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Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
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Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs
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Allenjcochran 3rd qtr_docs

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  • 1. Allen J CochranM.F.A. Candidate, DesignThe Ohio State UniversityDepartment of Design 3rd Quarter ReviewJune 4, 2010 Submitted to: Peter Kwok Chan Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders R. Brian Stone
  • 2. A Case Study on Co-Creation:The CreativeManagementand the Scope ofDesign Services ofIn-house DesignGroups withinAcademic InstitutionEnvironments.
  • 3. Contents4 Overview5 Research Questions6 Abstract7 Exploratory Pilot Study8 Introduction to the Community9 Introduction to the Area of Interest11 Participants13 Data Collection Method16 Data Analysis9 Future Work20 Annotated Bibliography23 Course Plan30 Appendices31 CITI Certification32 IRB Proposal36 3rd Quarter Paperwork (Sample)
  • 4. Overview
  • 5. Overview Research Questions 1 How do differently sized design groups within an academic organization function externally: to other offices and to the public? 2 How do differently sized design groups within an academic organization function internally and manage workflow: project management and creative management? 3 How can these groups become collectively aware of their own situations so that they better understand the external and internal organization more completely? 4 Through a collective understanding of their situation, how can differently sized design groups within an academic organization provide a more comprehensive service to themselves and their target audiences?© 2010 Allen J Cochran 5
  • 6. Overview Abstract Design practice is a major part of any major company. It is no different at The Ohio State University (OSU). Design at OSU is of particular importance because of its direct connection to university communication and therefore to the overall University community. Whether that be inside or outside the University, communication and design explains much about the University overall. Preliminary examination of the University leads me to believe that there are more than twenty offices performing design functions at OSU with the potential to have more than 100 employees fulfilling the functions of communicator or designer. Review of these in-house services at OSU could provide a better understanding of design management, collaboration, workflow and creative process, internal and external communications. Additionally, careful exploration of such variously sized offices will provide perspectives on how design teams work together as well as how they work separately while collectively trying to present a unified message to a diverse audiences. The scope of this project will lead me through a formal understanding of an academic institution, in this instance, The Ohio State University. It will also take me through the in-house design structure of a large non-profit company. I will perform a series of cycles aimed at gaining this understanding from a participatory action research standpoint. Action research is intrinsically personal and ongoing. Similar to the design process, action research moves continuously, often looking backwards before it moves again forward. It differs from expert based research in that the outcomes, executed during the “act” stage are very specific to the community of interest investigated. To achieve this difference from traditional scientific research, action research is intended to start broadly with relatively open ended questions and work towards the more specific stakeholder-centric reflections, and action research always moves in repeatable, similarly formatted stages. The series of cycles will develop at my question and goals are refined. Most likely my research will be three cycles long. Each cycle will follow the same format, “look, think, act” (Stringer, 8). Similarly, each cycle will be evaluated before moving on and subsequent cycles will be altered slightly to accommodate for new findings. Though I plan on having a preliminary idea of what to research in each of the cycles, this reflection will help align the each subsequent cycle with the changing research from the previous. Should they be needed, additional cycles may be included following the original three.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 6
  • 7. ExploratoryPilot Study
  • 8. Exploratory Pilot Study Introduction to the Community Academic institutions, in many respects, function like huge corporations. It could be argued in fact, that universities are just corporations whose main product is education. Colleges, schools and departments act as different divisions of this corporation; each selling their own unique product line of educational degrees. A College of Art may sell you a degree in painting, while a College of Engineering may dispense mechanical engineering degrees. Like any other massive corporation, these products must be communicated to the public, prospective students and throughout the University itself. These products must be disseminated right along side the global message of the corporation. The administrative structure that supports such complex academic institutions is equally complex. Major academic institutions may have an internal economy all their own. For example, organizational offices like facilities, communications, planning, food services, entertainment (athletics, theater and music departments), finance and accounting, governmental affairs groups, and even campus newspapers, work in unison to advance their parent institutions. The larger the academic institution, the larger the line of educational products and messages to convey. Thus, there is a more complex support structure. The Ohio State University (OSU) is one such academic institution. It is statistically larger than the any other American university. OSU also is one of the largest employer in the Greater Columbus Area. If student employees and graduate instructors are counted into this number, OSU would be the largest employer in the Columbus. Further if the four regional campus are included, the University would be on of the largest employers in the state of Ohio. This goes to show that in order to run such a complex system, many people are needed to facilitate the administrative aspects of the institution. The major difference between an enormous corporation like Procter & Gamble and an academic institution like Ohio State, is that OSU’s consumers are active in the day-to-day activities. Not only do OSU’s consumers buy the educational products, they also take part in the daily activities of the University. In this way, communication is two way and real time. Procter & Gamble only sells to consumers; therefore, the communication may be two way, but the consumer feedback rate is probably very slow. A university and it’s students are inexorably linked. Without a constant flow of incoming and outgoing students, OSU would not remain an educational conduit.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 8
  • 9. Exploratory Pilot Study As such, there is a considerable support structure that specifically drives design and communications at all major institutions. For that matter, design and communications are a major part of any corporation. At OSU, design has a direct link to the University Communications Department, and so plays a vital role in the overall connection that the University has to its constituents. With Ohio State being so large, design, marketing and communications are essential. Information is passed to the public, prospective students, current students, faculty, staff, and other targeted audiences on a regular basis. Introduction to the Area of Interest Design plays a vital role in our current society. Literally everything around us is designed. Everything has been through the styling hands of a designer. Designers provide the life of a product, and they infuse products with the visual life that keeps them relevant and interesting. More designers are working on projects from the very start, rather than just the styling end-cap. The unique problem solving mindsets that are bred into designers produce individuals who can tackle any problem they’re presented with. Nowadays, physical products are only one end of a spectrum of services designers can handle. Society’s demands have determined that design is also a major part of any large corporation, whether that be employees managing outside contract design firms, or in-house employees designing for the company. Design connects an organization to its staff as well as to its audience. At OSU this is no different. Design is driven by in-house employees, and as The Ohio State University has grown and expanded various colleges the number of active designers has also grown. Preliminary research shows that there are more than twenty offices performing design functions at the University, with the potential to have more than 100 employees. By any account this is a large group. My interest in the design community stems from a desire to provide a service. As the public understanding of design expands from “working for” to “working with” this desire grows from providing a service, to collaborating to facilitate a service. In a deeply personal way, I believe this interest in collaboration has drawn me into design and continues to power my enthusiasm. In a similar way, I am drawn to the design profession because of it’s inherent, process-based approach to problem-solving. Because design is so service© 2010 Allen J Cochran 9
  • 10. Exploratory Pilot Study oriented, process is as much about communicating solutions to clients (or coworkers as in the case of in-house designers), as it is about following a fluid set of steps from project input to output. At the top, the design profession has a strong sense of management built into its practices. Managing such a fluid process, and acting between the process and the client, has meant that designers naturally take on leadership roles. Management and collaboration, coupled, are my two main interests within the design community. Considering that OSU is home to so many in-house designers who perform various types of design, the University is an opportune space for me to learn more about the businesslike on goings of design. A careful exploration of these in-house design offices will provide perspectives on how design teams work together, as well as separately to collectively present a unified message to diverse audiences. Personal interest started my inquiry. However, after initial talks with the community, it struck me that more can be done with the designers at OSU. I mentioned that as OSU expanded, the number of designers also grew. As OSU increased in size and scope of education, individual colleges and departments isolated themselves from each other. Ultimately this produced a silo philosophy that keeps actual, wide-spread collaboration from occurring. Faculty and staff alike identify closely with their particular college or department, sometimes seemingly forgetful that they work for entire The Ohio State University rather than just their specific college. This fact was recently made very real for me. In an exploratory study one community member, when discussing this prevalent silo mindset, mentioned, “I can name names,” in reference to those University groups that still feel strongly about individualism. This same community member remarked, “do you want me to tell you how it works or how it should work?” Two other community members explained similar viewpoints. Along these lines, the University is undergoing a brand evaluation. On Wednesday, November 4, 2009, members of the University community met about the “One Ohio State Framework Plan”, a master plan proposal for advancing the entire University into the future. The framework outlines financial, architectural, even academic plans. In a more abstract way it also states “[the] plan must promote interaction and collaboration among University units to create One Ohio State (http://fod.osu.edu).” Never before has OSU undergone a personal evaluation and expanded its own collaborative efforts while the design profession is undergoing its own radical transformation. By moving towards more collaborative professional practices, now is a salient time for the in-house designers to understand themselves. In the end, I will achieve my personal interests from a design, management, and© 2010 Allen J Cochran 10
  • 11. Exploratory Pilot Study collaboration standpoint also bringing to light new ideas and facilitating new discussions among the resident designers at OSU. Community members have mentioned their enthusiasm for my research, and at this early stage, they seem to be open in expressing their opinions. Exploratory discussions with designers at OSU lead me to believe that there is no better time than now to review current professional design practices at OSU, because of the efforts that University is simultaneously working on. Professionally, before returning to academia in pursuit of my graduate degree, I worked at the University of Cincinnati Foundation (UC Foundation). The UC Foundation is the fundraising arm of the University of Cincinnati (UC). On paper the Foundation and the University functioned separately but worked very closely together. At the UC Foundation, I worked as a graphic designer and event producer. My role was to facilitate events on behalf of not only the UC Foundation, but the fundraising or alumni related events that individual UC colleges and departments wished to put on. In my two year tenure at the Foundation I produced more than seventy-five events across the country. The sheer quantity of events meant that I worked with a huge number of people throughout the University. I witnessed first hand the lack of collaboration and the constant reinforcement of being in a silo. In some instances, UC’s colleges were unaware of the marketing pieces being distributed from within their own departments. When the earlier participant mentioned the actual working habits, versus the ideal working habits, it was a clear parallel to UC for me. I draw many parallels between OSU and UC based on my first hand interactions in Cincinnati and the recent exploratory studies I’ve done. In fact, the discrepancies I came across while at the UC Foundation are what ultimately drove me back to graduate school. How do people work together? How can groups collaborate easier or more efficiently? Can a greater understanding of what all of us do help us do it differently, better, or improve our product or service? These questions, unanswered, pushed me towards graduate design studies, and the opportunity to understand service, business, collaboration, management, and interaction more thoroughly. Participants To meet the demands of communicating to many different audiences from many different colleges and departments, OSU is home to a substantial number of employees working in a design capacity. In this context, design is meant to encompass the activities carried out by marketers, communicators, graphic© 2010 Allen J Cochran 11
  • 12. Exploratory Pilot Study designers, video editors, web programmers and designers. The seemingly expansive definition of design is derived from the variety of professional skills performed by employees within offices (in-house) at OSU. In many instances one employee may fulfill the role of marketer, communicator, visual communicator and web designer. In reducing job title terminology, I hope that I can equalize the community members to the same level and in doing so reduces hierarchy and promotes conversation. The term in-house, has provoked several questions all ready. By this, I mean the production of some commodity or service within a company’s own funds or resources. In-house design refers to the employees mentioned above as being internal and a part OSU. For this exploratory study, my community participants come from various design management levels at OSU. In my research to date, I have contacted six participants. To keep everyone’s identity anonymous, participants have each been assigned a number. For this study, I contacted four of the six participants; throughout the rest of this paper, I’ll refer to them as PART 001, PART 003, PART 004 and PART 005. PART 001 is a senior level designer whose main aim is to oversee production and manage a large staff. The primary area of responsibility for this participant is global communications on behalf of the University. PART 001 reports directly to the upper administration of the University. PART 003 and 004 are senior level designers from one college at Ohio State. Their main function is to produce visual materials for their home college and the departments within that college. They report directly to the college administration and indirectly PART 001’s level as he directs global communications. Per their request, PART 003 and PART 004 were in the same session for my exploratory study. Lastly, PART 005 does not work in a management capacity but works as a designer for one college at OSU. PART 005’s main role is produce materials within his or her home college. This participant reports to the level of PART 003 and 004. PART 002 and PART 006 were contacted originally to discuss the concept of in-house design but were not included in this study. Both of these participants should be included in the future. Their insights into the design profession would be valuable. The group that was included represented a cross section of design management at Ohio State and included everyone from upper level management to a non-manager and was sufficient for this exploratory study.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 12
  • 13. Exploratory Pilot Study Data collection method Elizabeth Sanders and Colin William write about the distinction between what people say, what people do, and what people make. The authors explain that those methods centralized around what people say are rooted in verbal communication, but are limited to what people can verbalize (2001). What people do is observable and can explain relationships between community members, but it is lacking when it comes to the root motivation behind actions. What people make shows researchers the creative expression that participants have. Sanders and Williams further define what it means to make by saying: Make methods enable creative expression by giving people ambiguous visual stimuli to work with. Being ambiguous, these stimuli can be interpreted in different ways, and can activate different memories and feelings in different people. The visual nature liberates people’s creativity from the boundaries of what they can state in words. Together, the ambiguity and the visual nature of these tools allow people much room for creativity, both in expressing their current experiences and ideas and in generating new ideas. (2001) For my exploratory study, I am focusing on what people say and what people make. Each participant session will be formatted as follows: 1) an introduction to my area of interest, 2) an interpretive activity geared at rating the importance of abstract concepts (called an Importance Bulls-eye), 3) a second interpretive activity for participants to describe their daily work activities (called Time on Task), and 4) loosely structured interview questions about each of the interpretive activities. What people say came from the participants’ comments throughout the session. What people make came from the visual collages they produced from each of the interpretive activities. Each session was held in the participants’ office with the exception of PART 005 whose session was held in a neutral location. Each session took between 35 minutes and an hour. The first part of each session, an introduction to my area of interest, was explained through a process diagram that I am using to discuss my direction with my research advisors. This diagram is centered around evolving questions which drive my research. Overlapping the question axis are four distinct areas that represent my research questions. The goal of the first area (represented by a square) is to review the complete scope of professional design and in-house design offices at The Ohio State University.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 13
