Putting Together the Pieces of Leadership
Junior League of Toledo
WHAT DO WE HOPE TO ACCOMPLISH?
Reward my friends and punish my enemies
Learn how effective I am as a leader
Determine how I compare to my colleagues
Discover my weaknesses
Find out who’s been saying bad things about me
T A on end results and
S K appraise their personal
worth by the list of
Task vs. Relationship
High on Execution High on People
Results oriented Sincere and straightforward
Are decisive Set a positive example
Hold others accountable Encourage open dialog
Demand excellence Open to criticism
Follow through on their Recognize and reward
commitments contributions of employees
Understand the business Motivate and inspire others
While tasks and results are
important, it’s the ability to form
and nourish relationships that
sets highly effective leaders
apart from the rest
Going through the
on authority and
are simply an ends
to a mean
Execution Motivator or
Strong emphasis on
both tasks and
HIGH SCORES IN ONE
CORRELATE TO LOW GRADES IN
THE OTHER, SUBSTANTIATING THE
THEORY THAT LEADERS ARE EITHER
TASK OR RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED
Lamar and Michael are on a seesaw. Michael is bigger than Lamar, so
the seesaw is not balanced. How could the seesaw be balanced?
a. Lamar should move toward the center, while Michael stays where he is.
✓ b. Michael should move toward the center, while Lamar stays where he is.
c. Michael should move toward the end, while Lamar should move toward the center.
An average of your feedback
results on a five-point scale,
with 1 being the lowest and
5 being the highest.
how your results
across a broad
range of different
organizations. Mean = 50
Standard Deviation = 10
Verb: To do something despite
danger; to incur the chance of
harm or loss by taking an action.
Some people respond to
challenges that are presented…
…while others seek out
opportunities to lead.
the courage to
with employees who
are potentially better
at their jobs than you
are at yours.
ACT “In a time of constant
change, one thing hasn’t
IVE changed: Organizations are
still resistant to change.”
challenging bad decisions
“If you are in middle management,
don’t be a wimp. Don’t sit on the
sidelines waiting for the senior people
to make a decision so that later on you
can criticize them over a beer—‘My
God, how could they be so dumb?’
Your time for participating is now.”
Andrew Grove, CEO Intel
Blowing the Whistle
Most workers are far too
faint-hearted for whistle
blowing. Too many
exhibit an unquestioning,
even fearful, reverence
If you’re like most
you tend to blame
“Leadership is going first
in a new direction—
and being followed.”
Many managers find trusting
their employees highly anxiety-
provoking because of the risk
involved. The urge to peek over
their shoulders, or even do the
work themselves, is great.
Our survival requires
avoiding deadly outcomes;
ignoring a potential danger
could be fatal.
“fight or flee”
the three attitudes of hardiness
Commitment: Control: Challenge:
the belief that the conviction that the perception
stressful events are individuals can that change is both
not threatening, but actively influence expected and
interesting and life’s events. stimulating.
Source: Kobasa and Maddi, The Hardy Executive: Health Under Stress
People who are committed to and
involved in their work are more apt to
perceive chaos as interesting.
People adapt to change best when
they understand the control they
have over their environments.
When chaos is welcomed, we can
perceive it as stimulating, if not a
hidden opportunity for personal
“Crises are part of
what makes work fun.”
often includes euphemisms
used to substitute inoffensive
expressions for those
Speakers sometimes invoke workplace
jargon to impress others, or to establish
their membership in an elite faction.
Some use jargon to exclude or
confuse others, or to mask their
own inexperience or lack of
Why Didn’t You Just Say So?
Out of Pocket. When you used to say, “I’ll be unavailable.”
Escalate. To tell someone more important than you that
something very bad is about to happen.
“I’ll Reach Out to You.” I’ll telephone, e-mail, text, or
otherwise communicate with you later.
“You Loop Back to Me.” You telephone, e-mail, text, or
otherwise communicate with me later.
Bandwidth. Computer term used to describe the capacity to
handle a job (“I’m not sure we have the bandwidth to handle
this many new clients”).
Open the Kimono. Exposing the truth—revealing what
you’ve been hiding all this time.
of employees are regularly confused about what their
20 percent colleagues are saying, but are too embarrassed to ask for
admitted using jargon deliberately—as a means
More than a third of either demonstrating control or gaining
found the use of jargon in office meetings both
irritating and distracting
out of dismissed speakers using jargon as both pretentious and untrustworthy
Source: Office Angels
A single voice.
A candid voice.
A genuine voice.
“We aspire to be known as a
company with the highest standards
of moral and ethical conduct—
working to earn client trust, day in
and day out. Our word is our bond.”
From Citigroup’s statement of values
“Our word is our bond.”
