Strijker, A., Collis, B. (2005, March 4). Strategies For Reuse Of Learning Objects
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Strijker, A., Collis, B. (2005, March 4). Strategies For Reuse Of Learning Objects

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Reuse Learning objects Implementation Strategy leermiddelen arrangeren Standaarden Standards Specification SCORM LOM IEEE IMS VLE Curriculum Design Educational Onderwijskundig Ontwerpen Onderzoek

Reuse Learning objects Implementation Strategy leermiddelen arrangeren Standaarden Standards Specification SCORM LOM IEEE IMS VLE Curriculum Design Educational Onderwijskundig Ontwerpen Onderzoek

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Strijker, A., Collis, B. (2005, March 4). Strategies For Reuse Of Learning Objects Strijker, A., Collis, B. (2005, March 4). Strategies For Reuse Of Learning Objects Presentation Transcript

  • Strategies for Reuse of LearningStrategies for Reuse of Learning Objects: Context DimensionsObjects: Context Dimensions Allard Strijker (2005, March 3). I-Class /Allard Strijker (2005, March 3). I-Class / Prolearn Leuven BelgiumProlearn Leuven Belgium
  • ContextsContexts • The research describes issues related to theThe research describes issues related to the reuse of learning objects and thereuse of learning objects and the implementation of learning technologyimplementation of learning technology standards for reuse of these learning objectsstandards for reuse of these learning objects in different contexts and the human andin different contexts and the human and technical aspects involved:technical aspects involved: • University,University, • Military,Military, • Corporate Learning.Corporate Learning.
  • Learning ObjectsLearning Objects • Learning objectsLearning objects are defined as digitalare defined as digital entities, available for use or reuse in differententities, available for use or reuse in different learning settings.learning settings. • These objects themselves may or may notThese objects themselves may or may not have been originally created as learninghave been originally created as learning objects; it is their use for learning purposesobjects; it is their use for learning purposes that makes them learning objects.that makes them learning objects. • Definition used in the research: A learningDefinition used in the research: A learning object is any digital entity that may be usedobject is any digital entity that may be used for learning, education, or training.for learning, education, or training.
  • Human aspectsHuman aspects • Human aspects relate to motivation for reuse,Human aspects relate to motivation for reuse, organizational incentives, and appliedorganizational incentives, and applied learning scenarios.learning scenarios. • RQ1: Human perspective – What humanRQ1: Human perspective – What human aspects are important to support the differentaspects are important to support the different stages of the lifecycle of a learning object?stages of the lifecycle of a learning object? • Human aspects:Human aspects: – Why takes reuse place,Why takes reuse place, – Who is involved.Who is involved.
  • Technical AspectsTechnical Aspects • Technical aspects related to reuse of learning objectsTechnical aspects related to reuse of learning objects include the development of objects, repositories,include the development of objects, repositories, services of repositories, and technology to exchangeservices of repositories, and technology to exchange learning objects.learning objects. • RQ2: Technical perspective - What tools andRQ2: Technical perspective - What tools and technologies are important to support thetechnologies are important to support the • different stages of the lifecycle of a learning object?different stages of the lifecycle of a learning object? • Technical aspects:Technical aspects: – What's reused,What's reused, – How is reuse supported, andHow is reuse supported, and – Where are learning objects stored.Where are learning objects stored.
  • Overall Research QuestionOverall Research Question • RQ3. Combining human and technicalRQ3. Combining human and technical perspectives - What are key dimensionsperspectives - What are key dimensions to guide the selection of tools,to guide the selection of tools, technologies, and human procedures totechnologies, and human procedures to support the different stages of thesupport the different stages of the lifecycle of a learning object for users inlifecycle of a learning object for users in different usage contexts, particularlydifferent usage contexts, particularly university, corporate learning, anduniversity, corporate learning, and military training?military training?
  • Lifecycle for reuse of learning objectsLifecycle for reuse of learning objects • Obtaining,Obtaining, • Labeling,Labeling, • Offering,Offering, • Selecting,Selecting, • Using,Using, • Retaining.Retaining. Obtaining Labeling Offering Selecting Using Retaining Editing
  • Dimensions for ReuseDimensions for Reuse • The research identified dimensionsThe research identified dimensions related to use of learning technologyrelated to use of learning technology standards for reuse such as:standards for reuse such as: – Cultures within the context,Cultures within the context, – Learning scenarios,Learning scenarios, – Incentives for reuse,Incentives for reuse, – Work processes,Work processes, – How learning objects are stored.How learning objects are stored.