  • 14. Exploratory Pilot Study Process Diagram (Revised May 31, 2010) This will allow me to identify all the stakeholders of the community and give me a true indication of just how large an impact the community has on the University. Secondly, the diagram depicts a rectangular area where I’ll present the findings of the previous cycle to the community. Thirdly, I’ll work with the community to identify areas to work on, or those areas of true tension. Finally, after the community establishes the direction we will collectively work to co-create their future. Presently this process is rather abstract, but the ultimate goal is to narrow the area of investigation. The interpretive activities are made up of a diagram and a set of sticky-notes. Participants were asked to manipulate the sticky-notes onto the diagram. For the first activity participants were presented with a bulls-eye image in the middle of an 18 x 24 inch piece of newsprint paper and a set of 30 abstract concepts. The concepts included: service design, interaction design, collaboration, technology, brand awareness, inter-departmental cooperation, and silo philosophy. I introduced this activity by explaining that these concepts were areas that I was interested in, but more importantly, areas that came from very preliminary discussions with OSU designers (Participants 001 - 006). They were then asked to move the sticky-notes around the bulls-eye in order to rate them according to personal preference. The inner-most circle being the most important and the outermost circle the least important. Each participant took no more than 10 minutes to place the sets of stickies. The second interpretive activity followed a similar format, but this time the diagram was a list of numbers, one through ten, on the left hand side the paper. Stickies now represented typical work activities that participants might perform in a design office at OSU. These stickies were also derived from early discussions© 2010 Allen J Cochran 14
  • 15. Exploratory Pilot Study with participants. This group of sticky-notes was more concrete than the first and were color coded and grouped into four categories: yellow for management tasks, lime for accounting tasks, blue for design tasks, and pink for marketing tasks. Participants were not told why the words were quartered and color coded. As before, they were asked to move the stickies onto the diagram, but in this activity one represented the task that the participants spent the most time working on and ten represented the tasks that participants spent the least time working on. As before, participants took no more than ten minutes to complete this activity. Following these activities, the participants were asked several questions were asked. After completing first activity participants were asked: 1) Why did you place the concepts where you placed them, 2) What are the top three most important concepts on the map, 3) From what perspective did you approach your answer (deeply personal or more of a global enterprise view)? In addition, subsequent follow-up questions based on answers that arose during conversation. Once each participant finished the second activity they were asked: 1) Why did you place the tasks where you placed them, and 2) Which numbers comprised your average day? Participants 001 and 005 had individual sessions. Participants 003 and 004 were included together in one session because they work closely together. PART 003 and 004 approached me about being in the same session because PART 004 once held PART 003‘s position. He left the university and PART 003 was hired. Not long after PART 004 returned to the University and took a position directly beneath PART 003. They both did their own interpretive activities though, but they were conversational in their follow up interview questions. Reflecting on the sessions themselves, there are a few things I plan on changing in the future. Firstly, this exploratory study needs to be done with a much larger audience. I continue to point out that there is a large number of designers working at various levels, in various offices across the University, four stakeholders out of this broad community of designers is insufficient to determine a global perspective. It would also be beneficial to make some necessary changes to the session activities themselves so that more valuable data can be gathered. This is not to say that these four participant’s provide me with no usable data. On the contrary, these participants had some distinct and important opinions. Secondly, I believe that the time of day is important. PART 001’s session was late afternoon and PART 003 and 004’s session was mid-morning. PART 005 was around lunchtime. I found that participants were more enthusiastic earlier in the day; their answers were more thorough. Towards the end of the day, their answers were longer and more distracted. This is an early observation and I would need many more participants to confirm this, but at this time I would say that future sessions should be scheduled earlier in the day rather than later.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 15
