A Service Design Model for Academic Non-Profit Organizations

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A Service Design Model for Academic Non-Profit Organizations

  1. 1. A Service Design Model forAcademic Non-Profit OrganizationsThe Service Experience of The Ohio State University’sCouncil of Graduate StudentsThesis Candidate AdvisorsAllen J Cochran Dr. Peter Kwok Chan Dr. Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders(513) 549 1554 R. Brian Stoneallenjcochran@gmail.comcochran.291@osu.eduwww.allenjcochran.com Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 1
  2. 2. ContentsResearch Question XXXAbstract XXXArgument XXXNeeds of Students XXXOrganizational Chart XXXAudience XXXUser Scenarios XXXExperience Cycle Diagrams XXXPrimary Research Direction XXXMethodology XXXSales vs. Experience Cycle XXXIndex of Touch Points XXXReferences XXX Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 2
  3. 3. Research QuestionHow can university studentgovernance bodies utilize a servicedesign framework to provide a moretranslational student experience? Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 3
  4. 4. AbstractIn school, students learn theory that they will use in theprofessional world. They need ways to apply theoriesto better understand the impact those theories have onprofessional practice. Student organizations offer year-round opportunities to do this, thus they offer a variety ofpractical services to the student body. Because studentorganizations offer these opportunities, there is a placefor designers in the organizations. Just as professionaldesigners are now designing services for profit drivencorporations, they can also apply those concepts tonot-for-profit academic groups like student organizations. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 4
  5. 5. AbstractOverview on behalf of their constituents, provide support for issues that affect students, and legislate to Before even that, however, the exactStudent organizations provide an a semi-professional outlet for students to participate in. produce enforceable action for their audiences. definition of a service must be clearlyStudent organizations offer opportunities extra- But as with all government bodies, if the services provided at not clear, well advertised, or thought stated.curricularly for students to practice the theories of as a whole system of interaction with a certainthey are learning in their courses, opportunities group of constituents, the success rate and impact • What is service design?to do transdisciplinary work, and engage in of those services is greatly lessened. In effect, the • What impact does serviceprojects that may help build their experiences and audiences does not understand how to participateprofessional resume. in those services, recommend those services to design have in general? others, or rely on those services for support whenUltimately, students who participate in activities needed.outside the classroom, are more prepared for theprofessional world because they have taken time This, then, becomes an opportunity for design to engage such organizations and offer guidelines • What impact does serviceto apply their knowledge rather than to simplyabsorb it in the classroom. for how to make those services better. The opportunity becomes a service design project. design have on a studentStudent governance organizations are one such In order to better understand, service design must first be defined. governance body?outlet for extra-curricular involvement.Student governance organizations not only provide • How do the needs of for-profit and not-for profit services differ?opportunities to provide direction and leadershipto a specific body of students (undergraduate,graduate, and/or professional students) but also,in many instances, provide opportunities to governother aspects of student involvement (as in thestudent governments that govern a universitystudent organizations).Like all governance bodies, student governmentsprovide a service to their constituents asmentioned above. These organizations advocate Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 5
  6. 6. Argument Students need outlets to applied the theory they learn Student Organizations offer outlets for students to apply that theory This outlet is a service to universities and students alike Service design frameworks can offer ways for those organizations to be more strategic with those services To date, service design has been largely applied to for-profit. This is an opportunitie to apply it to non-profit, student organizations Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 6