Sanford “Sandy” Weill John Reed
CEO Citigroup Citigroup co-CEO
C. Michael Armstrong Jack Grubman
AT&T CEO and Citigroup Salamon Smith Barney’s
Board Member Top Telecom Analyst
92nd Street Y
Exclusive NYC Preschool
“I used Sandy to get my kids into 92nd
St. Y pre-school (which is harder than
Harvard) and Sandy needed Armstrong’s
vote on our board to nuke Reed in
showdown. Once coast was clear for
both of us (ie Sandy clear victor and my
kids confirmed) I went back to my
normal negative self on [AT&]T.
Armstrong never knew that we both
(Sandy and I) played him like a fiddle.”
E-mail from Jack Grubman
January 13, 2001
half of all U.S.
Source: Watson Wyatt’s WorkUSA 2006/2007 Survey
Pigs at the Trough
WHAT WE FOUND IN
OUR INVESTIGATION OF
KOUZES & POSNER
QUALITIES IS THAT MORE
The Leadership Challenge THAN ANYTHING, PEOPLE
WANT TO FOLLOW
LEADERS WHO ARE
“Credibility is the
which leaders and
build the grand
dreams of the
Kouzes & Posner
Giving authority to workers on
the front lines is a cornerstone to
“But my employees
don’t want to be
“ The bottleneck
is at the top of
Leaders who consider
are less apt to micromanage
and more likely to set
“ A basic function of
leadership is to produce
more leaders, not more
7 Figure out what people do
best–and then let them do it.
“At work do Strongly Agree
you have the
opportunity to do
what you do best
38 percent more likely to work in business units
with higher productivity
50 percent more likely to work in business units
with lower turnover
44 percent more likely to work in business units
with high customer satisfaction scores
Source: Now, Discover Your Strengths
Marcus Buckingham and Donald Clifton
from doing what
they do best?
emphasis on what
they do worst.
most of us do the same thing:
we take our strengths for granted,
and concentrate all our efforts on
conquering our weaknesses
the vast majority of organizations
appear to believe that the best
way for individuals to grow is to
eliminate their weaknesses.
Identifying each person’s strongest
talents permits everyone the opportunity
to contribute what they do
Having grown up in
the wake of World
War II, many people
in this generation
beliefs for fear of
Whether because they
are leading longer, healthier
lives or lacking the financial
resources necessary to stop
working, many older workers
are putting off retirement.
The largest generation,
make up 50 percent of the U.S. workforce.
Unlike their “silent” parents,
Baby Boomers were not afraid
to challenge cultural norms.
Civil Rights bills passed
U.S. involvement in Vietnam War ended
Legislation enacted barring discrimination on the basis
of race, gender, religion, national origin, sexual
preference, physical ability, and age
Movements to stop polluting the earth and to start
conserving it instead
Employee-focused policies, procedures, and regulations
prevalent in most business organizations today
In the twenty years following the
Boomers’ entrance in the workforce,
the annualamount of time
Americans spent at work increased
an average of one full month.
Boomers may have traded marching
on Washington for walking for a
cure, but they’re still looking for
ways to make a difference.
Generation Xers were born into
a culture in which birth control
and abortion became prevalent
—and children were seen as
avoidable or disposable.
The average Gen Xer changes
jobs every eighteen months.
Source: Appelbaum, S. H., Serena, M., & Shapiro, B. T. (2004) Generation X
and the boomers: Organizational myths and literary realities.
Management Research News, 27(11/12), 1-28.
used to describe Spoiled
Gen Yers Impatient
Sol√ e f∅r why
In 1968, 18 percent of American college freshman
had achieved an A average in high school.
By 2004, that figure was 48 percent.
During that same period, SAT scores decreased.
SOURCE: Twenge, J. M. (2006). Generation me: Why today’s
young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitled—and
more miserable than ever before. New York: Free Press.
Two stonemasons are
working on the same
project. An observer
asks, “What are you
The first stonemason
replies: “I’m cutting stone.”
The second stonemason
replies: “I’m building a great
Sixty percent of surveyed executives
listed getting people to work together as
the biggest hurdle they currently face.
American Management Association Survey, October 2003
Less than half of all
employees understand the
steps their organizations
are taking to reach new
Source: Watson Wyatt’s WorkUSA 2002 Survey
“I have a dream
that onea dream that rise
“I have day one
this nationout the true
up and live will
day this nation will
rise up hold theseliveto
‘We and truths
meaning of its creed:
out the are created equal.’”
be self-evident: that all
meaning of its Martin Luther King, Jr.
Delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in
creed: ‘We hold
Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963
If you think that conveying ideas
effectively is an innate ability—a talent
reserved for naturally gifted orators—
then you are probably neglecting your
role as a communicator.
Without an inspiring vision from their
leaders, employees will struggle to discern
any link between their private ambitions
and the company’s actual mission.
“The age-old secret to
generating buy-in is to
strategically design, target,
and deliver a story that
projects a positive future.”
Mark S. Walton
Generating Buy-In: Mastering the Language of Leadership
10 sure-fire ways
of improving your
360 o evaluation results