  • 16. Exploratory Pilot Study There is plenty of room for the actual layout of the activities to change. Despite regularly mentioning to participants that they could add stickies as necessary because the list of concepts and task was by no means complete, only in rare instances was anything added. In the future, I believe that leaving several stickies blank, but grouped with the written ones, participants may be more inclined to add their own concepts and tasks to the collages. Additionally, I think that defining the words on the stickies would be beneficial. In doing so, participants may be more likely to spend more time placing (or not placing) concepts rather than trying to define what the words meant. Data Analysis As Sanders and William write that using ambiguous stimuli can open participants to interpreting that stimuli in new and different ways (2001). Similarly, ambiguous words or images may trigger memories that can be informative to the activity and unique to each participants. Collage activities, such as the ones I asked participants to engage in, are geared at getting people to convey experiences through words and images. In order to analyze my participants’ collages, I’ve asked each of them to articulate the importance of concepts and tasks by placing sticky notes on the diagrams as described in the previous section. I should mention process. Each session was audio recorded and every participant had their own identical set of diagrams and stickies. Following the sessions, I transcribed all the audio recordings and pinned every collage up to a wall where they could be photographed and compared to one another. Themes were then identified from the listening to the audio recordings and re-reading the transcripts. Once themes were identified, I corroborated them with the placement of sticky- notes in the collages. PART 001 made decisions quickly. They read the sticky-note and quickly placed it. This was true for both activities. On the Importance Bulls-eye, the participant placed stickies centrally on the diagram and they radiated out as he placed more stickies; for the Time on Task, he choose the most poignant tasks and quickly stuck them down as linearly as possible. He was so precise on the second activity, he even folded the sticky notes so that they fit within the provided sections. Of all the participants, PART 001 used the least stickies. Three notes were excluded from the Bulls-eye and ten from the Task activity.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 16
  • 17. Exploratory Pilot Study PART 003 and 004 executed the activities simultaneously. PART 003 moved extremely quickly at first and slowed down towards the end. Of all the participants, PART 003 edited the most after placing the stickies. PART 004 was slower moving and asked many more questions. PART 003 needed no direction, almost beginning to place stickies before I had even explained what to do. PART 004 on the other hand, needed clarification and more detailed directions. In the end both participant’s Importance Bulls-eyes resembled grids; they were very structured. The Time on Task activities for both participants were executed in the same way, using organized and structured grids. For both activities, every sticky-note was used. PART 003 added three notes to her bulls-eye and four notes to her task diagram. PART 004 added none. PART 005 placed the first few bulls-eye concepts with no issue, but then began to hesitate for the duration of the first activity. This community member had no trouble with the second activity. She placed the first, most important concepts at the middle and radiated outwards. Unlike PART 001, who angled the notes in various directions, PART 005 placed her notes radiating on one axis across the page. PART 005 used all the concepts and left out thirteen of the tasks. PART 001 seemed to express his feelings towards design as it is currently at OSU rather than what design could be. Because they folded the stickies, it made me believe even more that they were looking at current realities rather than potential realities. To me, this seemed to say that everything has a place and fits into the picture as it was given. PART 001 explained that both activities were positioned from a global, enterprise level view point because of his or her management level. On the other hand PART 003 and 004 had interesting positions. Both claimed that they could not separate themselves from thinking ideally about OSU, and thus part of their Importance Bulls-eyes contained global perspectives. However, at the root they approached the initial, most important aspects of the Bulls-eye from a deeply personal perspective because they both agreed, what they do is always at the forefront. PART 001 and 005, who are technically at opposite ends of the management spectrum, had very similar styles of placement, and left a great deal of stickies off. For the Bulls-eye, both of these community members stacked notes. This was a central concept because they believed that the majority of the concepts were important. PART 005 asked several investigatory questions while working, but for the most part was the one participant that knew the majority of the terms from the stickies. Each of the participants were asked which of the concepts were the top three from the Bulls-eye. Their responses varied, but their explanations paralleled one another greatly. Below are their responses:© 2010 Allen J Cochran 17
  • 18. Exploratory Pilot Study PART 001 Technology, Brand Awareness, Brand Strategy, Collaboration PART 003 Collaboration, Process, and Management PART 004 Communication, Strategy, Over-arching Vision PART 005 Process, Technology, Service Design All participants discussed how design, the type of design they were doing nowadays, is changing. Each of them talked about the decreasing emphasis on printed materials, and the increase in digital, web based design. PART 001 eloquently discussed how, in terms of work, this meant that they were doing less design in the traditional sense, and concentrating more on messaging as a means to design. Technologies like Facebook and Twitter were now providing frameworks for messaging rather than design. Similarly, PART 003 explained that one role he or she has is to design for the web, and that there is a big push from the college to design digitally. Design may be changing, but the participants listed concepts like the Future of Design, Role of Design and How Design Affects OSU as mildly to not important. Global perspective was a theme that each participant noted in their bulls-eye. Each believed that having a broader understanding of what was happening at OSU particularly within the realm of design, was considerably important. Only PART 001, the senior level manager, felt that he had this perspective; each of the other participants felt they could use further communication in this area. In conjunction, participants felt this would affect collaboration, brand awareness and brand strategy. If the entire University community proceeded towards a unified direction, then each college or department could work informed with this framework in mind. This is where collaboration, process and management became important. Silo Philosophy, as well as Individualism, was a topic of much discussion. PART© 2010 Allen J Cochran 18
