Abilities : ability to enlist cooperation, popularity and prestige, sociability, interpersonal skills, social participation, tact, diplomacy.
Work Related Characteristics : Achievement drive, desire to excel, conscientiousness in pursuit of goals, persistence against obstacles, tenacity
Types of Leader
Formal or appointed – chosen by the administration and given official or authority to act.
Informal – does not have official sanction, chosen by the group itself. They become leaders because of age, seniority, special competencies, an inviting personality or ability to communicate with others.
Theory X – Employees prefer security, direction and minimal responsibility and need coercion and threats to get job done.
Theory Y – Employees enjoy their work, can show self-control and discipline, are creative and intrinsically motivated by their work.
Theory Z – Focus on collective decision-making, long-term employment, use of quality circles and holistic concern and mentoring.
Exploitative-authoritative – leader has low concern for people and uses threats and fear-based methods to achieve performance. Communications are entirely downward and concerns are ignored.
Benevolent-authoritative – leader uses reward to encourage appropriate performance and listens more to concern of subordinates but almost all major decisions are made centrally.
Consultative democratic – characterized by upward flow of information and leader is making genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas.
Participative-democratic – leaders makes maximum use of participative methods, engaging people lower down the organization in making decisions. People are closer together and work together at all levels.
Autocratic leadership – involves centralized decision-making, with the leader making decisions alone and using coercive power to command and control. Leads to hostility and aggression.
Democratic leadership – is participatory with authority delegated to others. The leader uses expert power and having close personal relationships. Leads to increased productivity and job satisfaction.
Laissez-faire – is passive and permissive and the leaders defers decision making. Leads to low productivity and employee frustration.
Charismatic Leadership Theory . Has the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more than they normally do despite obstacle and personal sacrifice. Charisma – a fire that ignites followers’ energy and commitment, producing results above and beyond the call of duty.
Transformational Leadership Theory. They have special ability to bring about innovation and change by recognizing followers’ needs and concern. They create significant change in both followers and of the organization.
Contingency Theories - A model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations. Uses different plans to be used in case an emergency arises.
Path-Goal Theory. The leader facilitates task accomplishment by minimizing obstructions to the goals and by rewarding followers for completing their tasks. Low budget, burn-out of nurses, low productivity etc. are some obstacles.
Great Man Theory . Argues that few people are born with the necessary characteristics to be great.
Leadership Behavior by Fiedler
Supportive Leadership – open, friendly and approachable and the leader treats subordinates as equals.
Directive Leadership – leader tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do.
Participative Leadership – leader consults with his subordinates about decision, encouraging group discussion and written suggestions.
Achievement Leadership – leader stresses high performance and improvement. Leader show confidence in subordinates and assists them how to achieve high goals.
Servant Leadership by Robert Greenleaf
The leader fulfills goals and needs of subordinates and realization of the purpose and mission on the organization.
Motivation - process of stimulating subordinates to achieve high productivity.
Morale – state of cheerfulness, confidence and discipline.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – An employee has to met his basic physiological needs to pursue higher-level needs.
Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory – Hygiene-maintenance factors include salary, job security, quality of supervision, safe and good working conditions and relationship with others.
Motivator factor includes satisfying and meaningful work, development and advancement opportunities, responsibility and recognition.
Henry Taylor’s Monistic Theory - Subordinates work productively when given incentives such as merit increases, bonus system, profit sharing, savings sharing, large paychecks.
David McClelland’s Mode l - Employees are more productive when provided with achievement, power and affiliation.
Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory - To be highly motivated, a person needs to find an outcome attractive, believe that certain actions will lead to a desired outcome. “Is it worth it?”
B.F. Skinner’s Positive Reinforcement - Reinforcing positive behavior with plenty of praise and positive feedback may increase productivity and morale.
Power – is one’s capacity to influence others. It is the ability to create, get and use resources to achieve one’s goal (Kelly, 2008).
Reward power – it results from the authority to bestow rewards on other people.
Coercive power – that stems from authority to punish or recommend punishment.
Legitimate power – stems from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it.
Referent power – power that results from characteristics that subordinates respect and admiration for and desire to emulate the leader.
Information power – comes from access to information.
Expert power – power that stems from special knowledge of or skill in the tasks performed by subordinates.
Connection power – power that comes from personal and professional relationships that enhance one’s resources and the capacity for learning and information sharing.
Team – small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose.