Cognitive Design Thesis: Fall Review


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My Fall semester thesis work on Cognitive Design culminated in a presentation for a final review with my advisors. This slideshow encompasses my primary and secondary research on this topic, as well as my Cognitive Design probes. Finally, I propose a plan for my Spring semester thesis work.

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Cognitive Design Thesis: Fall Review

  1. 1. COGNITIVE DESIGN Allison Leach Thesis Research and Development: Final Review
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. COGNITIVE BIASES Awe Herd Instinct Hawthorne Effect ReactanceInstills a sense of When people adopt the The tendency to act differently The urge to do thetimelessness; behaviors and opinions of when someone knows they are opposite of whatpromotes helpfulness; the majority being observed someone wants you toencourages do out of a need to resistexperiential purchases a perceived attempt to constrain your freedom of choice
  4. 4. What is Cognitive Design?a modern design movement which seeks to put the latestfindings of cognitive science to work and translate theminto design experiences that offer personaltransformation by guiding behavior
  5. 5. COGNITIVE INFLUENCE Environment Free Will Subconscious
  6. 6. REALMS OF BEHAVIOR Mental Health Environmental Health Physical Health
  7. 7. A HYBRID OF FIELDS Persuasive Game Theory Design IXD Life Human Cognitive Science Factors Coaching
  8. 8. DESIGN EXAMPLES Stickk: a service for publicly setting goals OPower: smiley faces on electrical bill GreenGoose: clip-on behavior monitoring sensors
  9. 9. Thesis StatementLeveraging our modern knowledge of cognitive biases,how might designers create artifacts that motivatepeople toward positive behaviors to improve their overallwell-being?
  10. 10. THESIS METHOD : Fall Secondary research: examples, studies and literature Primary research: online survey and experiments Expert interviews and written synthesis Prototypes: behavior design game and draft of Cognitive Design Guide
  11. 11. Background Research
  12. 12. READING LIST Allison Leach Mental activities: Psychological IrrationalDangers of rules, a goal, and a nudges in a game reasoning isextrinsic rewards way of obtaining have a real impact everywhere, such feedback in guiding behavior as the power of social norms
  13. 13. KEY ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATION Allison LeachBehavior Flow 3 DrivesMotivation Biological Drive Motivation Symbolic Skill AutonomyAbility Rewards & Punishments Rules MasteryTrigger Intrinsic Rewards Goal Purpose Feedback BJ Fogg Mihaly Daniel Pink stanford social Csikszentmihalyi author of drive scientist author of flow
  14. 14. STEPHANIE HABIF, Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab Associate Behavior Motivation •Put behavior change in •A goal helps a meaningful context people to focus their purpose •Understand for a specific behavior: •Social guilt is only what, when, where, powerful for an how long, with whom acute or one-time behavior •Know the behavior’s day-to-day context •Social support is critical
  15. 15. Research
  16. 16. ONLINE SURVEY: Motivation and You Survey Goals Motivation Attitudes Games Tricks Rewards Nudges
  17. 17. SOCIAL EXPERIMENT Leach and You AllisonONLINE SURVEY: Motivation CONTEXT METHOD RESULTS What types of rewards do you value?
  18. 18. SOCIAL EXPERIMENT Leach and You AllisonONLINE SURVEY: Motivation What is the main driving force in your life?
  19. 19. SOCIAL EXPERIMENT Leach and You AllisonONLINE SURVEY: Motivation “Ask my family to keep • “Ill say, ‘You can text that girl once you get to page 37’" me on track.” “I play music when Im • “Rewarding myself with fun cleaning and then its like intervals... doing something my brain thinks its a that I like at the end.” party” “I try and use apps to promote the right • “Cellphone alarm everyday at 5pm as a reminder to get back behavior like Fitocracy to work” for exercise and Goodreads for reading.” How do you trick yourself into getting things done?
  20. 20. ONLINE SURVEY: Motivation and You Survey Takeaways • Intrinsic rewards trump • Gambling no; all others gamification sometimes; music yes • Motivated but habits hard to form • Experiential expenditures > future • Tricks help to get things investments done • People like reminders • Social support keeps and are influenced by people in line social guilt
  21. 21. HALLWAY POLL “What drives you?”
  22. 22. made work ::
  23. 23. Wealth Other 8% 29% Purpose 21% 13%Expression 29% LoveRESPONSES (25) • Wealth: 2 • Power: 0 • Purpose: 5 • Love: 7 • Expression: 3 • Fear: 0 • Other: a car (1), sex (1), compassion (2), passion (2), fun (1)
  24. 24. Experiment
  25. 25. SOCIAL EXPERIMENT Leach AllisonQ: Does awe inspire timelessness and increase helpfulness? CONTEXT METHOD RESULTSStudy: awe gives people Group A: Nature video Awe instilled, butgreater time-availability, negligible change in timereduces irritability, Group B: Instructional video perception and moodmakes them act more Group C: No video Uniform volunteerism ingenerously the clean-up event Questionnaire followed by volunteer opportunity Limited pool of participants
  26. 26. Prototype
  27. 27. Doodle Wars
  28. 28. DOODLE WARS Motivating a Specific Behavior
  29. 29. DOODLE WARS Cognitive Design GAME THEORY Set Challenges themed days keep the game interesting, votes encourage competition Create Rules BEHAVIOR DESIGNCOGNITIVE DESIGN rules guide players and Clear Goal translate data into useful one rule: doodle one doodle a informationSpecific Mental State day for 10 daysinduce a fun mental state in players Feedback Hot Triggersusing youthful imagery and friendly players can view theirlanguage online reminders, mobile progress in the archive submissions, drawingHarness Cognitive Biases Rewards supplies, and prominentgame design fosters the Herd studio presence surprise rewards, progressInstinct, Hawthorne Effect, Social crown reward, and Social SupportGuilt, Mere Exposure Effect, completion rewardsPlanning Fallacy, Priming social feelings make people feel closer to the gamePersonal Experience Meaningful Contexteach individual’s doodle collectionholds personal meaning creative challenge in a creative workplace; a lighthearted break from other projects
