Workshop “OntwikkelenWorkshop “Ontwikkelen
van en Werken met Leervan en Werken met Leer
Objecten”Objecten”
Allard Strijker...
Deelnemers van de WorkshopDeelnemers van de Workshop
IntroductieIntroductie

Taal (Engels of Nederlands)Taal (Engels of N...
Doelgroep en locatieDoelgroep en locatie
De workshop is bedoeld voorDe workshop is bedoeld voor
onderwijskundig ondersteun...
Inhoud WorkshopInhoud Workshop
De workshop gaat in op:De workshop gaat in op:

De definitie en granulariteit van leerobje...
Leerdoelen WorkshopLeerdoelen Workshop
Na afloop van de workshop is de deelnemer inNa afloop van de workshop is de deelnem...
Learning Objects HumanLearning Objects Human
PerspectivePerspective
In the corporate context, learning objects are general...
Learning Objects HumanLearning Objects Human
PerspectivePerspective
Mortimer (2001) shares this impression of confusionMor...
Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical
PerspectivePerspective
Oracle introduced the Oracle Lea...
Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical
PerspectivePerspective
Barritt who worked on the develo...
Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical
PerspectivePerspective
Working together does not mean t...
Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical
PerspectivePerspective
Knowledge objects can also been ...
Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical
PerspectivePerspective
The definition used in this rese...
Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and
granularitygranularity
The definition of learning objects does notThe definit...
Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and
granularitygranularity
Also Hodgins (2000b) suggests that:Also Hodgins (2000b...
Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and
granularitygranularity
To deal with the different approaches of defining the ...
Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and
granularitygranularity
As another example of granularity within learningAs an...
LeerobjectenLeerobjecten
Links en verwijzingenLinks en verwijzingen
HergebruikHergebruik
MetadataMetadata
Inhoud en struct...
Templates for learning ObjectsTemplates for learning Objects
Opdracht:Opdracht:

Ontwerp een sjabloon voor een leerobject...
OvereenkomstenOvereenkomsten
VerschillenVerschillen
Learning Content ManagementLearning Content Management
SystemsSystems
DatabasesDatabases
Gestructureerde dataGestructureer...
Onderwijs en trainingOnderwijs en training
Onderwijsscenario’s / OnderwijskundigeOnderwijsscenario’s / Onderwijskundige
be...
Templates in Learn ExactTemplates in Learn Exact
De ongewenste vrijheidDe ongewenste vrijheid
De techniek staat voor niets...
Voorbeelden van TemplatesVoorbeelden van Templates
TeletopTeletop
WebquestsWebquests
Taakgebaseerd lerenTaakgebaseerd lere...
Learner PortalsLearner Portals
Authoring ToolsAuthoring Tools
Learning Content Management SystemsLearning Content Manageme...
SamenvattingSamenvatting
VragenVragen
DiscussieDiscussie
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Strijker, A. (2005, Juni 26). Workshop Thales Ontwikkelen Van En Werken Met Leer Objecten

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Strijker, A. (2005, Juni 26). Workshop Thales Ontwikkelen Van En Werken Met Leer Objecten

  1. 1. Workshop “OntwikkelenWorkshop “Ontwikkelen van en Werken met Leervan en Werken met Leer Objecten”Objecten” Allard Strijker, 27 juni 2005 UniversiteitAllard Strijker, 27 juni 2005 Universiteit Twente voor Thales Training enTwente voor Thales Training en developmentdevelopment
  2. 2. Deelnemers van de WorkshopDeelnemers van de Workshop IntroductieIntroductie  Taal (Engels of Nederlands)Taal (Engels of Nederlands)  Wie is wieWie is wie OrganisatieOrganisatie VerwachtingVerwachting  Wat wel en wat niet?Wat wel en wat niet? VragenVragen
  3. 3. Doelgroep en locatieDoelgroep en locatie De workshop is bedoeld voorDe workshop is bedoeld voor onderwijskundig ondersteuners enonderwijskundig ondersteuners en ontwikkelaars van cursusmateriaalontwikkelaars van cursusmateriaal De workshop vindt plaats op 27 juni 2005De workshop vindt plaats op 27 juni 2005 van 9.00 tot 12.00 uur op de Universiteitvan 9.00 tot 12.00 uur op de Universiteit TwenteTwente
  4. 4. Inhoud WorkshopInhoud Workshop De workshop gaat in op:De workshop gaat in op:  De definitie en granulariteit van leerobjecten.De definitie en granulariteit van leerobjecten.  Ontwikkelen van templates voor leerobjectenOntwikkelen van templates voor leerobjecten  Hoe worden binnen Learn eXact LeerobjectenHoe worden binnen Learn eXact Leerobjecten toegepast?toegepast?  Relatie van Lex met een learner portal.Relatie van Lex met een learner portal.
