fem. Form Adverb claro clara claramenteconstante constante constantemente difícil difícil difícilmente Muy  very Nunca  never Peor  worse Poco  little Bastante  quite Demasiado  too Mal  badly Mucho  a lot Siempre  always
  • 11. Subjunctive Conjugate & put in yo form with opposite vowel • Attitudes • Uncertain • HypotheticalIrregulars: Wish & WantConducir—condusca EmotionDecir—diga Doubt (No creer, No pensar) Es importante que…Oír—oíga Denial Es necessario que…Dar—dé Impersonal Expression Es posible que…Estar—esté Negation, non-existing Es probable que..Ir—vaya God (ojala)/Guess Ojala que…Saber—sepaSer—seaHacer—haya
  • 12. Se Impersonal• Use se to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb. – Se vende fruta en la frutería.• When using se, the verb is always in 3rd person. – Aqui, se habla español.• Se can be used in all tenses. – Se hizo mucho. EXAMPLE: – Se hara mucho. Se necesita que la gente proteja la Tierra. (Its necessary that people protect the Earth.) – Se había mucho. Se habla español aquí. (Spanish is spoken here.)