Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca by Jennifer Jenkins
The purpose of the article is to explore recent research into Wes and ELF focusing on its implications for TESOL, and the extent to which it is being taken into account by English language teachers, linguists and SLA researchers.
TESOL - T eachers of E nglish to S peakers of O ther L anguages
Lingua Franca- is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues.
Englishization -the impact of English on local languages Nativisation -the impact of local languages on English
WEs - W orld E ngishe s 1-all varieties of English worldwide and the different approaches used to describe and analyze them 2 -so-called new Englishes in Africa, Asia and Caribbean 3 -pluricentric approach to the study of English associated with Kachru (Kachruvian approach) 1=World English (singular) +international English(es) =global English(es) 2= nativised,indigenised, institutionalised=new Englishes=English as a second language
Braj Kachru- is Jubilee Professor Emeritus of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. For better understanding of the use of English in different countries, Kachru conceived the idea of three concentric circles of the language.
The “inner circle” represents the traditional bases of English: the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Malta, anglophone Canada and South Africa, and some of Caribbean territories. The total number of English speakers in the inner circle is as high as 380 million, of whom some 120 million are outside the United States.
The “outer circle includes countries where English is not the native tongue, but is important for historical reasons and plays a part in the nation's institutions, either as an official language or otherwise. This circle includes India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Kenya, non-Anglophone South Africa and Canada, etc. The total number of English speakers in the outer circle is estimated to range from 150 million to 300 million.
The “expanding circle” includes those countries where English plays no historical or governmental role, but where it is nevertheless widely used as a foreign language or ELF. This includes much of the rest of the world's population: China, Russia, Japan, most of Europe, Korea, Egypt, Indonesia, etc. The total number of speakers is from 100 million to one billion (mostly business English).
The inner circle is 'norm-providing'. That means that English language norms are developed in these countries - English is the first language there. The outer circle (mainly New Commonwealth countries) is 'norm-developing'. The expanding circle (much of the rest of the world) is 'norm-dependent', because it relies on the standards set by native speakers in the inner circle.
Monocentric views on English-norms of English should be taken from native speakers communities. Pluricentric views on English –norms of English should be based on the local norms of English of the place where English is used.
International English =?English as an international languages (EIL) International English -local Englishes of those non-mother tongue countries where it has an international institutionalized role, some researchers (Gorlach, 1990) include the mother tongue English countries (inner circle) EIL -use of English as a means of international communication across national and linguistic boundaries (expanding circle) ELF=EIL
Phenomenon of World Standard (Spoken) English-WSE It is a hypothetical, monolithic form of English, based on the native speaker English, which is developing of its own accord (Crystal, 2003;Gorlach, 1990,McArthur, 1998). Some WEs scholars assume that ELF refers to the same phenomenon as WSE and then criticize ELF for promoting a monocentric view based on American and British norms rather than pluricentric view based on local norms.
ELF researchers don’t support the concept of a monolithic English for the entire world. They seek to identify frequently and systematically used forms that differ from inner circle forms without causing communication problems. At the same time they believe that anyone participating in the international communication needs to be familiar with and have in their linguistic repertoire for use as and when appropriate certain forms (phonological, lexicogrammatical, etc.) that are widely used and widely intelligible across groups of English speakers from different first language backgrounds.
<ul><li>Research activity has increased substantially </li></ul><ul><li>Kachru(2005) categorizes WEs research interests as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>the historical background to the spread of English </li></ul><ul><li>the linguistic processes responsible for features among varieties </li></ul><ul><li>the sociocultural contexts of English use </li></ul><ul><li>the impact of English on local languages </li></ul><ul><li>the impact of local languages on English </li></ul><ul><li>bilingualism and multilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>literary creativity in institutionalized settings </li></ul><ul><li>the functional allocation of varieties within English-using communities </li></ul><ul><li>the communicative needs of users underlie observed linguistic differences </li></ul><ul><li>teaching and learning of English in the outer and expanding circles </li></ul>
There is an increase in dictionaries and grammars of different Englishes: The Macquarie Dictionary (1997)-includes words from a range of southeast Asian Englishes. Scholarly books: Penningteo(1998) and Bolton(2002)-books on Hong Kong English; Adamson(2004)-on China English; Stanlaw(2004)-on Japanese English; Karchu(2005)-on “the Asianness in Asian Englishes”; Parkir(1992) collection of studies of Singapore English lexis; Brown, Deterding and Ee Ling(2000,2005)-on pronunciation of Singapore English; Bolton(2003)-on China English; Ward(2002)-collection on implications for teaching and learning of Asian Englishes; Cenoz and Jessner(2000), Gnutzmann(1999),Gnutzmann and Intemann(20005), Lesznyak(2004 ) - studies on teaching, learning and use of English in Europe
<ul><li>Journals on WEs and ELF studies: </li></ul><ul><li>World Englishes </li></ul><ul><li>English Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>English Today </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Englishes (published in Tokyo ) </li></ul>
Research on WEs-scholary debate Concept of interlanguage which is relevant for ELF and expanding and outer circles varieties of English.
