CONTENT•The post-method era(Nesrin Demirbaş)•The «top down» criticism•The role of contextual factors(Ercan AKSOY)•The need for curriculum development processes•Lack of research basis•Similarity of classroom practices(Hülya ÖZGER)•Beyond approaches and methods•Looking forward(Elham COŞKUN)
Recent explorations in L2 pedagogy signal a shift away fromthe conventiional and traditional concept of method towarda post method condition so that the teachers are empoweredto devise for themselves a systematic, coherent and relevantalternative to method.The post-methods era
It also signifies a search for an alternative to method rather thanan alternative method. It also signifies teacher autonomy.It is different from eclecticism which has long been advocatedto overcome the limitations of any given method.
•The Grammar Translation Method (19th century)•Direct Method (end of 19th century)•The Audiolingual Method (in the 1950s)•Silent Way•TPR•Suggestopedia•Communicative Language Teaching (in the 1980s)
• Communivative Language Teaching• Competency-Based Language Teaching• Content-Based Instruction• Cooperative Learning• Lexical Approaches• Multiple Intelligences• The Naturalistic Approach• Neurolinguistic Programming• Task-Based Language Teaching• Whole Language
• A method refers to a specific instructional designor system based on a particular theory of languageand of language learning. It contains detailedspecifications of content, roles of teachers andlearners, and teaching procedures and techniques.It is relatively fixed in time and there is generallylittle scope for individual interpretation. Methodsare learned through training. The teacher’s role isto follow the method and apply it preciselyaccording to rules. The following are examples ofmethods in this sense:• Audiolingualism• Counseling-Learning• Situational Language Teaching• The Silent Way• Suggestopedia• Total Physical Response
To sum upThere is often no clear right or wrong way ofteaching according to an approach and noprescribed body of practice. Methods solve manyof problems beginning teachers have to strugglewith because many of the basis decisions aboutwhat to teach and how to teach it have alreadybeen made for them.
Approaches tend to allow for varying interpretations inpractice, methods typically prescribe for teachers whatand how to teach.ApproachesMethods
Teacher have toaccept the claims or theory underlying the methodand appy them to their own practice.Good Teachingregarded as• Correct use of method• its prescribed principlesand techniques
The role of teacher is marginalizedHis role or her role is to understand the methodand apply its principles correctly.Learners are sometimes viewed asthe passive recipients of the method.They must submit themselves to its regime ofexercises and activities.
In other words,• Learners bring different learning styles andpreferences to the learning process, that theyshould be consulted in the process of developinga teaching program, and that teaching methodsmust be flexible and adaptive to learners’ needand interest.
Role of contextual factorsThe post-methods era
Both approach and methods are often promotedas all-purpose solutions to teaching problemsIn trying to apply approaches ormethods, teachers sometimes ignore what is thestarting point in language programdesign, namely, a careful consideration of thecontext.Teaching andlearning occursThe culturalcontextThe politicalcontextThe localinstitutionalcontextThe contextconstituted by Tand learners
CLT and cultural imperialism nearly is same thingaccording to their educational traditions.• In this respect, CLT is used in Britain and UnitedStates, other speaking countries. And so, thissituation is related to target culture and theassumptions of CLT.• Similarly, Counseling-learning and cooperativelearning and their assumption about the roles ofteachers and learners are not necessarilyculturally universal.
THE NEED FOR CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT PROCESSESThe post-methods era
These traditionally involve:• The careful examination, drawing on allavailable sources of knowledge and informedjudgement, of the teaching objectives.• The development and trial use in schools ofthose methods and materials which are judgedmost likely to achieve the objectives whichteachers agreed upon.
• The assessment of the extend to which thedevelopment work has in fact achieved itsobjectives.• The final element is therefore the feedback of allthe experience gained, to provide a startingpoint for further study.
LACK OF RESEARCH BASISApproaches and methods are oftenbased on the assumption that theprocess of second languagelearning are fully understood.
SIMILARITY OF CLASSROOMPRACTICESBrown (1997:3) makes similar point:Generally, methods are quitedistinctive at the early, beginningstages of a language course, and ratherindistinguishable from each other at alater stage.
Beyond approaches and methods to learn how to use different approaches and methods and understandwhen they might be useful to understand some of the issues and controversies that characterize thehistory of language teaching to participate in language learning experiences based on differentapproaches and methods as a basis for reflection and comparison to be aware of the rich set of activity resources available to theimaginative teacher to appreciate how theory and practice can be linked from a variety ofdifferent perspectives
Looking Forward• Responses to technology; The potential of the internet , the WorldWide Web, and other computer interfaces and technologicalinnovations is likely to capture the imagination of the teachingprofession in the future as it has in the past and will influence boththe content and the form of instructional delivery in the languageteaching.• Learner-based innovations; Learner-based focuses recur inlaguage teaching and other fields in approximately 10-yearcycles, as we have seen with individualized instruction, the learner-centred curriculum, learner training, learner strategies, and MultipleIntelligences. We can anticipate continuation of this trend.