Americans in World War I The Big Idea American troops helped the Allies achieve victory in World War I. Main Ideas• American soldiers started to arrive in Europe in 1917.• The Americans helped the Allies win the war.• Germany agreed to an armistice after suffering heavy losses.
America Joins the Ranks- 4:17
Main Idea 1:American soldiers started to arrive in Europe in 1917.1917- Americans joined fight in Europe as separate force from other Allied unitsAmerican Expeditionary Force led by General John J. Pershing thoroughly trained for combat before reaching front lines incl. regular army & National Guard troops, volunteers & draftees
The Doughboys: Training the Troops (03:13)
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)- 1 min.
Arriving in Europe • 1st U.S. troops arrived in France in 1917 through a convoy system troop- transport ships surrounded by destroyers or cruisers for protection, limiting # of ships sunk & troops lost • When America arrived, Germany occupied all of Belgium & part of France, and Russia struggled against famine and civil war. • If Russia fell, Germans would bring all their troops west, and the Allies west needed the Americans to fight immediately. • General Pershing, however, wanted American troops to train and to fight separately from European regiments. • Pershing sent his troops to training camps in eastern France instead of to the battlefields.
The Convoy Crosses the Atlantic (03:37)
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)• May 1918 Doughboys-American soldiers Doughboys 2nd and 3rd Divisions fight @ Belleau Wood and Chateau-Thierry. Argonne Forest. 85,000 American help save Paris General John J. (Black Jack) Pershing has army of 1/2 million on Southern Front Oct. 1918- Battle of Sedan- American Victory. British & French Lines begin to advance. German mistake- Americans were late but made a difference. U.S. lost 50,280 men, and 25,000 to disease. 42,000 Black troops fought in French units. Russia, England and France lost over 4 million total. 1 million other countries
Russia Leaves the War Revolution in Russia November 1917: group of Russians known as the Bolsheviks overthrew the Russian government Bolshevikswere Communists– people who favor the equal distribution Communists of wealth and the end of all forms of private property. New Government Led by Vladimir Lenin Knew the war had reached desperate point Around 8 million Russians had already been killed. Soldiers were deserting. Food riots raged in cities. March 1918: Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking itself out of World War I.
Vladimir Lenin in Russia: The Architect of Socialism [03:01]
American Soldiers ArriveRecall- What were U.S. Troops known as?Explain – What condition led to theRussian pullout?
Main Idea 2:The Americans helped the Allies win the war.With Russia gone, Germany planned to smash the stalemate. stalemateAmerican soldiers arrived on the front.Germans made an advance, but unprepared for the fresh, well-trained American forces & driven back.July 1918– German forces launch final offensive Attempted to cross Marne River Terrible losses forced them to stop.American troops helped force a major turning point in the war.
Winning the WarRecall- Which side had an advantageafter the Russian pullout?Identify Cause and Effect – How did theGermans respond to the Russianpullout?
Main Idea 3:Germany agreed to an armistice after suffering heavy losses. Alliesdrove toward victory after the failed German advance. More than 1 million U.S. troops in France Began winning victories against German forces By November 1918, American soldiers were making rapid advance toward Germany.
Germany Defeated• At home & on battlefield, Germans tired of war • Food shortages • Riots & strikes • Shortage of soldiers• Germany’s allies were also eager to end the war. war • Austria-Hungary reached a peace accord w/ Allies- Nov. 3, 1918• Seeing his country was beaten, German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to Holland.• Germany agreed to an armistice, or truce, on armistice November 11, 1918.
Winning the WarIdentify- What led to the death ofGerman civilians near the end of thewar?Evaluate – Should the Kaiser have fled tothe Netherlands? Explain.
Black Troops: a Segregated Force (01:14)
ArmisticeRecall- What did the “HarlemHellfighters” do that no other Americanforce achieved?Make Generalizations – What quality ofthe 369 Infantry caused France to awardthem the Croix de Guerre?
World War I: Journalists Tell the Official Story (03:04)