Interlanguage theory by Selinker,1972, 1992): A second language competence lies on an interlanguage continuum at some point between their L1 and their L2, in this case English. Any differences between their output and standard British or American English are to be regarded as errors caused mainly by L1 interference (transfer), while the point at which these so-called errors become fixed within the individual learner’s repertoire is attributed to a phenomenon known as fossilization.
The major argument against IL theory is that outer circle English speakers are not attempting to identify with inner circle speakers or to produce the norms of an exonormative variety of English grounded in an inner circle experience. Such norms are the results of monolingual bias that is unable to comprehend the bilingual experience . The major problem of traditional SLA is its focus on individual acquisition and IL errors rather than acquisition by entire speech communities.
<ul><li>The Role of Identity in Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>issues of power, ownership and identity into equation-Norton(1997), Block (2003); </li></ul><ul><li>identity and investment in language learning-Norton (2000); </li></ul><ul><li>identity and voice-Kramsh and Lam(1999); </li></ul><ul><li>development of hybrid English speaker identity- Lin, Wang, Nobuhiko and Mehdi (20002) </li></ul>
Project on Research of Language Imperialism Canagarajah(1999)- in Sri Lankan Tamil community (outer circl) and south Korea and Vietnam (expanding circle). He supports the idea that linguistic imperialism is given and considers how to resist it Brutt-Griffler(2000 ) doesn't believe that it has a major role in the spread of English.
Research on ELF Seidlhofer(2004) focuses on ELF lexicogrammar. She tries to find out which items are used systematically and frequently, but differently from native speaker use and without causing communication problems.
<ul><li>non-use of the third person present tense-s </li></ul><ul><li>interchangeable use of the relative pronouns who and which </li></ul><ul><li>omission of the definite and indefinite articles </li></ul><ul><li>use of all-purpose question tag such as isn’t it? or no? instead of </li></ul><ul><li>shouldn’t they? </li></ul><ul><li>increasing of redundancy by adding prepositions (we have to study </li></ul><ul><li>about..) </li></ul><ul><li>increasing of explicitness (black color-black, How long time-How long) </li></ul><ul><li>heavy reliance on certain verbs of high semantic generality such </li></ul><ul><li>as do, have, make, put, take </li></ul><ul><li>pluralisation of nouns which are considered uncountable </li></ul><ul><li>use of that-causes instead of infinitive constructions </li></ul><ul><li>(I want that we discuss about my…) </li></ul>
One of the main causes of communication breakdown is unilateral idiomaticity . It occurs when one speaker uses a native speaker idiomatic expression such as an idiom , phrasal verb , metaphor.
<ul><li>Debate on The Appropriateness of Native-Speaker Standard English </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to define the term of “standard English”-Seidlhofer(2005): </li></ul><ul><li>rights of expanding and developing their own norms (outer circle), </li></ul><ul><li>not to continue to defer to educated native speakers’ norms </li></ul><ul><li>The belief in native speaker ownership persists among both native and nonnative </li></ul><ul><li>speakers: teachers, educators, linguists. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Debate on The Concept of Native Speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Leung, Harris, Rampton(1997) argue against the native-nonnative </li></ul><ul><li>distinction. American and British English are the only varieties which </li></ul><ul><li>considered worth learning in many parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>UK and the USA English speakers are the best English teachers as </li></ul><ul><li>they are native speakers. </li></ul><ul><li>English villages are established in Japan and Korea –learners are immersed </li></ul><ul><li>in native speaker English. </li></ul><ul><li>The native speakers teachers (with no educational background) </li></ul><ul><li>are brought to parts of East Asia (the NET scheme in Hong Kong) </li></ul><ul><li>JET scheme (Japan), Korea, Thailand. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Research on Nonnative Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>nonnative teachers as agents of curriculum change- (Kamhi-Stein,1999) </li></ul><ul><li>strengths of nonnative teachers- (Nemtchiniva, 2005) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Both WEs and ELF researchers agree with: </li></ul><ul><li>importance of teachers and teacher trainers language awareness in all 3 circles </li></ul><ul><li>need of pluricentric rather than monocentric approach to the teaching and use of English </li></ul><ul><li>importance of accommodation skills: WEs and ELF speakers should be able to adjust </li></ul><ul><li>their speech in order be intelligible to interlocutors from a wide range of L1 backgrounds, </li></ul><ul><li>most of whom are not inner circle native speakers </li></ul>