  • 19. Exploratory Pilot Study 001 said, while determining where to place the sticky, “if you’re literally talking a Silo Philosophy [then] that doesn’t get in the circle...” This participant goes on to say, “I can name names.” In addition, this community member continues to explain that while this belief should not exist it still does. He goes so far as to say there is no “tolerance” for it. All the while, he continues to forceably remove the Silo Philosophy sticky-note and place it exactly outside the outermost circle on the bulls-eye. Though PART 003, 004, and 005 each had thoughts on Silo Philosophy, PART 005 was outspoken with his opinions concerning the topic. The other participants placed it as equally alone and outside their other items as PART 001. PART 004 mentioned it had an “adverse effect” and “seems to not benefit.” PART 003 placed Silo Philosophy on the Bulls-eye because it is good to keep in mind since it does exist, but agreed with the other participants that it wasn’t (or should not be) important. Technology was a brought up by each participant. For PART 001 technology was a concept at the top of the list, because it can be both a tool and a medium. For PART 003 and 004 it is primarily an avenue to communicate to audiences. PART 005, like PART 005, expressed technology as a way to connect to relevant audiences. PART 005 said, “I feel like we have to keep up with the times in order to stay current with everyone else and be competitive.” PART 001 also remarked that technology was a means to make connections with audiences. I found that the Time on Task collages substantiated the participants Importance Bulls-eyes. Both PART 001 and 005 explained that their workdays are mostly comprised of the first four spots on the task diagram. PART 001 placed a lot of the broad, strategy concepts in the center. The tasks he placed centrally were meta oriented management tasks like Brand Strategy and Collaboration. PART 005 also placed a lot broad concepts directly in the middle, but listed very specific tasks. I found that participants on the opposite end of the management spectrum included the same number of daily tasks, though PART 001’s choices were nearly all abstract in nature, and PART 005’s were very concrete. On the other hand, PART 003 and 004 were extremely busy. PART 003’s day- to-day activities were one through six and PART 004’s were one through five. In contrast to what 001 and 005 did, 003 and 004 used all of the task sticky-notes. This means that while PART 003 said that more than half of the task diagram comprised the day-to-day activities, each individual number on the diagram had many tasks listed. The second slot, for instance, had Delegating, Communicating, E-mail (added), Revising, Designing Printed Pieces, Meeting, and Setting Goals all together and overlapping with the slots before and after.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 19
  • 20. Future Work
  • 21. Future Work Future Study & Next Steps After this exploratory study, it is clear there is more work that can be done. Participants seem to realize that the University is by no means perfect, and has room to grow not only internally but, externally as well. There are great opportunities for new relationships if the community can understand one another, put forward a collective strategy, present a consistent message, and reduce the individual silos that still exist. The hopes of the One University Framework strive to hit these targets, but even that plan seems restrictive since only the senior level participant of this study was aware of it. In the broadest scope of my research, this project is intended to lead me through a formal understanding of an academic institution – in this case, The Ohio State University. It is also my intention that this process take me through the in- house design structure of a large non-profit corporation. From this point, I plan to perform a series of cycles each aimed at gaining this understanding from a participatory standpoint. Essentially, the future of this work should concentrate on surveying more community members. The benefit of this is two-fold. First, interviews with more people will introduce my research to a wider sample of the community, will help me build rapport within the community. Secondly, working with a more extensive group will allow me to refine my direction. The four participants have identified some central areas that seem to be all-encompassing for the community but bringing these to light with other community members will validate those points and potentially introduce new ones.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 21
  • 22. Future Work More practically, I believe the question becomes about how the rest of the community should be approached. For me, this could happen one of two ways: 1) spend time scheduling meetings with other community members and making stick-it note activity kits, or 2) prepare a workbook composed of an introduction to my research and interests, as well as a short questionnaire and similar activities. The first approach will take considerable time, and each session would have to be recorded and later transcribed. The second approach would reach a larger audience faster, and follow up interviews could be scheduled as needed to clarify questionable remarks in the workbooks. For this early exploratory stage of my research, where the idea is not all together too clear, it would seem to me that spending time on interviews would be a wasteful use of my time. Whereas, I could prepare a workbook and hand deliver them so that I can begin to build the rapport I need to continue. In truth the future of this project is speculative. It is currently happening very fluidly, and maintaining a steadily evolving direction each week. The path is certainly narrowing to a concrete direction. I hope by repeating the Importance Bulls-eye and Time on Task activities, in some capacity to a larger sample of community members that I can identify a research direction, the necessary stakeholders important to making my research happen and create real change for the design community at OSU. Workbook© 2010 Allen J Cochran 22
  • 23. AnnotatedBibliography
  • 24. Bibliography Action Research Bradbury, Hilary, and Peter Reason. Handbook of Action Research, Concise Paperback Edition. London [u.a.]: SAGE, 2008. Print. This book is an all-purpose reference for Action Research. The authors have included several case studies as well as several definitions of Action Research form various professions and organizational perspectives. Bradbury and Reason breakdown the notion that Action Research is somehow “teaching” research and the emphasize Action Research as a framework for participatory action in many fields. Boyd, Joni. Making Research Meaningful: An Exploration of Participatory Action Research. Working paper. Print. Winter 2009. This paper compares quantitative and qualitative research and outlines why qualitative research is not only important but a better overall choice for a participatory method like Action Research. The author is careful, however, not to totally downplay quantitative findings. Instead, she proposes that they are useful but shouldn’t be the main point of data for an Action Research projects. “Center for Collaborative Action Research.” Cadres | Graduate School of Education and Psychology | Pepperdine University. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. < http://cadres.pepperdine.edu/ccar/projects. community.html > This source comes from a department that regularly encourages students to utilize Action Research as a critical lens for their research. The site spells out basic action research principles. It also provides links to several hyper-links to different types of Action Research projects - at Pepperdine, Action Research proposals and findings mostly make their way to the public via a website. Stringer, Ernest T. Action Research. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2007. Print. This book is an in-depth explanation of Action Research. Stringer outlines the history of action research and its methodology. He breaks down his discussion by leading readers through each part of the process from research plan design to implementation.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 24
  • 25. Bibliography Action Research (Continued) Stockrocki, M. Research Methods and Methodologies for Art Education. Ed. S. Pierre and E. Zimmerman. National Art Education Association. Print. This is a reference book for methods and methodologies relating directly to art education. At this point I have not read much of it, however its referenced several times in Boyd’s work and I have cited it because of its potential value in the future. Design Management Mozota, Brigitte Borja De. Design Management Using Design to Build Brand Value and Corporate Innovation. New York: Allworth, 2003. Print. This book is an exploration of design management methodologies. It utilizes theory and validates it through case studies. The author defines design management and steps through the fundamentals of practice. She then goes further into the importance of design and thus the importance of managing that process accurately. Poggenpohl, Sharon Helmer., and Keiichi Sato. Design Integrations: Research and Collaboration. Chicago: Intellect, the University of Chicago, 2009. Print. This book is broken into two sections: 1) research and 2) collaboration - both pertaining to design. Each section begins with a formal, theoretic and historical outline followed by several chapters of case studies. Particularly interesting, there are several chapters on the synthesis of design, technology and business goals as well as practicing collaboration within virtual organizations. Sanders, Elizabeth B. -N, and Colin T. William. Harnessing People’s Creativity: Ideation and Expression through Visual Communication. Ed. J. Langford and Philip D. McDonagh. Focus Groups: Supporting Effective Product Development (2001). Print. This paper discusses what people say, what people do, and what people make. This is a guiding principle in my exploratory study. The paper examines the current state of beliefs within research. It also discusses several methods of acquiring creative data from people stereotyped as non-creative.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 25
  • 26. Bibliography Action Research (Continued) Sanders, Elizabeth B.-N., and Pieter Jan Stappers. Co-Creation and the New Landscapes of Design. CoDesign (2008). Journals Online. Web. 4 Nov. 2009. <http://journalsonline.tandf.co.uk>. This paper establishes a basis for codesign. Sanders and Stappers examine the history of designing with users and lays the framework for professional designers to act as facilitators of designs so that the users needs are truly met. Project Management Nokes, Sebastian, and Sean Kelly. The Definitive Guide to Project Management: the Fast Track to Getting the Job Done on Time and on Budget. New York: Pearson Education. Prentice Hall Financial Times, 2007. Print. Though not a theoretical guide to project management, this gives a hands-on, practical perspective on project management. It will be useful to compare office observations of my community of interest against the certification system set for project management. Community University Relations - The Ohio State University. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. < http://relations.osu.edu/ >. This source is the gateway to understanding the University’s marketing and communications departments. Additionally, this website presents guidelines for messaging and design and defines the majority of design functions at OSU. Welcome to Ohio State - The Ohio State University. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. < http://www.osu.edu >. This source is the definitive portal to all information for my community of interest. Though information is sometimes difficult to get through, nearly everything about the university is contained within this website.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 26
  • 27. Course Plan
  • 28. Course Plan Course Plan By Year & Quarter Year Quarter Course Number & Title Type Cred 2009 AUTUMN Design 693 - Independent Study T 3.00 Design 780 - Design Issues Seminar C 4.00 Design 785 - Orientation to Graduate Studies in Design C 4.00 2010 WINTER Design 693 - Independent Study T 5.00 Design 780 - Design Issues Seminar C 4.00 Design 786 - Design Research & Inquiry C 4.00 2010 SPRING Design 693 - Independent Study T 4.00 Design 787 - Design Planning, Development, and Evaluation C 4.00 Design 760 - Graduate Design Studio C 5.00 ART ED 795 - Action Research in Art. Ed. C 4.00 2010 SUMMER CSE 201 - Elementary Computer Programming E 4.00 Design 795 - Design & Business E 4.00 Design 685 - Field Work in Design S 1.00 2010 AUTUMN Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 ART ED 795 - Arts & Cult. Org Res. & Rev. Management C 5.00 CSE 502 - Object Oriented Programming E 3.00 2011 WINTER Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 ACCAD 740 - Interactive Arts Media 1 S 3.00 Comm 656 - Info. Tech. & Org. Comm. E 5.00 CSE 668 - App. Comp. Programming for Eng. E 3.00 2011 SPRING Design 693 - Independent Study T 4.00 ACCAD 741 - Interactive Arts Media 2 S 3.00 CSE 767 - Applied Object-Oriented Analysis & Design E 3.00 2011 SUMMER CSE 541 - Elementary Numerical Methods E 3.00 Design 673 - Interactive VC: Strategies Web Comm. S 4.00 Design 685 - Field Work in Design S 1.00 2011 AUTUMN Design 693 - Independent Study T 1.00 Design 660.02- Visual Communication Design Studio S 5.00 Comm - 655 Computer Interfaces and Human Identity E 5.00 CSE 670 - Introduction to Database Systems 1 E 3.00 2012 WINTER Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 Design 661.02- Advanced Design Studio S 5.00 Design 950 - Research Problems in Design T 5.00 2012 SPRING Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 Design 998 - Research in Design: Thesis T 7.00 T - Thesis Development Courses C - Core Seminar Courses E - Elective Courses S - Studio Courses© 2010 Allen J Cochran 28
