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Aida Wilkinson
1. Nationalities              Commands + Irregulars +        18. Deber + Infinitive2. Stem Changing              Pronoun P...
Nationalities
CHANGE … TO …   EXAMPLESU – UE          Jugar – Juego (Yo)E – IE          Pensar – Piensas (Tú)O – UE          Dormir – Du...
Use para (for, in order to) to indicate…The recipient of items      …el regalo para tu mamáPurpose      Vamos al restaur...
Indirect object pronouns are nouns that tell to whom/whator for whom/what. Indirect object pronouns replace oraccompany in...
• Attach the pronoun to the infinitive  • Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense• Attach the pronoun to an affirmative ...
When you want to talk about things that people like, change the          form of gustar to match the singular or plural no...
AffirmativeWhen you want to talk about an      Wordsindefinite or negative situation,   algo              somethingyou use...
◊ To express the extremes with most adjectives, drop the  final vowel and add the ending –ísimo(a). The adjective  must ag...
Reflexive Pronounsme                               noste                               osse                               ...
Give instructions or command to someone by usingthe affirmative tú commands of regular verbs.                             ...
Infinitive                  Affirmative Tú CommandTypically,   if you     decir                       diattach the    hace...
When you tell someone what NOT to do, use a negative command.Negative tú commands are formed by taking the yo form of the ...
A few verbs have irregular negative tú commands. Notice that none of the yo         forms of these verbs end in –o.       ...
por la … mañana/tarde/noche                  in/during the …                  morning/afternoon/night   antes de/después  ...
 It is a perfected action in the past. A snap shot in time!   ar verbs:   -é                       -amos   -aste        ...
Spanish         EnglishUn dia          One dayUna vez         OnceAyer            YesterdayA noche         At nightHace un...
El pretérito; -car, -gar, -zar                    -car  yo  -qué                    -gar  yo  -qué                    ...
DEBER = SHOULD/OUGHT TO   The verb deber means should or ought to. To say what people should do,  use a conjugated form o...
When verbs are used in modal verb combinations – the 2nd verb is not conjugatbut rather left in the infinitive form. You w...
estar + “ing”                                                            ar  ando                                        ...
End                                 adjectives                                with _a when                                ...
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Grammar book aida wilkinson

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Transcript of "Grammar book aida wilkinson"

  1. 1. Aida Wilkinson
  2. 2. 1. Nationalities Commands + Irregulars + 18. Deber + Infinitive2. Stem Changing Pronoun Placement 19. Modal Verbs3. Para 11. Irregular Affirmative Tú 20. Present Progressive4. Indirect Object Commands 21. AdverbsPronouns 12. Negative Tú Command5. Object Pronoun + Irregulars + PronounPlacement Placement6. Gustar 13. Irregular Negative Tú Commands7. Affirmative and NegativeWords 14. Sequencing events8. Superlatives 15. Preterite9. Reflexives 16. Trigger Words10. Affirmative Tú 17. –Car, -Gar, -Zar
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. CHANGE … TO … EXAMPLESU – UE Jugar – Juego (Yo)E – IE Pensar – Piensas (Tú)O – UE Dormir – Duerme (Él/Ella/Usted)E-I Pedir – Piden (Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes)
  5. 5. Use para (for, in order to) to indicate…The recipient of items …el regalo para tu mamáPurpose Vamos al restaurante para comer.Implied purpose Tengo dinero para [comprar] algo.
  6. 6. Indirect object pronouns are nouns that tell to whom/whator for whom/what. Indirect object pronouns replace oraccompany indirect objects. Singular me me te you (familiar) le you (formal), him, herPluralnos usos you (familiar)les you, them
  7. 7. • Attach the pronoun to the infinitive • Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense• Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command • Place the pronoun before a conjugation
  8. 8. When you want to talk about things that people like, change the form of gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things.Singularme gusta nos gustate gusta os gustale gusta les gustaPluralme gustas nos gustaste gustas os gustasle gustas les gustas
  9. 9. AffirmativeWhen you want to talk about an Wordsindefinite or negative situation, algo somethingyou use an affirmative or a alguien someonenegative word. algún/agluno(a) someNotice that alguno(a) and siempre alwaysninguno(a) must match thegender or the noun they replace también alsoor modify. Alguno and ninguno Negative Wordshave different forms used before nada nothingmasculine singular nouns. nadie no onealguno algún ningún/ninguno(a) none, not anyninguno ningún nunca never tampoco neither, either
  10. 10. ◊ To express the extremes with most adjectives, drop the final vowel and add the ending –ísimo(a). The adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. La idea de Rosa es interesantísima. Rosa’s idea is very (extremely) interesting.◊ When the last consonant is c, g, or z, spelling changes are required. c qu rico(a) riquísimo(a) g gu largo(a) larguísimo(a) z c feliz felicísimo(a)
  11. 11. Reflexive Pronounsme noste osse se acostarse (o - ue) lavarse los dientes afeitarse levantarse bañarse maquillarse despertarse (e - ie) peinarse dormirse (o – ue) ponerse la ropa ducharse quitarse la ropa lavarse secarse lavarse el pelo/la cabeza
  12. 12. Give instructions or command to someone by usingthe affirmative tú commands of regular verbs. *Notice it is a tú command, but ends like a 3rd house form DOP caminar ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque! lo comer ¡Come! ¡Come toda la hamburguesa! la abrir ¡Abre! ¡Abre la puerta, quiero entrar! los las Pronoun Placement 1. Infinitive 2. Gerund 3. Before conjugate verb 4. Affirmative command
  13. 13. Infinitive Affirmative Tú CommandTypically, if you decir diattach the hacer haz pronoun to the ir vecommand poner pon, you addan accent salir sal mark ser sé over the3rd to last tener ten vowel. venir venRemember that when you use a pronoun with an affirmativecommand, EXAMPLE:the pronoun attaches to the command. ¡Ponte otra camisa! >Put on (youself) another shirt!
