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Bio movie chapter 37

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  • 1. Ally Bove, Laura Cox & Lindsey Richards
  • 2. -Anchors plant -Basic physical properties of soils and-Fertilizer the factors that govern soil qualities.-Helps retain water -Why certain inorganic nutrients are-Holds nutrition for plants essential for plant function. -Nutritional adaptations that have evolved in plants, often in relationships with other organisms.
  • 3. Soil particles are classifiedby size from largest tosmallest:-Sand-Silt-Clay-Soil is stratified intolayers called soilhorizons.A type of topsoil calledloam is the most fertile.
  • 4. Inorganic ComponentsCations adhere tonegatively chargedsoil particles.During cationexchange, cationsare displaced fromsoil particles byother cations.
  • 5. Organic ComponentsHumus retains water andmineral nutrients. Also itincreases the soilscapacity to exchangecations.Topsoil contains manyorganisms that helpdecompose organicmaterial.
  • 6. The goal of sustainable agriculture is to use faming methods that are conservation-minded, environmentally safe, and profitable. Irrigation Fertilization Adjusting Soil pH Controlling Erosion Preventing Soil Compaction Phytoremediation
  • 7. Irrigation Fertilizer
  • 8. Adjusting Soil pH Controlling Erosion
  • 9. Preventing Soil Compaction Phytoremediation
  • 10. (Macronutrients)
  • 11. (Micronutrients)
  • 12. -Plants & soil have two-way relationshipMany of the soil bacteria are calledsaprobes-lives on decaying organic material-Rhizobacteria-soil bacteria w/especiallylarge population in rhizosphere (soil layerbound to plant roots) Some are called plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria then enhance plant growth by a variety of mechanisms
  • 13. -Nitrogen Cycle-describes transformations ofnitrogen & nitrogenous compounds in nature-Nitrogen-fixing bacteria converts atmospheric N2to nitrogenous minerals that plants
  • 14. •Plants absorb nitrogen as either NO3–or NH4+•Bacteria break down organic compounds or use N2to produce NH3, which isconverted to NH4+•Nitrification is carried out by bacteria that convert NH3 into NO3–
  • 15. Nitrifying bacteriaadds free nitrogen or nitrates to the soil by the process ofnitrification.Ammonifying bacteriaconverts ammonia into nitrates which is convertedinto free soil nitrogen by nitrifying bacteria.Denitrifying bacteriareduces nitrates or nitrogen gas; most are found in soilNitrogen fixing bacteriahas an association with bacteria which infect theirroots and in return for sugars from the plant, fix nitrogen which can be used bythe plant for growth.
  • 16. -Nitrogen fixation: conversion of nitrogenfrom N2to NH3-The agricultural perks of mutualisticnitrogen fixation underlies most types ofcrop rotation
  • 17. -Mycorrhizae: mutualisticassociations of roots & fungi -The fungal hyphae of both ectomycorrhizae and arbuscular mycorrhizae absorbs minerals and water to which they supply to their roots.
  • 18. Epiphytes Absorb water & minerals from rain, mostly through leaves not roots. Ex: staghorn fernParasitic Plants Absorb sugars & minerals from living hosts, although some species are photosynthetic. Ex: mistletoeCarniverous Plants Photosynthetic, but they obtain some of the minerals by killing & digesting insects & other small animals. Ex: venus fly trap
  • 19. MistletoeStaghorn Fern Venus Fly Trap

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