History of Rap Music
Rap music is a type of music where an artist sings in verse and rhyme while following a certain beat. The
word rap is mostly used as a synonym to the word hip hop. Rap music has its roots in African music. It
was spread all over the world especially to America by a group of traveling artists from West Africa
known as griots. In America, New York to be specific, African music was blended in perfectly with
American music to come up with an African-American music that they called hip-hop. This was the
modified version of rap music.
Rap music became popular
In 1970s, rap music became more popular in New York City due to the high concentration of the black
community in the region. DJs started to play rap music in clubs that was embraced and welcomed well
by the people. Rap music gained popularity in Jamaica and was spread to New York City by Jamaican
immigrants. DJ KoolHerc was among the first DJs to play this kind of music in New York and is up to now
regarded as the father of hip hop. The history of Rap music was then spread all over by people since
they now started to rhyme and lyrically rap songs at social gatherings like parties.
Some of the earliest rap songs to be recorded were “King Tim III” by Fatback Band and “Rapper’s
Delight” by Sugar hill Gang. These songs were among the top thirty songs on the Billboard charts and
this made rap music to be considered as a worthy type of music. Rap music is still evolving and it is now
being made much more better by borrowing some ideas from jazz and soul as it was witnessed from the
‘soulful rap’ movement that was led by Kanye West.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop,rap music, or hip-hop music, is a music genre consisting
of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is
chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements:
MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include
sampling (or synthesis), and beatboxing.
While often used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire
subculture. The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music,
though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other
elements of hip hop culture, including DJing and scratching, beatboxing, and instrumental tracks.“The
Example: Payback” by James Brown
Most popular usage: “Boomin’ System”by LL Cool J, “Can’t You See?” by Total [see full sample list]
The bassline on this James Brown track jsut straight kills! I remember the first time I noticed the song being sampled in multiple
songs was when En Vogue’s “Never Gonna Get It” came out. Everytime the song came on the radio all I could get out of my
head was “You know it’s funky, funky, funky…”. That’s when I realized LL had the same sample. But, yo, that was like over 15
years ago. I’d love to hear someone flip this differently today.
Pop music is the kind of music that was bred from the rock 'n roll genre, this is the kind of music that
has a groovy beat that makes its listeners to get to their feet and move to the beat of the music. Pop
music is not limited to only one genre of music but it changes from time to time. There are times it
leans towards the genre of rock music, other times it sounds like hip hop and even country music
Popular music can generally be defined as "commercially mass produced music for a mass market" (Roy Shuker:
Understanding Popular Music 2001), and most modern pop music derives from musical styles that first became
popular in the 1950s. However, this definition does not address the part that popular music plays in reflecting and
expressing popular culture, nor its socio-economic role, nor the fact that much of popular music does not make a
profit nor does it effectively reach a mass market. It cannot easily be defined in musical terms, as it encompasses
such a wide range of rhythms, instruments, vocal and recording styles.
Pop Music = Pop Culture
Popular music is also about popular culture - it shapes the way people dress, talk, wear their hair, and, some say,
other behaviour such as violence and drug use. It expresses the here and now, how artists feel about what is
happening in the world around them, and as such can be used as a cultural thermometer to test the temperature
of the times: the protest songs of the 1960s, the punk explosion of the late 1970s, hip hop today. When advertisers
or moviemakers want to evoke nostalgia for a particular place or era, they immediately turn to a pop soundtrack.
Popular music can be the direct expression of the zeitgeist, especially when it is written, played and sung by
performers who have strong political feelings. It can be a force for the radicalisation and empowerment of youth
— and can also be blamed for "the problem with young people". Pop music has caused many a moral panic over
the past few decades.
Pop Music = Social Control
Pop music is also potentially a tool for social control, partly because of its association with hypnotic rhythms,
repetitive lyrics and flashing lights. What better way to drum ideology into unresisting young minds, especially
when music videos can reinforce messages visually as well as aurally? The reasoning goes, that if pop music can
dictate the way people dress and style their hair, it can also influence their thinking on less superficial matters. As
well as being 'rebel music', pop music is also a corporate product, and who has more interest in creating
generations of model consumers than the multinational media conglomerates? Even governments are seen as
getting in on the act, as state control of broadcast media in places like China runs to the censorship of song lyrics.
Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of "popular") is a genre of popular music which
originated in its modern form in the 1950s, deriving from rock and roll. The terms popular music and pop music
Example of pop music:
1.i don't care
3. please don't go
are often used interchangeably, even though the former is a description of music which is popular (and can include
As a genre, pop music is very eclectic, often borrowing elements from other styles including urban, dance, rock,
Latin and country; nonetheless, there are core elements which define pop. Such include generally short-tomedium length songs, written in a basic format (often the verse-chorus structure), as well as the common
employment of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, and catchyhooks.
So-called "pure pop" music, such as power pop, features all these elements, using electric guitars, drums and bass
for instrumentation; in the case of such music, the main goal is usually that of being pleasurable to listen to,
rather than having much artistic depth. Pop music is generally thought of as a genre which is commercially
recorded and desires to have a mass audience appeal
Country music is a genre of American popular music that originated in the rural regions of the Southern United
States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from southeastern American folk music and Western music. Blues modes
have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. Country music often consists of ballads and dance
tunes with generally simple forms and harmonies accompanied by mostly string instruments such as banjos,
electric and acoustic guitars, fiddles, and harmonicas.
The term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music; it came to
encompass Western music, which evolved parallel to hillbilly music from similar roots, in the mid-20th century. The
term country music is used today to describe many styles and subgenres. In 2009 country music was the most
listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, and second most popular in the morning commute
in the United States.Example:"Tell Me Why" – Wynonna, Love Story - Taylor Swift
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) isa genre of popular music that originated and evolved in
the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,
primarily from a combination of African-American
genres such as blues, jump blues, jazz, and gospel music, together with Western swing and country music.
Though elements of rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the
1930s, rock and roll did not acquire its name until the 1950s.
The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage: referring to the first
wave of music that originated in the mid-1950s and later developed into the more encompassing international
style known as "rock music", and as a term simply synonymous with rock music in the broad sense. For the
purpose of differentiation, this article uses the first definition.
In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either the piano or saxophone was often the
lead instrument, but these were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s. The
beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, the latter almost always provided by a snare
drum. Classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string bass
or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll, as
seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. It went on to spawn
various sub-genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply
"rock music" or "rock".
Pop rock is a music genre which mixes a catchy pop style and light lyrics in its (typically) guitar-based rock songs.
There are varying definitions of the term, ranging from a slower and mellower form of rock music to a subgenre of
pop music. The detractors of pop rock often deride it as a slick, commercial product, less authentic than rock music
Pop rock has been described as an "upbeat variety of rock music represented by artists such as Elton John, Paul
McCartney, Rod Stewart, Chicago, and Peter Frampton." In contrast, music reviewer George Starostin defines it
as a subgenre of pop music that uses catchy pop songs that are mostly guitar-based. Starostin argues that most of
what is traditionally called 'power pop' falls into the pop rock subgenre. He claims that the lyrical content of pop
rock is "normally secondary to the music."
Critic Philip Auslander argues that the distinction between pop and rock is more pronounced in the US than in the
UK. He claims in the US, pop has roots in white crooners such as Perry Como, whereas rock is rooted in AfricanAmerican-influenced forms such as rock and roll. Auslander points out that the concept of pop rock, which blends
pop and rock is at odds with the typical conception of pop and rock as opposites. Auslander and several other
scholars such as Simon Frith and Grossberg argue that pop music is often depicted as an inauthentic, cynical,
"slickly commercial" and formulaic form of entertainment. In contrast, rock music is often heralded as an
authentic, sincere, and anti-commercial form of music, which emphasizes songwriting by the singers and bands,
instrumental virtuosity, and a "real connection with the audience".
Simon Frith's analysis of the history of popular music from the 1950s to the 1980s has been criticized by B. J.
Moore-Gilbert, who argues that Frith and other scholars have over-emphasized the role of "rock" in the history of
popular music by naming every new genre using the "rock" suffix. Thus when a folk-oriented style of music
developed in the 1960s, Frith terms it "folk rock", and the pop-infused styles of the 1970s were called "pop rock".
Moore-Gilbert claims that this approach unfairly puts rock at the apex, and makes every other influence become
an add-on to the central core of rock.
Ex: "Tell Me" - Delv!s. "I Love You" - Said The Whale.
What are the characteristics of pop-rock music?
Pop rock is a genre that mixes catchy pop lyrics with rock based instrumentation. The characteristics are: They
appeal to a general audience, rather than to a sub-culture. They emphasise craftsmanship, recording,
production, technology and live performances. They reflect existing trends rather than develop. It is based on
dancing and uses dance-orientated beats and rhythms. Pop rock songs usually have a noticeable rhythmic
element and the structure is very traditional.
Rock music, sometimes also known as "rock and roll," is a style of music that became popular in the
1950s in America and Europe. It is primarily based on older musical styles, such as the rhythm and blues music
originated by African American performers such as Chuck Berry and Little Richard, with a heavy focus on guitar,
drums, and powerful vocals.
One of the earliest and most famous performers in the early days of rock was Elvis Presley, who shocked the
world with his suggestive dancing and powerful music. He became an instant phenomenon, and led the way for
many other performers over the decades to come. In the 1960s, the Beatles were another hugely successful and
popular rock music group, also inspired by rhythm and blues songs and by the work of other early British rock
performers, such as Cliff Richard.
Over the years, rock music has branched out into a wide variety of styles. Folk rock, such as that made
popular by Bob Dylan in the 1960s, often featured acoustic guitars and socially conscious lyrics, many
with anti-war sentiments. Psychedelic rock, such as that played by the Grateful Dead, Pink Floyd, and
the Doors, featured often dissonant music that was heavily influenced by the use of drugs such as LSD.
Progressive rock bands, such as the Moody Blues, Rush, and Yes, experimented with a wide range of
instruments, and often included improvisational musical solos that could last for 10 or even 20 minutes.
Example:"Eagles - HOTEL CALIFORNIA"
Disco music is a blend of soul music and funk, set to 4/4 time syncopated rhythm, making it easily
danceable. In the mid-1970s, it became the music to listen to, and the most often played in discotheques, or
discos. New forms of dance, many of them based on ballroom dancing styles were adapted for disco music, and
for a while, most of the Western world was swept up in the style.
Disco music had a lush orchestral sound, and bands often included several singers, the traditional bass, drums
and guitar, and highly synthesized sounds. Full horn sections and string sections were not unusual in many
bands, since synthesizers were still in their infancy and there was not much in the way of the sampling
synthesizers that would eventually dominate the music of the 1980s. Vocals were an important aspect, with
vocal tracks subject to heavy reverberation.
A few artists can be said to have dominated the disco era. The Bee Gees was a very popular group, which
featured the singing trio of Maurice, Robin and Barry Gibb. Not only did they record multiple platinum records,
but they wrote numerous songs for other artists. Their popularity was greatly enhanced by the 1977 film
Saturday Night Fever which celebrated the disco movement and ended up producing the second best-selling
movie soundtrack of all time.
Leonardo da Vinci | Michelangelo Buonarroti | Vincent van Gogh | Pablo Picasso | Salvador Dali | René
Magritte | Francisco de Goya | Frida Kahlo
Claude Monet | Henri Matisse | Rembrandt van Rijn | Andy Warhol | Georgia O'Keeffe | Wassily Kandinsky
| Edvard Munch | Gustav Klimt | Links Movements and Artists
Properties of Real Numbers
We use properties of real numbers in manipulating algebraic expressions, given that our variables most often
represent real numbers. Having a solid understanding of these properties is useful in developing fluency in
Closure Properties of Real Numbers
1) The sum of any two real numbers is a real number.
(In other words, if a andb are real, then so is a + b.)
2) The product of any two real numbers is a real number.
(In other words, if a andb are real, then so is ab.)
Commutative Properties of Real Numbers
1) Let a and b be real numbers, then a + b = b + a.
2) Let a and b be real numbers, then a · b = b · a.
Associative Properties of Real Numbers
1) Let a, b, and c be real numbers, then (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
2) Let a, b, and c be real numbers, then (a · b) · c = a ·(b · c).
Identity Properties of Real Numbers
1) There is a unique real number, 0, such that for all real numbers a, a + 0 = 0 +a =a. We say that 0 is the
2) There is a unique real number, 1, such that for all real numbers a, a · 1 = 1 ·a =a. We say that 1 is the
Inverse Properties of Real Numbers
1) For all real numbers a, there exists a unique real number, denoted -a, such that a + (-a) = 0. We say that –a is
the additive inverse of a.
2) For all real numbers a, where a
0, there exists a unique real number, denoted
, such that
= 1. We
is the multiplicative inverse of a.
Multiplicative Property of Zero
For every real number a, a · 0 = 0 ·a = 0.
Division Property of Zero
For every real number a, where a
a = 0.
Distributive Properties of Real Numbers
1) Let a, b, and c be real numbers, then a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c.
2) Let a, b, and c be real numbers, then (b + c) · a = b · a + c · a.
In this lesson we look at some properties that apply to all real numbers. If you learn these properties, they will
help you solve problems in algebra. Let's look at each property in detail, and apply it to an algebraic expression.