  7. 7. Needs of StudentsGraduate Students Self-Actualizing Undergraduate Students Maslow’sPlease note that this map repre- Heirarchy Esteemsents students at The Ohio State of Needs SocialUniversity Only. 1942 Security Physiological = 1000 students = 1000 students Academic Requirements Physiological Needs Academic Requirements These include the most basic needs that are vital to Advising Advising survival, such as the need for water, air, food and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the Campus Access Campus Access most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these Career Direction Career Direction physiological needs are met. Continued Affirmation Continued Affirmation Class Size Security Needs Class Size These include needs for safety and security. Direction Security needs are important for survival, but they Direction are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Exploratoration Examples of security needs include a desire for Exploratoration steady employment, health insurance, safe Expert References neighborhoods and shelter Expert References from the environment. Freedom Freedom Funding/Financial Aid Social Needs Funding/Financial Aid These include needs for belonging, love and Guidance affection. Maslow considered these needs to be Guidance less basic than physiological and security needs. Incentives Relationships such as friendships, romantic Incentives attachments and families help fulfill this need for Independence companionship and acceptance, as does Independence involvement in social, community Leadership or religious groups. Leadership Mentors Mentors Esteem Needs Proactive Behavior After the first three needs have been satisfied, Proactive Behavior esteem needs becomes increasingly important.Professional Development These include the need for things that reflect on Professional Development self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and Reliance on Others accomplishment. Reliance on Others Restricted Freedom Restricted Freedom Self-actualizing Needs Resources This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of Resources needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, Self-efficiency concerned with personal growth, less concerned Self-efficiency with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling Social Connections their potential. Social Connections Structure Structure Support Support Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 7
  8. 8. OrganizationalCharts Area of Interest Ohio Board of Regents Board Secretary OSU Board of Trustees (David Franz) OSU President University Senate (E. Gordon Gee) Asst. to the Pres. & Dir. of Op. (Kate Wolford) Counselor to the President (Herb Asher) Exec. VP & Provost (Jos Alutto) Senior VP of Senior VP of Senior VP of Senior. VP of Senior VP of Senior VP of Plan. Senior VP of Leg. Aff. Senior. VP of Senior VP & CFODevelopment (Peter Gov. Relations Univ. Comm Health Sci. Outreach & Engage. & Spec. Asst. to Pres. & Gen. Counsel Alumni Relations (Jeff Kaplan) (Geoff Chatas) (Chris Culley) Weiler) (Curt Steiner) (T. Katzenmeyer) (Steve Gabbe) (Joyce Beatty) (Archie Griffin) VP & Exec. Dean of CEO of Cancer Assoc. VP & Ath. Dir. Health Sciences Program (Gene Smith) (Chip Souba) (Michael Calguri) VP & Stud. Enroll. & VP of Human Resouces VP of Ag. Admin. VP of Research CIO Academic Support VP of Student Life Planning (Larry Lewellen) (Bobby Moser) (Caroline Whitacre) (Kathleen Starkoff) Units & Deans (Javaune Adams-Gaston) (Dolan Evanovich) Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 8
  9. 9. OrganizationalCharts Area of Interest Ohio Board of Regents OSU Board of Trustees OSU President (E. Gordon Gee) Exec. VP & Provost (Jos Alutto) VP of Research CIO Academic Support VP of Student Life (Caroline Whitacre) (Kathleen Starkoff) Units & Deans (Javaune Adams-Gaston) Council of Graduate Undergraduate Interprofessional Representing Students Student Government Council ~ 11,000 Students ~ 41,000 Students ~ 3,200 Students Dentistry Law Medical Veterinary Optometry Pharmacy Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 9
  10. 10. OrganizationalCharts Area of Interest VP of Student Life (Javaune Adams-Gaston) Council of Graduate Students Faculty Advisor 10 University Senators ~ 11,000 Students 150 Delegates Student Trustee appt’d to the University Board of Trustees President Vice President Secretary Treasurer Hayes Research Ray Travel Award Chief of Staff Academic Relations Forum Committee Communications & Organization & Social Events Chair Info. Technology Elections DIISC (Diversity & Senate Advisory Inclusiveness) 21 Senate Committees 5 RGC Committees Governmental Relations 35 University Wide Committees Health & Wellness Outreach & Engagement SERC (Sustainibility & Environment) Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 10
  11. 11. OrganizationalCharts Area of Interest Council of Graduate Undergraduate Interprofessional Representing Students Student Government Council ~ 41,000 ~ 11,000 Graduate ~ 3,200 Professional Undergraduate Students Students Students Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 11
  12. 12. Audience Graduate Council University Students Delegates Leadership Students entering graduate At The Ohio State University, University leadership programs in 2009 totaled the Council of Graduate represents any person more and 13.8 million Students are elected from in direct control of the students across the United more than 123 programs university, college, States. offering graduate degree department, or group of tracks. students (such as graduate At The Ohio State University advisors). this number is approximately Depending on the 13,000 graduate students, approximate size of the While no hard statistics can both male and female in all department this means be found about this number, departments with graduate there are, at any one time, the approximate total is programs. an approximate total of between 275 - 325 leaders 150 Council Delegates across The Ohio State representing the total 13,000 University in all graduate graduate students. degree track programs. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 12
