Nursing Leadership


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Nursing Leadership

  2. 2. <ul><li>It is the process of influencing others toward goal achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the process of persuasion and by example in which an individual induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’s purposes or the shared purposes of all. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Physical Characteristics : Energy, physical stamina. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Background : Education, Mobility </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Intelligence : Judgment, decisiveness, knowledge, cognitive abilities and fluency of speech. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Personality : adaptability. alertness, creativity, cooperativeness, personal integrity, self-confidence, emotional balance, control, independence. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Abilities : ability to enlist cooperation, popularity and prestige, sociability, interpersonal skills, social participation, tact, diplomacy. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Work Related Characteristics : Achievement drive, desire to excel, conscientiousness in pursuit of goals, persistence against obstacles, tenacity </li></ul>
  8. 9. Types of Leader <ul><li>Formal or appointed – chosen by the administration and given official or authority to act. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Informal – does not have official sanction, chosen by the group itself. They become leaders because of age, seniority, special competencies, an inviting personality or ability to communicate with others. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Douglas McGregor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory X – Employees prefer security, direction and minimal responsibility and need coercion and threats to get job done. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><ul><li>Theory Y – Employees enjoy their work, can show self-control and discipline, are creative and intrinsically motivated by their work. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>William Ouchi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory Z – Focus on collective decision-making, long-term employment, use of quality circles and holistic concern and mentoring. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Rensis Likert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitative-authoritative – leader has low concern for people and uses threats and fear-based methods to achieve performance. Communications are entirely downward and concerns are ignored. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><ul><li>Benevolent-authoritative – leader uses reward to encourage appropriate performance and listens more to concern of subordinates but almost all major decisions are made centrally. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><ul><li>Consultative democratic – characterized by upward flow of information and leader is making genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><ul><li>Participative-democratic – leaders makes maximum use of participative methods, engaging people lower down the organization in making decisions. People are closer together and work together at all levels. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Kurt Lewin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autocratic leadership – involves centralized decision-making, with the leader making decisions alone and using coercive power to command and control. Leads to hostility and aggression. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><ul><li>Democratic leadership – is participatory with authority delegated to others. The leader uses expert power and having close personal relationships. Leads to increased productivity and job satisfaction. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – is passive and permissive and the leaders defers decision making. Leads to low productivity and employee frustration. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Charismatic Leadership Theory . Has the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more than they normally do despite obstacle and personal sacrifice. Charisma – a fire that ignites followers’ energy and commitment, producing results above and beyond the call of duty. </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Transformational Leadership Theory. They have special ability to bring about innovation and change by recognizing followers’ needs and concern. They create significant change in both followers and of the organization. </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Contingency Theories - A model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations. Uses different plans to be used in case an emergency arises. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Path-Goal Theory. The leader facilitates task accomplishment by minimizing obstructions to the goals and by rewarding followers for completing their tasks. Low budget, burn-out of nurses, low productivity etc. are some obstacles. </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Great Man Theory . Argues that few people are born with the necessary characteristics to be great. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Leadership Behavior by Fiedler <ul><li>Supportive Leadership – open, friendly and approachable and the leader treats subordinates as equals. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Directive Leadership – leader tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Participative Leadership – leader consults with his subordinates about decision, encouraging group discussion and written suggestions. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Achievement Leadership – leader stresses high performance and improvement. Leader show confidence in subordinates and assists them how to achieve high goals. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Servant Leadership by Robert Greenleaf <ul><li>The leader fulfills goals and needs of subordinates and realization of the purpose and mission on the organization. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Motivation Theories <ul><li>Motivation - process of stimulating subordinates to achieve high productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Morale – state of cheerfulness, confidence and discipline. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – An employee has to met his basic physiological needs to pursue higher-level needs. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory – Hygiene-maintenance factors include salary, job security, quality of supervision, safe and good working conditions and relationship with others. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Motivator factor includes satisfying and meaningful work, development and advancement opportunities, responsibility and recognition. </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Henry Taylor’s Monistic Theory - Subordinates work productively when given incentives such as merit increases, bonus system, profit sharing, savings sharing, large paychecks. </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>David McClelland’s Mode l - Employees are more productive when provided with achievement, power and affiliation. </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory - To be highly motivated, a person needs to find an outcome attractive, believe that certain actions will lead to a desired outcome. “Is it worth it?” </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>B.F. Skinner’s Positive Reinforcement - Reinforcing positive behavior with plenty of praise and positive feedback may increase productivity and morale. </li></ul>
  38. 40. POWER
  39. 41. <ul><li>Power – is one’s capacity to influence others. It is the ability to create, get and use resources to achieve one’s goal (Kelly, 2008). </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>POSITION POWER </li></ul><ul><li>Reward power – it results from the authority to bestow rewards on other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive power – that stems from authority to punish or recommend punishment. </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>Legitimate power – stems from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it. </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>PERSONAL POWER </li></ul><ul><li>Referent power – power that results from characteristics that subordinates respect and admiration for and desire to emulate the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Information power – comes from access to information. </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>Expert power – power that stems from special knowledge of or skill in the tasks performed by subordinates. </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>Connection power – power that comes from personal and professional relationships that enhance one’s resources and the capacity for learning and information sharing. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Team Building <ul><li>Team – small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose. </li></ul>
  46. 48. Stages of Team Building <ul><li>Forming Stage – expectations, interactions, boundary formations. </li></ul><ul><li>Storming Stage – tension, conflict, confrontation. </li></ul><ul><li>Norming Stage – positioning, goal setting, cohesiveness. </li></ul>
  47. 49. <ul><li>Performing Stage – Actual work, relationships, group maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjourning – closure, evaluation, outcome review. </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Please text me when you pass the Nurse Licensure Examination (NLE) !!! </li></ul><ul><li>0920-9288303 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(friendster account) </li></ul>