Implementation of interactive perspective practices.
Implementation of critical and response perspective practices.
Creating a literate environment involves…getting to know each learner. Research/Information According to Dr. Peter Afflerbach (Afflerbach, 2007, p.27), “Reading inventories provide us with the means to assess and evaluate many of the diverse aspects of students’ reading performance and growth.” He also states (Afflerbach, 2007, p.155), “Successful readers must be motivated, of positive attitude, of good self-concept, and capable of making accurate attributions for their performances.”
Creating a literate environment involves…getting to know each learner. Research-based Practice/s Implemented As I sought to get to know three literacy learners from my class better, I gave both cognitive and non-cognitive assessments. I conducted a cognitive reading assessment, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (Sopris West Educational Services, 2003), that provided me with information on reading fluency. Through this assessment, I learned that although all three students met the state goal with regards to speed and accuracy, they struggled with reading expression. I also gave a non-cognitive assessment, the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (McKenna & Kear, 1990, pg. 630-635), to assess the reading motivation of each student. Through this survey, I learned that two of the three students disliked reading aloud in front of others.
Creating a literate environment involves…getting to know each learner. How did this help me create a literate environment? The cognitive assessment showed that the three students struggled with reading expression. This could partly explain why they do not seem to love reading. When reading expression is lacking, it is hard to find humor and other emotions in texts. I am now providing more opportunities for my students to practice reading expression. I am continuing to model reading expression. However, now we are having discussions about the importance of expression and strategies readers use to be expressive. The non-cognitive, motivation assessment showed that reading aloud in front of a group of their peers is stressful for two of the students. Therefore, I have implemented other strategies for listening as they read. Currently, they are reading aloud as I walk around and listen in. Sometimes, they are reading into their whisper phones as I monitor and make notations.
Creating a literate environment involves…selecting appropriate texts. Research/Information Due to lack of background knowledge, increase in text difficulty, and lack of content knowledge, we often see the reading level of many students fall when they get to fourth grade. Dr. Susan Neuman (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010b) recommends that informational texts are critical in the early years if we wish to avoid what is known as the fourth grade slump.
Creating a literate environment involves…selecting appropriate texts. Research-based Practice Implemented I used a matrix introduced by Dr. Douglas Hartman (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010a) to create a balance in text selection. The matrix includes three dimensions:
Creating a literate environment involves…selecting appropriate texts. How did this help me create a literate environment? As I selected texts for a unit of study on the life cycle of a frog, I included…
both narrative and informational texts
text without pictures, text with pictures only, and text with words and pictures
texts that offered easy readability and texts that were more challenging
By selecting texts from each dimension and along each continuum…
there was a increase in student motivation
students were exposed to a variety of text structures
Creating a literate environment involves…implementation of interactive perspective practices. Research/Information The interactive perspective involves…
teaching students the skills and strategies needed in order to read and write accurately with fluency and comprehension
being strategic and metacognitive readers and writers
According to an article Clarifying Differences Between Reading Skills and Reading Strategies(Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris, 2008, p.368), “Being strategic allows the reader to examine the strategy, to monitor its effectiveness, and to revise goals or means if necessary.”
Creating a literate environment involves…implementation of interactive perspective practices. Research-based Practice/s Implemented After learning about the interactive perspective, I began planning future instruction somewhat differently. 1st – I introduce and model use of a strategy (ex: making text-to-self connections).
As students observed the teacher think aloud and modeling, they were learning how to think about text themselves.
2nd – Students and teacher work together at using the strategy.
The combination of teacher and students working together creates a non-threatening environment in which to practice use of the strategy.
This also provides students with additional support and instruction as needed.
3rd – I gradually remove support as students became more comfortable with use of the strategy. The goal is for students to become strategic processors of the strategy and metacognitive.
At this stage, it is important to monitor individual use of the strategy.
Further instruction and guided practice is needed until students are using the strategy each time they read (including their free choice reading).
Creating a literate environment involves…implementation of interactive perspective practices. How did this help me create a literate environment? In the past, I may have gone from introducing a strategy straight to expecting students to be able to use the strategy independently. Modeling and gradually removing supports have given students the ability to attack texts, be reflective, and self-regulating.
Creating a literate environment involves…implementation of critical and response perspective practices. Research/Information According to an article on critical literacy (Molden, 2007, p.50), critical literacy “encourages readers to be active participants in the reading process: to question, to dispute, and to examine power relations.” By encouraging critical literacy, students will leave our classroom with a necessary life skill: the ability to be an independent thinker. Dr. Janice Almasi (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010c) shares that the response perspective takes students beyond merely interacting with text to having a transaction with text. When students collide with text in this manner, they have life changing experiences.
Creating a literate environment involves…implementation of critical and response perspective practices. Research-based Practice/s Implemented I have begun to use specific strategies for critical literacy. Problem-posing questions (Molden, 2007, p.52-53)
This strategy allows students to explore text (author’s purpose, biases, perspectives, etc…)
Switching (Molden, 2007, p.54)
This strategy helps show students biases in the text as well as make the reader more aware of the author’s purpose.
Students switch things such as the gender of the main character, the theme, the setting, etc… and examine the impact of these switches to the text.
I have provided students with ample opportunities to respond to text. Response Journals (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010d)
Students respond freely to text.
This provides students with an opportunity to respond to text with an open-ended interpretation.
Students respond to text from a character’s perspective.
Creating a literate environment involves…implementation of critical and response perspective practices. How did this help me create a literate environment? Upon implementation of these perspectives, I noticed the following changes in our classroom environment: Students have begun to examine the author’s reason for writing. As a result, their level of comprehension is increasing. Students are thinking about the perspectives of other characters in a selection. They are also thinking about how the story might change if it were written by someone else. As students respond to texts, I have noticed that they have begun to use similar ideas and strategies in their own writing.
References Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment, K-12. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61(5), 364–373. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010a). Analyzing and Selecting Text. [DVD]. The beginning reader, PreK-3. Baltimore, MD: Author. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010b). Informational Text in the Early Years. [DVD]. The beginning reader, PreK-3. Baltimore, MD: Author. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010c). Response Perspective. [DVD]. The beginning reader, PreK-3. Baltimore, MD: Author. Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010d). Response Perspective: Reading-Writing Connection. [DVD]. The beginning reader, PreK-3. Baltimore, MD: Author. McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43(9), 626–639. Molden, K. (2007). Critical literacy, the right answer for the reading classroom: Strategies to move beyond comprehension for reading improvement. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 50-56. SoprisWest Educational Services. (2003). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills 6thedition. Longmont, CO.