  14. 14. When you tell someone what NOT to do, use a negative command.Negative tú commands are formed by taking the yo form of the present tense,dropping the –o, and adding the appropriate ending.-es –ar verbs-as –er amd –ir verbs Infinitive Yo Form Negative tú Command hablar hablo ¡No hables! volver vuelvo ¡No vuelvas! venir vengo ¡No vengas! ***** Irregulars on next slide! *****
  15. 15. A few verbs have irregular negative tú commands. Notice that none of the yo forms of these verbs end in –o. Infinitive Negative tú Command Tener No tengas Venir No vengas Dar/Decir No dés/digas Ir No vayas Ser No seas Hacer No hagas Estar No estés Saber No sepasbject pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands, just as with other conjugated verb EXAMPLE: ¡No lo uses! Don’t use it (the blowdryer).
  16. 16. por la … mañana/tarde/noche in/during the … morning/afternoon/night antes de/después los lunes, martes, de etc. before/after on the day Sequencing eventsprimero entonces luego/después por finfirst then later/after finally
  17. 17.  It is a perfected action in the past. A snap shot in time! ar verbs: -é -amos -aste -asteis -ó -aron er verbs: -í -imos -iste -isteis -ió -ieron
  18. 18. Spanish EnglishUn dia One dayUna vez OnceAyer YesterdayA noche At nightHace un ano A year agoYa AlreadyEl mes pasado Last monthAnteayer Day before yesterdayPor una hora For one hourPor fin FinallyA las ocho At eightDos veces Twice
  19. 19. El pretérito; -car, -gar, -zar -car  yo  -qué -gar  yo  -qué -zar  yo  -céEXAMPLES:Tocar Jugar Comenzar Yo = toqué Yo = jugué Yo = comencé
  20. 20. DEBER = SHOULD/OUGHT TO  The verb deber means should or ought to. To say what people should do, use a conjugated form of deber with the inifinitive of another verb. Deber Should/Ought to Debo Debemos Debes Debéis Debe DebenExamples: Debo barrer el suelo. Debes limpiar la cocina. Debe sacar la basura.
  21. 21. When verbs are used in modal verb combinations – the 2nd verb is not conjugatbut rather left in the infinitive form. You would never say “no puedo nado.” Common Modal Verbs Meaning Deber Should, ought to, must Desear To desire Necesitar To need Poder Can, could, might, be able to Querer Want, would like to Saber Know, know how to Soler Usually, used to
  22. 22. estar + “ing” ar  ando er  iendo 3 vowels  yendoPresent Progressive Irregulars Some verbs you know have irregular present EXAMPLES:Participle forms. Bailar = bailando • When the stem of an -er or -ir verb Beber = bebiendo ends in a vowel, change the -iendo Leer = leyendo to -yendo to form the present participle. Verb Irregular • e  I stem-changing verbs have a Present vowel change in the stem Participle • Some other verbs also have a vowel Leer Leyendo change in the stem. Pedir Pidiendo Dormir Durmiendo
  23. 23. End adjectives with _a when adding To describe how something is _mente.done, use adverbs. Many adverbs Adjective Adverbin Spanish are made by changingan existing adjective. cuidadoso(a) cuidadosament e • When an adjective ends in e, l, or z, simply add –mente to the end. rápido rápidamente • For adjectives with –o or –a lento(a) lentamente endings, add –mente to the tranquilo(a) tranquilamente feminine form. Adjective Adverb reciente recientemente frecuente frecuentemente _ly = _mente fácil fácilmente normal normalmente especial especialmente feliz felizmente
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