  30. 30. DOODLE WARS Studio Presence
  31. 31. TESTED ELEMENTS DOODLE WARS Online Presence Facebook Twitter Tumblr • Community • Voice • Homepage for competition • Sharing • “Liking” • Submitting • “Liking” • Public praise/guilt • “Hearting” to vote • Updates • Reposts from Tumblr • Instructions & Support • Public praise/guilt • Doodle Archive • Reposts from Tumblr
  32. 32. TESTED ELEMENTS DOODLE WARS Online Presence Facebook Twitter Tumblr
  33. 33. DOODLE WARS Tested Elements Public Influence Triggers Extrinsic Rewards• Social media cues • Reminders/Nudges • Crown and badge• Posters highlighting the • Simple Instructions for progress Doodle Master • Supplies • Jeweled rings as a• Prominent board in • Posters surprise studio entrance • Drawing supplies as prize
  34. 34. DOODLE WARS Tested ElementsPublic Influence Triggers Extrinsic Rewards
  35. 35. DOODLE WARS Results DAYday 10 10day 9 9day 8 8day 7 7day 6 6day 5 5day 4 4day 3 3day 2 2day 1 1 = 94 doodles warred
  36. 36. TESTED ELEMENTS DOODLE WARS Follow-up Survey Agree or Disagree: I underestimated the commitment of drawing a daily doodle.
  37. 37. TESTED ELEMENTS DOODLE WARS Follow-up Survey What held you back from participating?
  38. 38. TESTED ELEMENTS DOODLE WARS Follow-up Survey True or False: Games motivate me more than normal tasks
  39. 39. DOODLING DRIVEAND OBSTACLES • “ I did like the day when there was a theme, because it helped me focus what I was going to doodle.” • “Going online and posting them was an additional process that I was not • “My interest waned when I willing to go through.” saw that some of the ‘doodles’ had way too • “I was so busy with much effort put into them.” schoolwork!”
  40. 40. EMOTION ANDMOTIVATION • “It wasnt great seeing my name advertised as submitting zero doodles with an unhappy face next to it, but I guess thats what I get for signing up.” • “I did feel a little guilty about • “I love doodling, but dont do not uploading doodles after it as often as Id like. This you sent me that prize email.” gave me that little push that I needed!” • It made me realize how poorly extrinsic motivation • “Great visual encouragement- works on me.” advertising, posters etc.”
  41. 41. DOODLE WARS Missing Elements Complexity Obstacles Variety in goals and More Rules commitment Stake in the gameNovelty Support Live Progress In-person community Daily winners Personal Meaning
  42. 42. Future
  43. 43. THESIS METHOD : Spring Refinement of design principles and implementation of final cognitive design system Organization of Cognitive Design Guide, interview designers (potential readers) Synthesis of findings and interviews, development of thesis book Completion of thesis exhibition materials and final presentation
  44. 44. Guide Preview
  45. 45. COGNITIVE DESIGN GUIDE✘ ✔ NYC LARGE-SIZED vs WHOLE FOODS GROCERY SODA BAN BAG DONATION Reactance Hawthorne Effect Perceived constraint on consumer’s Decision to donate credit when freedom of purchasing power may upset providing one’s own grocery bag soda drinkers and lead to an may be encouraged by the presence overindulgence in other foods of other customers
  46. 46. COGNITIVE DESIGN GUIDE Social Biases GROUPTHINK - or - HERD INSTINCT SCIENCE SAYS... What: Phenomenon within groups of people in A group of scientists at Newcastle University demonstrated that merely hanging up posters of which the desire for harmony leads individuals to staring human eyes is enough to significantly change people’s behavior. After recording customer’s littering adopt the behaviors and opinions of the majority. behavior in their university’s cafeteria, the researchers Design: Imagery of people acting a certain way may hung posters with faces on them at eye-level overlooking the diners. guide people towards a specific action. During periods when the posters of eyes were present, twice as many people ILLUSION OF OBSERVATION cleaned up after themselves. What: People who believe they are being watched Source: article.cfm?id=how-the-illusion-of-being-observed- are more likely to follow social norms. can-make-you-better-person Design: To encourage polite behavior, craft designs that incorporate references to human eyes or that feature cameras lenses.
  47. 47. COGNITIVE DESIGN GUIDE Decision-Making Biases PRIMACY EFFECT SCIENCE SAYS... What: When quickly selecting among alternatives, Researchers at Columbia University asked subjects to rate a dozen famous paintings on a 12-point scale in preferences are unconsciously guided to options terms of their liking. Next, the subjects were presented with two of the paintings, chosen at random, and given that are presented first. the somewhat weightier task of rerating two of the paintings to choose one for inclusion in a museum’s Design: Change the order of choices to nudge permanent collection. Subjects who chose between decision-makers in a specific direction. paintings they initially rated far apart (i.e., an easy decision) made their decision more difficult by rerating these paintings much closer in overall liking. “A choice that initially seemed easy because it was COMPLICATING DECISIONS not of great consequence suddenly becomes more difficult when imbued with greater consequence,” What: When an important decision seems too easy, notes Professor Oded Netzer. Source: feature/7221834/Complicating+Choice# consumers artificially reconstruct their preferences to increases choice conflict. Design: When possible, present options that are more similar in appearance.
  48. 48. thank youAllison Leach © 2012