  5. 5. Leerdoelen WorkshopLeerdoelen Workshop Na afloop van de workshop is de deelnemer inNa afloop van de workshop is de deelnemer in staat om:staat om:  de granulariteit van leerobjecten weer te gevende granulariteit van leerobjecten weer te geven  verschillende voorbeelden van het gebruik van hetverschillende voorbeelden van het gebruik van het LCMS deel (de Packager) van Learn eXact teLCMS deel (de Packager) van Learn eXact te beschrijvenbeschrijven  de verschillende mogelijkheden van het gebruik vande verschillende mogelijkheden van het gebruik van templates met Learn Exact te beschrijventemplates met Learn Exact te beschrijven  het concept van een learner portal te beschrijvenhet concept van een learner portal te beschrijven
  6. 6. Learning Objects HumanLearning Objects Human PerspectivePerspective In the corporate context, learning objects are generallyIn the corporate context, learning objects are generally defined in the terminology of the vendor supplying a LMSdefined in the terminology of the vendor supplying a LMS or LCMS. Chapman and Hall (2001), note that in thisor LCMS. Chapman and Hall (2001), note that in this context that there is no consistent definition of a learningcontext that there is no consistent definition of a learning object; "…each of the companies using the learningobject; "…each of the companies using the learning object metaphor has their own defined relationship andobject metaphor has their own defined relationship and characteristics for what constitutes a learning object" (p.characteristics for what constitutes a learning object" (p. 9). In their review of LCMSs, they identify definitions as9). In their review of LCMSs, they identify definitions as varying asvarying as  "a structured, reusable learning event" (p. 52) and"a structured, reusable learning event" (p. 52) and  "a single page or a group of pages, typically they should not"a single page or a group of pages, typically they should not exceed about 20-25 pages" (p. 81). Althoughexceed about 20-25 pages" (p. 81). Although  "typically they should be five to 15 minutes in length (seat time)”"typically they should be five to 15 minutes in length (seat time)” (p. 9),(p. 9),  they may also be objects such as a single image.they may also be objects such as a single image.
  7. 7. Learning Objects HumanLearning Objects Human PerspectivePerspective Mortimer (2001) shares this impression of confusionMortimer (2001) shares this impression of confusion within the corporate setting:within the corporate setting: ““Learning object. Reusable learning object. ReusableLearning object. Reusable learning object. Reusable information object. Shareable content object. Modularinformation object. Shareable content object. Modular building block. Chunk. Nugget. Lego. Whatever. The listbuilding block. Chunk. Nugget. Lego. Whatever. The list goes on…no single learning object definitiongoes on…no single learning object definition exists...there seem to be as many definitions as thereexists...there seem to be as many definitions as there are people to ask.”are people to ask.” Chapman and Hall conclude their review by saying "WeChapman and Hall conclude their review by saying "We hope to see better definitions and common standards forhope to see better definitions and common standards for learning objects in the future" (p. 9).learning objects in the future" (p. 9).