  • 29. Course Plan Course Plan By Course Type Thesis Development Courses Design 693 - Independent Study T 3.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 5.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 4.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 4.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 1.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 Design 950 - Research Problems in Design T 5.00 Design 693 - Independent Study T 2.00 Design 998 - Research in Design: Thesis T 7.00 37.00 Core Semenar Courses Design 780 - Design Issues Seminar C 4.00 Design 785 - Orientation to Graduate Studies in Design C 4.00 Design 780 - Design Issues Seminar C 4.00 Design 786 - Design Research & Inquiry C 4.00 Design 787 - Design Planning, Development, and Evaluation C 4.00 Design 760 - Graduate Design Studio C 5.00 ART ED 795 - Action Research in Art. Ed. C 4.00 ART ED 795 - Arts & Cult. Org Res. & Rev. Management C 5.00 34.00 Elective Courses CSE 201 - Elementary Computer Programming E 4.00 Design 795 - Design & Business E 4.00 CSE 502 - Object Oriented Programming E 3.00 Comm 656 - Info. Tech. & Org. Comm. E 5.00 CSE 668 - App. Comp. Programming for Eng. E 3.00 CSE 767 - Applied Object-Oriented Analysis & Design E 3.00 CSE 541 - Elementary Numerical Methods E 3.00 Comm - 655 Computer Interfaces and Human Identity E 5.00 CSE 670 - Introduction to Database Systems 1 E 3.00 33.00 Studio Courses Design 685 - Field Work in Design S 1.00 ACCAD 740 - Interactive Arts Media 1 S 3.00 ACCAD 741 - Interactive Arts Media 2 S 3.00 Design 673 - Interactive VC: Strategies Web Comm. S 4.00 Design 685 - Field Work in Design S 1.00 Design 660.02- Visual Communication Design Studio S 5.00 Design 661.02- Advanced Design Studio S 5.00 22.00© 2010 Allen J Cochran 29
  • 30. Appendices
  • 31. Course Plan CITI Certification Completion Report 10/2/09 1:40 PM CITI Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative Human Research Curriculum Completion Report Printed on Learner: Allen Cochran (username: cochran291) Institution: Ohio State University Contact Information The Ohio State University Department of Design 128 N. Oval Mall, Hopkins Hall Columbus, OH 43230 United States of America Department: Department of Design Phone: (513) 549-1554 Email: cochran.291@osu.edu Group 2.Social and Behavioral Research Investigators and Staff.: Stage 1. Basic Course Passed on 10/02/09 (Ref # 3594273) Date Required Modules Completed Score Introduction 10/02/09 no quiz History and Ethical Principles - SBR 10/01/09 3/4 (75%) Defining Research with Human Subjects - SBR 10/01/09 5/5 (100%) The Regulations and The Social and Behavioral 10/01/09 5/5 (100%) Sciences - SBR Assessing Risk in Social and Behavioral Sciences - SBR 10/01/09 5/5 (100%) Informed Consent - SBR 10/01/09 4/4 (100%) Privacy and Confidentiality - SBR 10/01/09 3/3 (100%) Records-Based Research 10/01/09 2/2 (100%) Research with Prisoners - SBR 10/02/09 4/4 (100%) Research with Children - SBR 10/02/09 4/4 (100%) Research in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools - 10/02/09 4/4 (100%) SBR International Research - SBR 10/02/09 3/3 (100%) Internet Research - SBR 10/02/09 5/5 (100%) HIPAA and Human Subjects Research 10/02/09 2/2 (100%) Conflicts of Interest in Research Involving Human 10/02/09 2/2 (100%) Subjects Ohio State University 10/02/09 no quiz For this Completion Report to be valid, the learner listed above must be affiliated with a CITI participating institution. Falsified information and unauthorized use of the CITI course site is unethical, and may be considered scientific misconduct by your institution. https://www.citiprogram.org/members/learnersII/crbystage.asp?strKeyID=C66BBFB5-65CC-40EC-A2AC-48C7E1479CB1-4670973 Page 1 of 2 CITI Certification Report (acquired October 2009)© 2010 Allen J Cochran 31
  • 32. Course Plan IRB Proposal IRB Proposal Page 01 of 06© 2010 Allen J Cochran 32
  • 33. Course Plan IRB Proposal IRB Proposal Page 02 of 06© 2010 Allen J Cochran 33
  • 34. Course Plan IRB Proposal IRB Proposal Page 03 of 06© 2010 Allen J Cochran 34
  • 35. Course Plan IRB Proposal IRB Proposal Page 04 of 06© 2010 Allen J Cochran 35
  • 36. Course Plan IRB Proposal IRB Proposal Page 05 of 06© 2010 Allen J Cochran 36
  • 37. Course Plan IRB Proposal Additional Documents Forthcoming Consent Form Interview Questions Survey Questions Focus Group Questions IRB Proposal Page 05 of 06© 2010 Allen J Cochran 37
  • 38. Course Plan 3rd Quarter Paperwork 3rd Quarter Review (Updated March 2010) For the MFA in the Department of Design Mandatory Date: Candidate: The undersigned Graduate Faculty members have reviewed the research and coursework of visit us on the web: www.design.osu.edu http://accad.osu.edu the candidate above during this the 3rd quarter of their graduate enrollment. The results of the review are as follows: Continue in the MFA program Deny continuation in the program Delay review for one quarter (a rationale must be specified on this form) A delayed review will cause the student to be placed on departmental probation until the subsequent 3rd quarter review that must take place during the following quarter, at which time department pro- bation will be removed or the student will be denied continuation in the program. A one page preliminary research proposal must be given to each committee member one week prior to the review. Recommendations: Submitted by: Committee Chair Committee member 1 Committee member Sample 3rd Quarter Review Documentation.© 2010 Allen J Cochran 38
  • 39. For more information or to contactwww.allenjcochran.com

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