8th grade ch. 1 sec. 4 the muscular system

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  • 1. Ch. 1 Sec. 4 Muscular System
  • 2. Discover Activity How Do Muscles Work? Grip a spring-type clothespin with the thumb and index finger of your writing hand. Squeeze the clothespin open and shut as quickly as possible for two minutes. Count how many times you can squeeze the clothespin before your muscles tire. Rest for one minute. Then, repeat Step 1. Think It Over Predicting What do you think would happen if you repeated Steps 1 and 2 with your other hand? Give a reason for your prediction. Then, test your prediction.
  • 3. Discover Activity How Do Muscles Work? After 2 minutes 1 min after resting Other hand- 1 min after resting Other hand- after 2 minutes # of times open & close clothespin Time
  • 4. muscles Under your control Not under your conscious control Smiling Walking Breathing Digesting food voluntary muscles involuntary muscles
  • 5. striated heart Quickly-does not get tired involuntary Cardiac Not striated Internal organs Slowly- tires slowly involuntary Smooth striated Attached by tendons to bones Quickly-tires quickly voluntary Skeletal appearance location how it reacts voluntary or involuntary muscle types
  • 6. Skeletal muscle cells appear banded, or striated.
  • 7. Unlike skeletal muscles, smooth muscle cells are not striated.
  • 8. Cardiac muscle cells are striated.
  • 9. skeletal muscles must work in pairs muscle cells can only contract- not extend while 1 muscle contracts  other muscle returns to original length
  • 10. As the biceps contract, the triceps on the back of the upper arm return to its original length.
  • 11. Tendons can tear Muscle strain can still occur Muscles can cramp Warm up before exercising Muscular strength & flexibility
  • 12. skeletal muscle Striated
  • 13. smooth muscle NOT
  • 14. cardiac muscle Striated
  • 15. found only in the heart Skeletal, Smooth or Cardiac cardiac
  • 16. found in internal organs Skeletal, Smooth or Cardiac smooth
  • 17. attached by tendons Skeletal, Smooth or Cardiac skeletal
  • 18. does not get tired Skeletal, Smooth or Cardiac cardiac
  • 19. involuntary Skeletal, Smooth or Cardiac cardiac & smooth
  • 20. voluntary Skeletal, Smooth or Cardiac skeletal
  • 21. Dissecting a Chicken Wing Put on a pair of latex gloves. Take a chicken wing, a paper plate, and a dissecting kit. Put the chicken on the table. Examine the wing. How many bones are there? How many joints? What kind of joints? Carefully remove the skin. Discuss the questions below with your partner and record your answers in your journal. How many muscle groups are there? Are the muscle groups in pairs? What bones does each group connect? Try to use a muscle to move another part of the wing. Remove the muscles and tendons carefully. Locate ligaments. Look for the cartilage & bone marrow. There must also be veins and nerves here. How could we speculate about which parts are veins or nerves?
  • 22. Hold wing in place with pins
  • 23. Remove the skin with the scissors and tweezers.
  • 24. Chicken Tibia
  • 25. Bone Marrow
  • 26. Bone Marrow
  • 27. Cartilage and spongy bone
  • 28. ligaments
  • 29. ligaments Connects bones in movable joints
  • 30. Tendon Connects muscle to bone