  13. 13. User Scenarios Graduate Students Current University Committees Standing Organization Committees Organization Offices OSU Administrative Meetings Scholarship Opportunities OSU Administration Connections Delegate Meetings Delegate Elections Give-aways Involvement Fair Welcome Week Description Group Dynamic Ideal Distribution of Touchpoints Students for one reason or Persons included in this another have sought our group, like general students, participation in the Council of are graduate (masters or Graduate students doctoral) students studying in specialized fields. Goal Challenges To understand the services that Understanding the council to a the council provides and to degree that would encourage Graduate students should have a gradual introduction to at that level until towards the end of their education. execute those services to the advocacy to the general public the benefits and touchpoints of the Council of graduate Following it will reduce and then should slowly build best of their abilities. at large. students. At a certain point in their graduate careers, this back up as they are approached to support the amount of knowledge should plateau and continue university. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 13
  14. 14. User Scenarios Graduate Students Potential OSU Administrative Meetings University Committees OSU Administration Connections Connect Through Email Scholarship Opportunities Organization Offices Latern Articles Repeat Scholarship Applicants Delegate Elections Standing Organization Committees Delegate Meetings Case Studies Inter-collegiate Relationships Event Co-sponsorship College Presentations Useful Resources Gatherings & Networking Give-aways Involvement Fair General Advertising Website Targeted Advertising Donations Welcome Week Connect through Departments Officer Appearances Regular / Annual Events Description Group Dynamic Ideal Distribution of Touchpoints Students for one reason or Persons included in this another have sought our group, like general students, participation in the Council of are graduate (masters or Graduate students doctoral) students studying in specialized fields. Goal Challenges To understand the services that Understanding the council to a the council provides and to degree that would encourage Graduate students should have a gradual introduction to at that level until towards the end of their education. execute those services to the advocacy to the general public the benefits and touchpoints of the Council of graduate Following it will reduce and then should slowly build best of their abilities. at large. students. At a certain point in their graduate careers, this back up as they are approached to support the amount of knowledge should plateau and continue university. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 14
  15. 15. User Scenarios Council Delegates Current Organization Offices OSU Administrative Meetings OSU Administration Connections Scholarship Opportunities University Committees Give-aways Standing Organization Committees Involvement Fair Delegate Elections Welcome Week Delegate Meetings Description Group Dynamic Ideal Distribution of Touchpoints Students for one reason or Persons included in this another have sought our group, like general students, participation in the Council of are graduate (masters or Graduate students doctoral) students studying in specialized fields. Goal Challenges To understand the services that Understanding the council to a the council provides and to degree that would encourage Council Delegates should have a rapid and extensive ways to work within the Council itself, but there is only execute those services to the advocacy to the general public introduction to the Council over a very short period so much to know about the Council. Towards graduate best of their abilities. at large. of time. Once they have been essentially trained and they will dissassociate with the Council to finalize school introduced to the Council, their knowledge should work. Post-graduation they should have a rapid increase plateau and continue throughout their graduate careers. of knowledge as they are asked to represent and Their knowledge may increase in other areas of the support the university. university and certainly they will identify more effecient Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 15
  16. 16. User Scenarios Council Delegates Potential Scholarship Opportunities Organization Offices Latern Articles Case Studies Event Co-sponsorship University Committees OSU Administration Connections Connect Through Email General Advertising College Presentations OSU Administrative Meetings Delegate Elections Standing Organization Committees Website Gatherings & Networking Repeat Scholarship Applicants Give-aways Involvement Fair Delegate Meetings Useful Resources Targeted Advertising Donations Welcome Week Connect through Departments Officer Appearances Regular / Annual Events Inter-collegiate Relationships Description Group Dynamic Ideal Distribution of Touchpoints Students for one reason or Persons included in this another have sought our group, like general students, participation in the Council of are graduate (masters or Graduate students doctoral) students studying in specialized fields. Goal Challenges To understand the services that Understanding the council to a the