  • Cultures within the context Competences, responsibility, professional qualifications, effort, discipline, obedience, seriousness, energy, dedication Progress, future, functionality, efficiency, optimality, performance, productivity, professionality, reliability, far-sightedness, system To master, to integrate, to organise, to control, to stabilise, to foresee, to implement, to detect, to adapt, to analyse, to measure, to formalise, to standardise, to solve, to optimise, to schedule, to sequence, to anticipate. The Industrial World Attractive, appealing, respectfulness to the customers, open-minded, obliging, willing to help, thoughtful, careful, reactive, opportunist Wealth, money, luxury; business, fair deals, good deals, bargain; interest, attentions to others; contract; competition, rivalry, opportunism, freedom, To desire, to possess, to bet, to win and to loose, to gamble and to play, to buy, to sell, to negotiate, to deal, to pay, to rival, to conclude, to accumulate, to keep one's distance. The Merchant World Concerned with the general will, altruism, giving collective interest a higher rank than personnel Interests. The general will, the common interest, generosity, self-abnegation, sacrifice, pride, the group, collective action, collective entities (ideas, values, symbols and institutions). To debate, to voice, to mobilise, to gather, to adhere, to exclude, to inform, to codify, to delegate, to represent and to be represented, to show solidarity, to share. The Civic World Being an actor, contributive, communicative, participative, personality, celebrity Image, reputation, fame, success, honour, acknowledgement, visibility, audience, credibility, Identification. To influence, to convince, to persuade, to seduce, to promote, to advertise, to orientate, to catch the attention, to compare. The World of Opinion Honest, decent, respectful, common sense, savoir-vivre, repetitive, reproductive, cautious, reliable Confidence, responsibility, merit, respectability, convention, dignity, tradition, hierarchy, rank; parents, children, generation; rules and confidence, principles; harmony; the "natural"; the duty To behave, to give, receive and give back; to respect; to keep the convenient distance; to be polite (with both inferiors & superiors); to interact. The Domestic World Spontaneous, passionate, risk taking, open-minded, independent, intuitive Singularity, difference, innovation, originality, irrationality, imaginary, spirituality, unconscious, chance To create, to discover, to research, to share, to imagine, to dream, to explode, to be amazed, to perceive, to harness. The World of Inspiration AttitudesValue featuresVerbs
  • Cultures within the context: Attitudes • The World of Inspiration – Spontaneous, passionate, risk taking, open-minded, independent, intuitive • The Domestic World – Honest, decent, respectful, common sense, savoir-vivre, repetitive, reproductive, cautious, reliable • The World of Opinion – Being an actor, contributive, communicative, participative, personality, celebrity • The Civic World – Concerned with the general will, altruism, giving collective interest a higher rank than personnel Interests. • The Merchant World – Attractive, appealing, respectfulness to the customers, open-minded, obliging, willing to help, thoughtful, careful, reactive, opportunist • The Industrial World – Competences, responsibility, professional qualifications, effort, discipline, obedience, seriousness, energy, dedication
  • Cultures within the context: Value features • The World of Inspiration – Singularity, difference, innovation, originality, irrationality, imaginary, spirituality, unconscious, chance • The Domestic World – Confidence, responsibility, merit, respectability, convention, dignity, tradition, hierarchy, rank; parents, children, generation; rules and confidence, principles; harmony; the "natural"; the duty • The World of Opinion – Image, reputation, fame, success, honour, acknowledgement, visibility, audience, credibility, Identification. • The Civic World – The general will, the common interest, generosity, self-abnegation, sacrifice, pride, the group, collective action, collective entities (ideas, values, symbols and institutions). • The Merchant World – Wealth, money, luxury; business, fair deals, good deals, bargain; interest, attentions to others; contract; competition, rivalry, opportunism, freedom, • The Industrial World – Progress, future, functionality, efficiency, optimality, performance, productivity, professionality, reliability, far-sightedness, system
  • Cultures within the context: Verbs • The World of Inspiration – To create, to discover, to research, to share, to imagine, to dream, to explode, to be amazed, to perceive, to harness. • The Domestic World – To behave, to give, receive and give back; to respect; to keep the convenient distance; to be polite (with both inferiors & superiors); to interact. • The World of Opinion – To influence, to convince, to persuade, to seduce, to promote, to advertise, to orientate, to catch the attention, to compare. • The Civic World – To debate, to voice, to mobilise, to gather, to adhere, to exclude, to inform, to codify, to delegate, to represent and to be represented, to show solidarity, to share. • The Merchant World – To desire, to possess, to bet, to win and to loose, to gamble and to play, to buy, to sell, to negotiate, to deal, to pay, to rival, to conclude, to accumulate, to keep one's distance. • The Industrial World – To master, to integrate, to organise, to control, to stabilise, to foresee, to implement, to detect, to adapt, to analyse, to measure, to formalise, to standardise, to solve, to optimise, to schedule, to sequence, to anticipate.
