Grammar Book


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Grammar Book

  1. 1. Aida Wilkinson
  2. 2. 1. Nationalities 8. Superlatives Command +2. Stem Changing 9. Reflexives Irregulars +3. Para Pronoun Placement 10. Affirmative Tú4. Indirect Object Commands + 13. IrregularPronouns Irregulars + Negative Tú5. Object Pronoun Pronoun Placement Commands 11. Irregular 14. SequencingPlacement events6. Gustar Affirmative Tú Commands7. Affirmative andNegative Words 12. Negative Tú
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. CHANGE … TO … EXAMPLESU – UE Jugar – Juego (Yo)E – IE Pensar – Piensas (Tú)O – UE Dormir – Duerme (Él/Ella/Usted)E-I Pedir – Piden (Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes)
  5. 5. Use para (for, in order to) to indicate…The recipient of items …el regalo para tu mamáPurpose Vamos al restaurante para comer.Implied purpose Tengo dinero para [comprar] algo.
  6. 6. Indirect object pronouns are nouns that tell to whom/whator for whom/what. Indirect object pronouns replace oraccompany indirect objects. Singular me me te you (familiar) le you (formal), him, herPluralnos usos you (familiar)les you, them
  7. 7. • Attach the pronoun to the infinitive • Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense• Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command • Place the pronoun before a conjugation
  8. 8. When you want to talk about things that people like, change the form of gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things.Singularme gusta nos gustate gusta os gustale gusta les gustaPluralme gustas nos gustaste gustas os gustasle gustas les gustas
  9. 9. AffirmativeWhen you want to talk about an Wordsindefinite or negative situation, algo somethingyou use an affirmative or a alguien someonenegative word. algún/agluno(a) someNotice that alguno(a) and siempre alwaysninguno(a) must match thegender or the noun they replace también alsoor modify. Alguno and ninguno Negative Wordshave different forms used before nada nothingmasculine singular nouns. nadie no onealguno algún ningún/ninguno(a) none, not anyninguno ningún nunca never tampoco neither, either
  10. 10. ◊ To express the extremes with most adjectives, drop the final vowel and add the ending –ísimo(a). The adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. La idea de Rosa es interesantísima. Rosa’s idea is very (extremely) interesting.◊ When the last consonant is c, g, or z, spelling changes are required. c qu rico(a) riquísimo(a) g gu largo(a) larguísimo(a) z c feliz felicísimo(a)
  11. 11. Reflexive Pronounsme noste osse se acostarse (o - ue) lavarse los dientes afeitarse levantarse bañarse maquillarse despertarse (e - ie) peinarse dormirse (o – ue) ponerse la ropa ducharse quitarse la ropa lavarse secarse lavarse el pelo/la cabeza
  12. 12. Give instructions or command to someone by usingthe affirmative tú commands of regular verbs. *Notice it is a tú command, but ends like a 3rd house form DOP caminar ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque! lo comer ¡Come! ¡Come toda la hamburguesa! la abrir ¡Abre! ¡Abre la puerta, quiero entrar! los las Pronoun Placement 1. Infinitive 2. Gerund 3. Before conjugate verb 4. Affirmative command
  13. 13. Infinitive Affirmative Tú CommandTypically, if you decir diattach the hacer haz pronoun to the ir vecommand poner pon, you addan accent salir sal mark ser sé over the3rd to last tener ten vowel. venir venRemember that when you use a pronoun with an affirmativecommand, EXAMPLE:the pronoun attaches to the command. ¡Ponte otra camisa! >Put on (youself) another shirt!
  14. 14. When you tell someone what NOT to do, use a negative command.Negative tú commands are formed by taking the yo form of the present tense,dropping the –o, and adding the appropriate ending.-es –ar verbs-as –er amd –ir verbs Infinitive Yo Form Negative tú Command hablar hablo ¡No hables! volver vuelvo ¡No vuelvas! venir vengo ¡No vengas! ***** Irregulars on next slide! *****
  15. 15. A few verbs have irregular negative tú commands. Notice that none of the yo forms of these verbs end in –o. Infinitive Negative tú Command Tener No tengas Venir No vengas Dar/Decir No dés/digas Ir No vayas Ser No seas Hacer No hagas Estar No estés Saber No sepasbject pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands, just as with other conjugated verb EXAMPLE: ¡No lo uses! Don’t use it (the blowdryer).
  16. 16. por la … mañana/tarde/noche in/during the … morning/afternoon/night antes de/después los lunes, martes, de etc. before/after on the day Sequencing eventsprimero entonces luego/después por finfirst then later/after finally