  8. 8. Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical PerspectivePerspective Oracle introduced the Oracle Learning Architecture (OLA), an earlyOracle introduced the Oracle Learning Architecture (OLA), an early attempt at an authoring environment using learning objectsattempt at an authoring environment using learning objects (Wagner, 2002). (Oracle later stopped the development of OLA(Wagner, 2002). (Oracle later stopped the development of OLA because of the fast changes in specifications in the Microsoftbecause of the fast changes in specifications in the Microsoft Windows platforms.) The definition used for learning objects byWindows platforms.) The definition used for learning objects by Oracle was the following:Oracle was the following: A Learning Object can be defined as a distinct, stand-alone piece ofA Learning Object can be defined as a distinct, stand-alone piece of education. It can be taken in isolation or as part of a larger course.education. It can be taken in isolation or as part of a larger course. This is exactly the same principle behind Programming Objects,This is exactly the same principle behind Programming Objects, where stand-alone components are reused in different ways forwhere stand-alone components are reused in different ways for different applications. When Learning Objects are fully implemented,different applications. When Learning Objects are fully implemented, it is possible for every user to define their own unique educationalit is possible for every user to define their own unique educational experience (Ellwood, 1997).experience (Ellwood, 1997).
  9. 9. Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical PerspectivePerspective Barritt who worked on the development of OLA continued theseBarritt who worked on the development of OLA continued these efforts for Cisco Systems (Barritt, Lewis, & Wieseler, 1999) and thisefforts for Cisco Systems (Barritt, Lewis, & Wieseler, 1999) and this resulted in a release of Cisco’s white paper on Reusable Learningresulted in a release of Cisco’s white paper on Reusable Learning Objects in 1998. In this white paper Cisco defines two sorts ofObjects in 1998. In this white paper Cisco defines two sorts of learning objects, RIOs and RLOs. At its core is the RIO, a learninglearning objects, RIOs and RLOs. At its core is the RIO, a learning nugget that contains content, practice, and assessmentnugget that contains content, practice, and assessment components. Each RIO is defined as a concept, fact, process,components. Each RIO is defined as a concept, fact, process, principle, or procedure, and tagged appropriately. Several RIOs, asprinciple, or procedure, and tagged appropriately. Several RIOs, as few as five and as many as nine, are combined together to create afew as five and as many as nine, are combined together to create a Reusable Learning Object (RLO). If a RIO can be equated with anReusable Learning Object (RLO). If a RIO can be equated with an individual component of a learning objective, an RLO is the sum ofindividual component of a learning objective, an RLO is the sum of RIOs needed to fulfill that objective. Each RLO, which also includesRIOs needed to fulfill that objective. Each RLO, which also includes introduction, summary, and assessment items, is designed to meetintroduction, summary, and assessment items, is designed to meet a learning objective derived from a specific job task (Barritt, Lewis &a learning objective derived from a specific job task (Barritt, Lewis & Wieseler, 1999). A more holistic definition comes from Wiley (2000b)Wieseler, 1999). A more holistic definition comes from Wiley (2000b) who worked closely with Merrill and defined learning objects as:who worked closely with Merrill and defined learning objects as: Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning.Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning.
  10. 10. Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical PerspectivePerspective Working together does not mean that definitions usedWorking together does not mean that definitions used are the same. This broad definition of Wiley somewhatare the same. This broad definition of Wiley somewhat contradicts the strict definition of knowledge objects usedcontradicts the strict definition of knowledge objects used by Merrill (2000):by Merrill (2000):  A knowledge object consists of a set of fields (containers) for theA knowledge object consists of a set of fields (containers) for the components of knowledge required to implement a variety ofcomponents of knowledge required to implement a variety of instructional strategies. These components include: the name,instructional strategies. These components include: the name, information about, and the portrayal for some entity; the name,information about, and the portrayal for some entity; the name, information about, and the portrayal for parts of the entity; theinformation about, and the portrayal for parts of the entity; the name, information about, values, and corresponding portrayalsname, information about, values, and corresponding portrayals for properties of the entity; the name, and information aboutfor properties of the entity; the name, and information about activities associated with the entity; and the name andactivities associated with the entity; and the name and information about processes associated with the entity.information about processes associated with the entity.
  11. 11. Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical PerspectivePerspective Knowledge objects can also been seen as learningKnowledge objects can also been seen as learning objects in terms of reusability and also can be comparedobjects in terms of reusability and also can be compared with the definition of Barritt, Lewis, and Wieseler, (1999)with the definition of Barritt, Lewis, and Wieseler, (1999) who identified: Educational learning objects, Contentwho identified: Educational learning objects, Content objects, Training components, Nuggets, and Chunks asobjects, Training components, Nuggets, and Chunks as terms used in the industry. This broader set of industrialterms used in the industry. This broader set of industrial terms includes even a broader pool of definitions. Forterms includes even a broader pool of definitions. For example from Robson (2001):example from Robson (2001):  The Learning objects are the core concept in an approach toThe Learning objects are the core concept in an approach to learning content in which content is broken down into "bite size"learning content in which content is broken down into "bite size" chunks. These chunks can be reused, independently created,chunks. These chunks can be reused, independently created, and maintained, and pulled apart and stuck together like soand maintained, and pulled apart and stuck together like so many legos.many legos.
  12. 12. Learning Objects from a TechnicalLearning Objects from a Technical PerspectivePerspective The definition used in this research will beThe definition used in this research will be adapted from that of the IEEEadapted from that of the IEEE Standardisation Body (2003) which in turnStandardisation Body (2003) which in turn was adapted from the Learning Objectwas adapted from the Learning Object Metadata (LOM) (LTSC, 2002) definitionMetadata (LOM) (LTSC, 2002) definition that defines an object as:that defines an object as:  A learning object is any entity, digital or non-A learning object is any entity, digital or non- digital, that may be used for learning,digital, that may be used for learning, education or training.education or training.
  13. 13. Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and granularitygranularity The definition of learning objects does notThe definition of learning objects does not prescribe the size of learning objects, Robsonprescribe the size of learning objects, Robson (2001) notes that:(2001) notes that:  There is no standard for the size (or granularity) of aThere is no standard for the size (or granularity) of a learning object. Larger learning objects are typicallylearning object. Larger learning objects are typically harder to reuse, and smaller learner objects save lessharder to reuse, and smaller learner objects save less work for those who are reuse them. Per the literaturework for those who are reuse them. Per the literature of pedagogy, the happy medium has been estimatedof pedagogy, the happy medium has been estimated as between five and fifteen minutes of learningas between five and fifteen minutes of learning material.material.
  14. 14. Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and granularitygranularity Also Hodgins (2000b) suggests that:Also Hodgins (2000b) suggests that:  There is no set absolute size to a learning object,There is no set absolute size to a learning object, since the size of the object will be relative to thesince the size of the object will be relative to the needs of learners and the requirements.needs of learners and the requirements. This corresponds with the white paper of CiscoThis corresponds with the white paper of Cisco (Barritt, 2001) that starts with a comment about(Barritt, 2001) that starts with a comment about the size of an object:the size of an object:  The size and shape of an "object" is open to eachThe size and shape of an "object" is open to each organisation to define. This decision is based uponorganisation to define. This decision is based upon the needs, tools, processes, and business goals ofthe needs, tools, processes, and business goals of the organisation.the organisation.
  15. 15. Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and granularitygranularity To deal with the different approaches of defining the size of learningTo deal with the different approaches of defining the size of learning objects and granularity within the research there is no size orobjects and granularity within the research there is no size or content structure of objects defined according to the definition ofcontent structure of objects defined according to the definition of learning objects.learning objects. However to deal with granularity aspects, within the LOMHowever to deal with granularity aspects, within the LOM vocabulary (LTSC, 2002) four levels of granularity are defined.vocabulary (LTSC, 2002) four levels of granularity are defined. These four levels are used within the research to identify the level ofThese four levels are used within the research to identify the level of aggregation:aggregation: 1.1. The smallest level of aggregation, such as raw media data or fragmentsThe smallest level of aggregation, such as raw media data or fragments (pictures, plain text, Word document, PowerPoint files, attachments in a(pictures, plain text, Word document, PowerPoint files, attachments in a course-management system)course-management system) 2.2. A collection of atoms, such as an HTML document with some embeddedA collection of atoms, such as an HTML document with some embedded pictures or a lesson (a webpage, a archive item in a coursepictures or a lesson (a webpage, a archive item in a course management system)management system) 3.3. A collection of Level 2 learning resources, such as a web of HTMLA collection of Level 2 learning resources, such as a web of HTML documents with an index page that links the pages together or a coursedocuments with an index page that links the pages together or a course (a course within a course-management system)(a course within a course-management system) 4.4. The largest level of granularity, such as a set of courses that lead to aThe largest level of granularity, such as a set of courses that lead to a certificate (a set of competences that lead to a profile set of courses).certificate (a set of competences that lead to a profile set of courses).
  16. 16. Aggregation levels andAggregation levels and granularitygranularity As another example of granularity within learningAs another example of granularity within learning objects, Wiley (2000a) identified five types of learningobjects, Wiley (2000a) identified five types of learning object types that vary in:object types that vary in:  number of elements, type of objects contained, reusablenumber of elements, type of objects contained, reusable component objects, common function, extra-object dependence,component objects, common function, extra-object dependence, type of login contained in the object, potential for inter-contextualtype of login contained in the object, potential for inter-contextual reuse, and potential for intra-contextual reuse. The differentreuse, and potential for intra-contextual reuse. The different types of learning objects vary in behaviour, complexity, content,types of learning objects vary in behaviour, complexity, content, and functionality.and functionality. This means that also the technology has to cover theThis means that also the technology has to cover the differences in the types of learning objects. Authoringdifferences in the types of learning objects. Authoring tools should provide the support to deal with differenttools should provide the support to deal with different types of learning objects and variances in granularity.types of learning objects and variances in granularity.
  17. 17. LeerobjectenLeerobjecten Links en verwijzingenLinks en verwijzingen HergebruikHergebruik MetadataMetadata Inhoud en structuurInhoud en structuur GranulariteitGranulariteit
  18. 18. Templates for learning ObjectsTemplates for learning Objects Opdracht:Opdracht:  Ontwerp een sjabloon voor een leerobject!Ontwerp een sjabloon voor een leerobject!
  19. 19. OvereenkomstenOvereenkomsten
  20. 20. VerschillenVerschillen
  21. 21. Learning Content ManagementLearning Content Management SystemsSystems DatabasesDatabases Gestructureerde dataGestructureerde data Sjablonen / TemplatesSjablonen / Templates Data en OpmaakData en Opmaak
  22. 22. Onderwijs en trainingOnderwijs en training Onderwijsscenario’s / OnderwijskundigeOnderwijsscenario’s / Onderwijskundige benaderingenbenaderingen  Task based LearningTask based Learning  Problem based learningProblem based learning  Workplace learningWorkplace learning  Study landscapeStudy landscape DeliveryDelivery  Face to faceFace to face  OnlineOnline  Blended LearningBlended Learning
  23. 23. Templates in Learn ExactTemplates in Learn Exact De ongewenste vrijheidDe ongewenste vrijheid De techniek staat voor nietsDe techniek staat voor niets Beheer en de toekomstBeheer en de toekomst Less is moreLess is more Simpel is moeilijkSimpel is moeilijk Moeilijk is makkelijkMoeilijk is makkelijk
  24. 24. Voorbeelden van TemplatesVoorbeelden van Templates TeletopTeletop WebquestsWebquests Taakgebaseerd lerenTaakgebaseerd leren Learning DesignLearning Design LexLex
  25. 25. Learner PortalsLearner Portals Authoring ToolsAuthoring Tools Learning Content Management SystemsLearning Content Management Systems Learning Management SystemsLearning Management Systems ELO Course Management SystemsELO Course Management Systems PortalsPortals Content Management SystemsContent Management Systems
  26. 26. SamenvattingSamenvatting VragenVragen DiscussieDiscussie
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