  • Learning scenariosLearning scenarios • AcquisitionAcquisition – ObjectivesObjectives – TrainingTraining – Drill and practiceDrill and practice – AwarenessAwareness – KnowingKnowing – CBTCBT – AuthoringAuthoring • ParticipationParticipation – CollaborationCollaboration – CommunicationCommunication – CompetencesCompetences – LearningLearning – ApplicationApplication – SynthesisSynthesis – AnalysesAnalyses – ELOELO – MentoringMentoring
  • Learning objectives (Bloom, 1956) assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize - compare and discriminate between ideas - assess value of theories, presentations - make choices based on reasoned argument - verify value of evidence - recognize subjectivity Evaluation combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite - use old ideas to create new ones - generalize from given facts - relate knowledge from several areas - predict, draw conclusions Synthesis analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer - seeing patterns - organisation of parts - recognition of hidden meanings - identification of components Analysis apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover - use information - use methods, concepts, theories in new situations - solve problems using required skills or knowledge Application summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend - understanding information - grasp meaning - translate knowledge into new context - interpret facts, compare, contrast - order, group, infer causes - predict consequences Comprehension list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc. - observation and recall of information - knowledge of dates, events, places - knowledge of major ideas - mastery of subject matter Knowledge Question CuesSkills Demonstrated Competence
  • Pedagogies related to organisationalPedagogies related to organisational settingsetting Pedagogies related to organizational setting
  • Incentives for reuseIncentives for reuse • OrganizationalOrganizational – Knowledge managementKnowledge management – Human resourceHuman resource managementmanagement – Sustainable developmentSustainable development – Saving moneySaving money – EfficiencyEfficiency – Organizational capitalOrganizational capital • PersonalPersonal – Helping ColleaguesHelping Colleagues – Saving timeSaving time – EfficiencyEfficiency – Communities of practiceCommunities of practice – Networks of excelenceNetworks of excelence
  • Work processesWork processes • Formal workflowFormal workflow – RolesRoles – ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities – VersioningVersioning – Quality controlQuality control – ManagementManagement – OwnershipOwnership • Personal habitsPersonal habits – Individual productsIndividual products – One person all rolesOne person all roles – Teacher in controlTeacher in control – CopyrightsCopyrights – IndependentIndependent
  • How objects are storedHow objects are stored • RepositoriesRepositories - Knowledge- Knowledge managementmanagement systemssystems – (Learning) Content(Learning) Content ManagementManagement SystemsSystems – Electronic LearningElectronic Learning EnvironmentsEnvironments • LocallyLocally – Hard disksHard disks – Personal websitesPersonal websites
  • Context OrientationsContext Orientations • Personal orientedPersonal oriented – Personal orientation is related to humanPersonal orientation is related to human interaction, personal needs, personalinteraction, personal needs, personal incentives, and personal values.incentives, and personal values. • Systems orientedSystems oriented – The Systems orientation focuses onThe Systems orientation focuses on technical specifications, rules, policy, andtechnical specifications, rules, policy, and procedures.procedures.
  • Dimensions for ReuseDimensions for Reuse LocallyRepositoryHow learning objects are stored PersonalFormal workflow Work processes Personal habitsOrganizationalIncentives for reuse ParticipationAcquisitionLearning scenarios The world of inspiration The Merchant world The world of Opinion The Civic world The Domestic world The industrial world Cultures within the context Personal Oriented Systems Oriented
  • DiscussionDiscussion • Try to map your current context (theTry to map your current context (the environment you work in) on theenvironment you work in) on the dimensions.dimensions. – If the focus is on the left side (Systems),If the focus is on the left side (Systems), you are in a context that provides differentyou are in a context that provides different aspects for reuseaspects for reuse – If the emphasis on the right sideIf the emphasis on the right side (Personal), the implementation of a reuse(Personal), the implementation of a reuse strategy in your context is problematicstrategy in your context is problematic
  • ResultsResults • The results of the research show thatThe results of the research show that reuse in practice may not so much bereuse in practice may not so much be focused on a wide exchange of allfocused on a wide exchange of all available material but rather on localavailable material but rather on local level sharing within departments andlevel sharing within departments and even primarily on the reuse of one’seven primarily on the reuse of one’s own course material.own course material.
  • ContactContact • http://users.gw.utwente.nlhttp://users.gw.utwente.nl • A.strijker@utwente.nlA.strijker@utwente.nl