council provides and to degree that would encourage Council Delegates should have a rapid and extensive ways to work within the Council itself, but there is only execute those services to the advocacy to the general public introduction to the Council over a very short period so much to know about the Council. Towards graduate best of their abilities. at large. of time. Once they have been essentially trained and they will dissassociate with the Council to finalize school introduced to the Council, their knowledge should work. Post-graduation they should have a rapid increase plateau and continue throughout their graduate careers. of knowledge as they are asked to represent and Their knowledge may increase in other areas of the support the university. university and certainly they will identify more effecient Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 16
  17. 17. User Scenarios University Leadership Current Organization Offices Give-aways Delegate Elections Scholarship Opportunities Welcome Week Delegate Meetings Standing Organization Committees Involvement Fair University Committees OSU Administrative Meetings OSU Administration Connections Description Group Dynamic Ideal Distribution of Touchpoints University adminisrators that Persons in this group are high have interest in listening to or ranking administrators at the working with the Council. University who are involved with student government projects in a very blue sky. Goal Challenges To understand the services of Having enough time to the council and advocate down dedicate to the council and University leadership is not as transient as the graduate To that end, they should have a steadily increasing through the ranks of thier good it’s undertakings and then student population. This group is generally at the knowledge of the benefits of the Council that is virtually work. recommending partnerships university much longer than any student. As such they unending. should have previous knowledge of the organization and with the council to the rest of it’s benefits and touchpoints. the university. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 17
  18. 18. User Scenarios University Leadership Potential Targeted Advertising Repeat Scholarship Applicants Scholarship Opportunities Organization Offices Event Co-sponsorship General Advertising Connect Through Email Useful Resources Regular / Annual Events Gatherings & Networking Give-aways Involvement Fair OSU Administrative Meetings Standing Organization Committees Latern Articles Case Studies OSU Administration Connections College Presentations Delegate Meetings Website Delegate Elections Connect through Departments Officer Appearances Welcome Week University Committees Inter-collegiate Relationships Donations Description Group Dynamic Ideal Distribution of Touchpoints University adminisrators that Persons in this group are high have interest in listening to or ranking administrators at the working with the Council. University who are involved with student government projects in a very blue sky. Goal Challenges To understand the services of Having enough time to the council and advocate down dedicate to the council and University leadership is not as transient as the graduate To that end, they should have a steadily increasing through the ranks of thier good it’s undertakings and then student population. This group is generally at the knowledge of the benefits of the Council that is virtually work. recommending partnerships university much longer than any student. As such they unending. should have previous knowledge of the organization and with the council to the rest of it’s benefits and touchpoints. the university. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 18
  19. 19. Experience Cycle TheoryDiagrams 1. Connect & Attract The initial connection with the person and used that contact to make an effective and affective 5. Reverberating impression Communicating the 1. Compelling 1 benefits to others Captures the users’s imagination 5. Advocate The person actively communicates their 5 satisfaction to others. 1 5 2 2. Orient The overview of preview 2 of what’s available or possible, allowing exploration and supporting the early stages of learning 4. Generative The promise of more 4 3 2. Orienting Helps users navigate good things the world 4 3 4. Extend & Retain The person comes back for more as their expectations are raised 3. Interact -- at the same time The completion of valuable a significant level of or valued activities while loyalty and leverageable relationships are achieved 3. Embedded delighting the senses, and establishing expectations Become part of about the overall content users’ lives of the encounters Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 19
  20. 20. Experience Cycle ApplicationDiagrams 1. Connect & Attract • Make contact • Seek interest • Provide introduction • Build rapport 5. Reverberating Empower others to speak 1. Compelling 1 for the organization Be present and informational 5. Advocate • Document relationship futher 5 • Mutual engagement • Listen and assist 1 5 2 2. Orient • Continue Contact 2 • Seek further interest • Provide further intro • Develop relationship 4. Generative The continued 4 3 2. Orienting Be a source of information acknowledgement of merit pertinant to students 4 3 4. Extend & Retain • Engage less frequently • Solicit Responses 3. Interact • Document relationship • Provide understanding • Develop friendship 3. Embedded • Engage regularly Involve in all aspects of the organization Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 20