#1. Commutative properties
The commutative property of addition says that we can add numbers in any order. The commutative property of
multiplication is very similar. It says that we can multiply numbers in any order we want without changing the
5a + 4 = 4 + 5a
3 x 8 x 5b = 5b x 3 x 8
#2. Associative properties
Both addition and multiplication can actually be done with two numbers at a time. So if there are more numbers
in the expression, how do we decide which two to "associate" first? The associative property of addition tells us
that we can group numbers in a sum in any way we want and still get the same answer. The associative property
of multiplication tells us that we can group numbers in a product in any way we want and still get the same
(4x + 2x) + 7x = 4x + (2x + 7x)
2x (3y) = 3y(2x )
#3. Distributive property
The distributive property comes into play when an expression involves both addition and multiplication. A
longer name for it is, "the distributive property of multiplication over addition." It tells us that if a term is
multiplied by terms in parenthesis, we need to "distribute" the multiplication over all the terms inside.
2x(5 + y) = 10x + 2xy
Even though order of operations says that you must add the terms inside the parenthesis first, the distributive
property allows you to simplify the expression by multiplying every term inside the parenthesis by the
multiplier. This simplifies the expression.
#4. Density property
The density property tells us that we can always find another real number that lies between any two real
numbers. For example, between 5.61 and 5.62, there is 5.611, 5.612, 5.613 and so forth.
Between 5.612 and 5.613, there is 5.6121, 5.6122 ... and an endless list of other numbers!
#5. Identity property
The identity property for addition tells us that zero added to any number is the number itself. Zero is called the
"additive identity." The identity property for multiplication tells us that the number 1 multiplied times any
number gives the number itself. The number 1 is called the "multiplicative identity."
5y + 0 = 5y
2c × 1 = 2c
. Vincent Van Gogh, “The Potato Eaters,” 1885
Van Gogh’s first major work, “The Potato Eaters,” was painted in dark earth tones, a stark contrast from the
hues in his later landscapes. Its aim was to capture the grim realities of peasant life.
2. Monet, “View from Rouelles,” 1858
“View from Rouelles” was lost for several years, but now it resides in a private collection.
3. Salvador Dalí, “Landscape NearFigueras,” 1910This is a list of Filipino painters.
Some famous artist:
Abad, Pacita (1946–2004)
Abellana, Martino (1914–1986)
Alculaz, Federico Aguilar (1932–2011)
Amorsolo, Fernando (1892–1972)
Amorsolo, Pablo (1898–1945)
Ancheta, Isidro (1882–1946)
Antonio, Marcel (born 1965)
Aute, Luis Eduardo (born 1943)
Cabrera, Benedicto (born 1942)
De la Rosa, Fabián (1869–1937)
Edades, Victorio C. (1895–1985)
Francisco, Botong (1912–1969)
Gorospe, Paco (1939–2002)
Hidalgo, Felix Resurrección (1855–1913)
Joya, Jose T. (1931–1995)
Kiukok, Ang (1931–2005)
Legaspi, Cesar (1917–1994)
Leynes, Nestor (born 1922)
Luna, Juan (1857–1899)
Luz, Arturo R. (born 1926)
Malang (born 1928)
Manansala, Vicente (1910–1981)
Mapa, Jao (born 1976)
Miclat, Maningning (1972–2000)
Ocampo, Hernando R. (1911–1978)
Olmedo, Onib (1937–1996)
Ossorio, Alfonso A. (1916–1990)
Parial, Mario (born 1944)
Phoenix, Satine (born 1980)
Rizal, José (1861–1896)
Sillada, Danny (born 1963)
Tabuena, Romeo Villalva (born 1921)
Tapaya, Rodel (born 1980)
Zóbel de Ayala y Montojo, Fernando (1924–1984)
Dalí painted this when he was 6 years old. (Depressing.) It’s far less surreal than most of his later work,
4. Georgia O’Keeffe, “Dead Rabbit with Copper Pot,” 1908
O’Keeffe’s college-era oil painting — the first she was recognized for — was undeniably a little macabre, but it
won the Art Students League’s William Merritt Chase still-life prize.
The following are some famous Filipino painters:
Juan Luna - Artwork: Spolarium
Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo
Fabian de la Rosa
Fernando Zobel de Ayala
Juan Luna, Painter
Juan Luna was born in Ilocos Norte on October 23, 1857, and died in Hong Kong on December
7, 1899. Famous for three things:
1. His great painting Spoliarium, which won him the gold prize at the 1884 Madrid Exposition
2. Murdering his wife and mother-in-law in France, then being punished with a fine of one franc
3. Being the brother of Antonio Luna, a general in the Philippine-American War