  21. 21. Primary ResearchDirection Argument To date, service design has been Service design frameworks can This outlet is a service to Student Organizations offer outlets Students need outlets to applied largely applied to for-profit. This is offer ways for those organizations universities and students alike for students to apply that theory the theory they learn an opportunitie to apply it to to be more strategic with those non-profit, student organizations services Research Direction Literature Review Immersion Present Preliminary Work IRB Proposal 5 Qtr Review Revise Based on Feedback Guidelines (Prepare & Present) Test & Verify Guidelines (Card Sorts, Surveys, Make Tools) Write Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Exam Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 21
  22. 22. Methodology Literature Review Current Future Keywords Immersion Card Sorting • Service Design Participating in the Council of Graduate Card sorts are an opportunity to see if the Students and regularly observing, the proposed guidelines make sense in the interactions that the Council of Gradaute recommended heirarchy. • Information Visualization Students has with its audiences. This will require a communications audit or • Translational Research internal and external communication as Surveying well as documentation of regular Council • Advertising/Marketing appearances. Surveys will help determine if the proposed guidelines are understandable by a wide • Experience Design range of CGS audiences (graduate students, Interviewing delegates, and university administration). • Student Organizations Interviewing will provide more insight to • Student Needs OSU’s particular needs and views of the Make Tools Council. Interviews will need to be done both inside and outside the organization. Make Tools are a possible testing method. Like Card Sorts is might be a good indicator if the proposed guidelines are sufficient and Photographing make good sense. Photographing the Council, its events, and its materials will provide references for both observation and interviews. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 22
  23. 23. Test Room Setup Graduate Students Delegates University Leadership Work Materials Work Materials Work Materials ac ks Foo d / Sn Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 23
  24. 24. Sales Cycle vs.Experience Cycle Stage Awareness Consideration Selection Potential Interested Actual Pool Size Audience Prospects Customers Time Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 24
  25. 25. Sales Cycle vs.Experience Cycle Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 25
  26. 26. Index of Touch Points Current Opportunities Future Opportunities Case Studies Critique Delegate Meetings Critique White papers that discuss CGS’s positive White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results Use the monthly Delegate meetings to leverage White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results results the come from projects, legislation, the come from projects, legislation, and committee greater general interaction with students and the come from projects, legislation, and committee and committee work. work. student organizations. work. Connect through Departments DRAFT DRAFT Donations Work with CGS Delegates to enhance Once relationships have been established relationship with each University department White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results to a greater degree than at the present, use by providing additional materials and the come from projects, legislation, and committee the come from projects, legislation, and committee CGS as a means to raise money for the creating more opportunities to work with work. work. University and student funded projects Graduate Coordinators Connect Through Email Event Co-sponsorship Use the University e-mail system more Showcase CGS through co-sponsoship of effectively by taking full advantage of week White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results events. In this way, CGS would build it’s OSU updates e-mail and the allotted annual the come from projects, legislation, and committee the come from projects, legislation, and committee brand through logo placement and officer gratudate student body e-maisl granted by work. work. appearances. the Graduate School College Presentations Gatherings & Networking Host regular presentation sessions of what White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results Use every social event, CGS sponsored or White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results CGS does to each department across the the come from projects, legislation, and committee not, as an opportunity to hand out literature, the come from projects, legislation, and committee university work. interact with constituents, and promote CGS work. General Advertising Delegate Elections Regularly advertise CGS around campus, Use the bi-annual elections to leverage White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results on CABS busses, on posters in buildings, student participation and to showcase the come from projects, legislation, and committee the come from projects, legislation, and committee and like spaces so that we are recognized CGS’s work. work. work. on and around campus. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 26
  27. 27. Index of Touch Points Current Opportunities Future Opportunities Give-aways Organization Offices Critique Critique Use free give-away items as a way to Create opportunities for students at large connect Delegates with constituents, and delegates alike to use and interface White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results promote visibility of the CGS logo, and the come from projects, legislation, and committee with the CGS offices. the come from projects, legislation, and committee interact with the public. These items also provide greater visibilty to CGS’s work. work. overal brand. Inter-collegiate Relationships OSU Administration DRAFT DRAFT Connections Engage other universities on collaborative projects and regular meetings to discuss White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results Leverage CGS position within OSU to White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results graduate needs. the come from projects, legislation, and committee showcase our efforts to the administration the come from projects, legislation, and committee work. through regular communication and work. reports on projects. Involvement Fair OSU Administrative Meetings Present in a larger booth at the annual Work to increase the number of student organization involvement fair. White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results administrative meetings CGS attends and/ White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results the come from projects, legislation, and committee or the number of university committess the come from projects, legislation, and committee work. CGS appoints members too so that we work. have a great presence. Latern Articles Regular / Annual Events Along with advertising, CGS should work Schedule regular events and establish to promote it’s projects and efforts via White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results an acurate timeline to execute them White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results articlaes in the campus newspaper. the come from projects, legislation, and committee so that they are easy to host and so the come from projects, legislation, and committee work. that they have the maximum impact on work. constituents. Officer Appearances Repeat Scholarship Applicants Officers should work to make as many appearances as possible at student group White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results Maintain communication with scholarship White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results meetings, department meetings, university the come from projects, legislation, and committee award winners so that they can apply the come from projects, legislation, and committee meetings, and the like. Each opportunity work. again or inform CGS of more recent work work. can be a chance to discuss CGS. for us to promote. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 27
  28. 28. Index of Touch Points Current Opportunities Future Opportunities Scholarship Opportunities Website Critique Critique Advertise for the several scholarship As an easy and cheap way to diseminate opportunities and promote them through White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results information, the website should be regularly White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results events. These are one of the greatest the come from projects, legislation, and committee enhanced, promoted, and utiliized as a the come from projects, legislation, and committee opportunities for CGS to give and should be work. strong communication tool. This should also work. considered high priority. be considered a high priority. Standing Organization Welcome Week DRAFT DRAFT Committees Like the annual involvement fair, CGS Enhance and formalize CGS committee White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results should have a large presence during White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results efforts so that they spend more time working the come from projects, legislation, and committee Welcome Week because it is generally the the come from projects, legislation, and committee and less time planning and thus are more work. first opportunity to introduce CGS to the work. effective and interesting for students to graduate students. Targeted Advertising When concerning projects or events, target audiences that will make each opportunity a White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results larger success. the come from projects, legislation, and committee work. University Committees Work to increse the number of University- wide committees CGS makes appointments White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results to. In this way we will have a greater the come from projects, legislation, and committee presence. work. Useful Resources CGS should be a hub for graduate students and should be the easiest place to go for White papers that discuss CGS’s positive results information regarding issues and concerns the come from projects, legislation, and committee of our constituents work. Version 05 / 05 Date 2011 03 02 Page 28

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